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Record Information
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2021-09-14 15:40:12 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00037
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAldosterone
DescriptionAldosterone is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex in the adrenal gland to regulate sodium and potassium balance in the blood. Specifically, it regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium. It is synthesized from cholesterol by aldosterone synthase, which is absent in other sections of the adrenal gland. It is the sole endogenous member of the class of mineralocorticoids. Aldosterone increases the permeability of the apical (luminal) membrane of the kidney's collecting ducts to potassium and sodium and activates their basolateral Na+/K+ pumps, stimulating ATP hydrolysis, reabsorbing sodium (Na+) ions and water into the blood, and excreting potassium (K+) ions into the urine.
Aldosterone, (+-)-isomerMeSH
Aldosterone, (11 beta,17 alpha)-isomerMeSH
Chemical FormulaC21H28O5
Average Molecular Weight360.444
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight360.193674006
IUPAC Name(1S,2R,10S,11S,14S,15R,17S)-17-hydroxy-14-(2-hydroxyacetyl)-2-methyl-5-oxotetracyclo[^{2,7}.0^{11,15}]heptadec-6-ene-15-carbaldehyde
Traditional Name(1S,2R,10S,11S,14S,15R,17S)-17-hydroxy-14-(2-hydroxyacetyl)-2-methyl-5-oxotetracyclo[^{2,7}.0^{11,15}]heptadec-6-ene-15-carbaldehyde
CAS Registry Number52-39-1
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 21-hydroxysteroids. These are steroids carrying a hydroxyl group at the 21-position of the steroid backbone.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSteroids and steroid derivatives
Sub ClassHydroxysteroids
Direct Parent21-hydroxysteroids
Alternative Parents
  • Progestogin-skeleton
  • 21-hydroxysteroid
  • 20-oxosteroid
  • Pregnane-skeleton
  • 18-oxosteroid
  • 3-oxo-delta-4-steroid
  • 3-oxosteroid
  • Oxosteroid
  • 11-beta-hydroxysteroid
  • 11-hydroxysteroid
  • Delta-4-steroid
  • Cyclohexenone
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Alpha-hydroxy ketone
  • Ketone
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Cyclic ketone
  • Alcohol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Primary alcohol
  • Aldehyde
  • Aliphatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physiological effect

Health effect:


Route of exposure:


Biological location:


Naturally occurring process:


Biological role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point166.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.051 mg/mL at 37 °CNot Available
LogP1.08HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.15 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.82ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area91.67 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity96.79 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability38.82 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon


Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-06si-0694000000-60e1d35ad11d153b51522017-09-12View Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0fac-1719000000-59a621ce6f14cbab805c2021-09-05View Spectrum


Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-0596-2961000000-38453356e63a34116d1e2017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-0596-2961000000-38453356e63a34116d1e2017-09-14View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-01ox-0019000000-2c34b91dc8d5030ac25b2017-07-25View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-01tc-0219000000-9e4b8f664dbb988d46f02017-07-25View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0540-4594000000-185caf2f40c5027fdb0a2017-07-25View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0009000000-ba327369eee699ad5a212017-07-26View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-1019000000-f6f3606b25ff218068422017-07-26View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0pbc-8096000000-deeb08e544bed8419dd52017-07-26View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0019000000-a156d06f21ba3667752f2021-09-08View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0kmj-2095000000-57e9fe798f41239f2b232021-09-08View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-05fs-1091000000-9060d8f84b530afda73b2021-09-08View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03di-0019000000-e1f2d66ea30a0f6147862021-09-09View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00xr-0079000000-04e603b008124e8b4eed2021-09-09View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a4i-3592000000-3c3bd43e2b935cce01952021-09-09View Spectrum


Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, 100%_DMSO, experimental)2020-02-10View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C] NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, 100%_DMSO, predicted)2020-02-10View Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Adrenal Medulla
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Lung
  • Neuron
  • Pancreas
  • Placenta
  • Platelet
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Testis
  • Thyroid Gland
Normal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified0.000139-0.00486 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Female
BloodDetected and Quantified0.000026 (0.000008 - 0.000044) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Wu AHB. Tietz cli...
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00011 (0.000055 - 0.002) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.000194-0.00305 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00005549-0.000361 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.000282 +/- 0.000037 uMElderly (>65 years old)Both
BloodDetected and Quantified0.000263 +/- 0.000014 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00042 +/- 0.00004 uMElderly (>65 years old)Both
BloodDetected and Quantified0.000055 - 0.000500 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified<0.000444 uMNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.000106-0.000869 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00002774-0.000444 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
BloodDetected and Quantified0.000139-0.00250 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0000010-0.00000666 uMNot SpecifiedFemaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.000391-0.00309 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified<0.000860 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specified
SalivaDetected and Quantified<1.00 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.01 (0.006-0.014) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Wu AHB. Tietz cli...
UrineDetected and Quantified0.000129-0.00203 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.000129-0.00407 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0416 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)FemaleBartter Syndrome, Type 4B, Neonatal, With Sensorineural Deafness details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0204-0.0735 uMChildren (1-13 years old)FemaleBartter Syndrome, Type 4B, Neonatal, With Sensorineural Deafness details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0013 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)FemaleRenal tubular acidosis, proximal, with ocular abnormalities and mental retardation details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00041 +/- 0.00005 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Heart failure
BloodDetected and Quantified>0.00333 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)FemaleBartter Syndrome, Type 2, Antenatal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.000145-0.00499 uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothCongenital chloride diarrhea details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0000777 uMInfant (0-1 year old)FemaleCorticosterone methyloxidase I deficiency- CMO I details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.000011 uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)Female
Adrenal hyperplasia, congenital, due to 17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency
BloodDetected and Quantified<0.000069 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleGlucocorticoid resistance details
BloodDetected and Quantified<0.000069 uMInfant (0-1 year old)FemaleLipoid Adrenal Hyperplasia details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.000454 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
Bartter Syndrome, Type 4A, Neonatal, with Sensorineural Deafness
BloodDetected and Quantified>0.00415 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Female
Bartter Syndrome, Type 4A, Neonatal, with Sensorineural Deafness
BloodDetected and Quantified0.000233 +/- 0.000040 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Heart failure
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00361 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Female
Bartter Syndrome, Type 1, Antenatal
BloodDetected and Quantified0.00155 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Bartter Syndrome, Type 4A, Neonatal, with Sensorineural Deafness
BloodDetected and Quantified0.000128 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Female
Adrenal insufficiency, congenital, with 46,XY sex reversal, partial or complete
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0000555 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)FemaleLipoid Adrenal Hyperplasia details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Heart failure
  1. Ferreira A, Bettencourt P, Pestana M, Correia F, Serrao P, Martins L, Cerqueira-Gomes M, Soares-Da-Silva P: Heart failure, aging, and renal synthesis of dopamine. Am J Kidney Dis. 2001 Sep;38(3):502-9. [PubMed:11532681 ]
Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, due to 17-Hydroxylase-Deficiency
  1. Wong SL, Shu SG, Tsai CR: Seventeen alpha-hydroxylase deficiency. J Formos Med Assoc. 2006 Feb;105(2):177-81. doi: 10.1016/S0929-6646(09)60342-9. [PubMed:16477341 ]
Bartter Syndrome, Type 4A, Neonatal, with Sensorineural Deafness
  1. Zaffanello M, Taranta A, Palma A, Bettinelli A, Marseglia GL, Emma F: Type IV Bartter syndrome: report of two new cases. Pediatr Nephrol. 2006 Jun;21(6):766-70. doi: 10.1007/s00467-006-0090-x. Epub 2006 Apr 1. [PubMed:16583241 ]
  2. Heilberg IP, Totoli C, Calado JT: Adult presentation of Bartter syndrome type IV with erythrocytosis. Einstein (Sao Paulo). 2015 Oct-Dec;13(4):604-6. doi: 10.1590/S1679-45082015RC3013. Epub 2015 Oct 30. [PubMed:26537508 ]
Bartter Syndrome, Type 1, Antenatal
  1. Adachi M, Asakura Y, Sato Y, Tajima T, Nakajima T, Yamamoto T, Fujieda K: Novel SLC12A1 (NKCC2) mutations in two families with Bartter syndrome type 1. Endocr J. 2007 Dec;54(6):1003-7. Epub 2007 Nov 12. [PubMed:17998760 ]
Adrenal insufficiency, congenital, with 46,XY sex reversal, partial or complete
  1. Kim CJ, Lin L, Huang N, Quigley CA, AvRuskin TW, Achermann JC, Miller WL: Severe combined adrenal and gonadal deficiency caused by novel mutations in the cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme, P450scc. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Mar;93(3):696-702. doi: 10.1210/jc.2007-2330. Epub 2008 Jan 8. [PubMed:18182448 ]
Bartter Syndrome, Type 2, Antenatal
  1. Chan WK, To KF, Tong JH, Law CW: Paradoxical hypertension and salt wasting in Type II Bartter syndrome. Clin Kidney J. 2012 Jun;5(3):217-20. doi: 10.1093/ckj/sfs026. Epub 2012 Mar 29. [PubMed:26069767 ]
Bartter Syndrome, Type 4B, Neonatal, With Sensorineural Deafness
  1. Nozu K, Inagaki T, Fu XJ, Nozu Y, Kaito H, Kanda K, Sekine T, Igarashi T, Nakanishi K, Yoshikawa N, Iijima K, Matsuo M: Molecular analysis of digenic inheritance in Bartter syndrome with sensorineural deafness. J Med Genet. 2008 Mar;45(3):182-6. doi: 10.1136/jmg.2007.052944. [PubMed:18310267 ]
Renal tubular acidosis, proximal, with ocular abnormalities and mental retardation
  1. Igarashi T, Ishii T, Watanabe K, Hayakawa H, Horio K, Sone Y, Ohga K: Persistent isolated proximal renal tubular acidosis--a systemic disease with a distinct clinical entity. Pediatr Nephrol. 1994 Feb;8(1):70-1. [PubMed:8142230 ]
Congenital chloride diarrhea
  1. Choi M, Scholl UI, Ji W, Liu T, Tikhonova IR, Zumbo P, Nayir A, Bakkaloglu A, Ozen S, Sanjad S, Nelson-Williams C, Farhi A, Mane S, Lifton RP: Genetic diagnosis by whole exome capture and massively parallel DNA sequencing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Nov 10;106(45):19096-101. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0910672106. Epub 2009 Oct 27. [PubMed:19861545 ]
Corticosterone methyl oxidase I deficiency
  1. Ustyol A, Atabek ME, Taylor N, Yeung MC, Chan AO: Corticosterone Methyl Oxidase Deficiency Type 1 with Normokalemia in an Infant. J Clin Res Pediatr Endocrinol. 2016 Sep 1;8(3):356-9. doi: 10.4274/jcrpe.2824. Epub 2016 Apr 29. [PubMed:27125267 ]
Glucocorticoid resistance
  1. Donner KM, Hiltunen TP, Janne OA, Sane T, Kontula K: Generalized glucocorticoid resistance caused by a novel two-nucleotide deletion in the hormone-binding domain of the glucocorticoid receptor gene NR3C1. Eur J Endocrinol. 2012 Dec 10;168(1):K9-K18. doi: 10.1530/EJE-12-0532. Print 2013 Jan. [PubMed:23076843 ]
Lipoid Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
  1. Fujieda K, Tajima T, Nakae J, Sageshima S, Tachibana K, Suwa S, Sugawara T, Strauss JF 3rd: Spontaneous puberty in 46,XX subjects with congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia. Ovarian steroidogenesis is spared to some extent despite inactivating mutations in the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) gene. J Clin Invest. 1997 Mar 15;99(6):1265-71. doi: 10.1172/JCI119284. [PubMed:9077535 ]
  2. Hauffa BP, Miller WL, Grumbach MM, Conte FA, Kaplan SL: Congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to deficient cholesterol side-chain cleavage activity (20, 22-desmolase) in a patient treated for 18 years. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1985 Nov;23(5):481-93. [PubMed:3841304 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
  • 202110 (Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, due to 17-Hydroxylase-Deficiency)
  • 602522 (Bartter Syndrome, Type 4A, Neonatal, with Sensorineural Deafness)
  • 601678 (Bartter Syndrome, Type 1, Antenatal)
  • 613743 (Adrenal insufficiency, congenital, with 46,XY sex reversal, partial or complete)
  • 241200 (Bartter Syndrome, Type 2, Antenatal)
  • 613090 (Bartter Syndrome, Type 4B, Neonatal, With Sensorineural Deafness)
  • 604278 (Renal tubular acidosis, proximal, with ocular abnormalities and mental retardation)
  • 214700 (Congenital chloride diarrhea)
  • 203400 (Corticosterone methyl oxidase I deficiency)
  • 615962 (Glucocorticoid resistance)
  • 201710 (Lipoid Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia)
DrugBank IDDB04630
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB021883
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID5633
KEGG Compound IDC01780
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkAldosterone
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound5839
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID27584
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDMDB00000018
Synthesis ReferenceBear, Brian R.; Parnes, Jason S.; Shea, Kenneth J. Progress toward the Total Synthesis of (+)-Aldosterone: Synthesis of the A-D Rings. Organic Letters (2003), 5(10), 1613-1616.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Funder JW: The nongenomic actions of aldosterone. Endocr Rev. 2005 May;26(3):313-21. Epub 2005 Apr 6. [PubMed:15814845 ]
  2. Shima H, Kawanaka H, Yabumoto Y, Okamoto E, Ikoma F: A case of 17 alpha-hydroxylase deficiency with chromosomal karyotype 46,XY and high plasma aldosterone concentration. Int Urol Nephrol. 1991;23(6):611-8. [PubMed:1769794 ]
  3. Rosendahl W, Konig M, Haack D, Vecsei P, Lewicka S: [Variability of corticosterone methyl oxidase (type II) deficiency. Presentation of three case reports]. Klin Padiatr. 1993 May-Jun;205(3):180-4. [PubMed:8350592 ]
  4. Christ M, Zange J, Janson CP, Muller K, Kuklinski P, Schmidt BM, Tillmann HC, Gerzer R, Wehling M: Hypoxia modulates rapid effects of aldosterone on oxidative metabolism in human calf muscle. J Endocrinol Invest. 2001 Sep;24(8):587-97. [PubMed:11686541 ]
  5. Lijnen P, Petrov V: Induction of cardiac fibrosis by aldosterone. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2000 Jun;32(6):865-79. [PubMed:10888242 ]
  6. du Cheyron D, Lesage A, Daubin C, Ramakers M, Charbonneau P: Hyperreninemic hypoaldosteronism: a possible etiological factor of septic shock-induced acute renal failure. Intensive Care Med. 2003 Oct;29(10):1703-9. Epub 2003 Aug 28. [PubMed:14551679 ]
  7. Laskowska M, Leszczynska-Gorzelak B, Laskowska K, Oleszczuk J: Evaluation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in pregnancy complicated by preeclampsia with and without intrauterine growth retardation. Ann Univ Mariae Curie Sklodowska Med. 2004;59(2):451-6. [PubMed:16146128 ]
  8. Few JD, Chaudry S, James VH: The direct determination of aldosterone in human saliva. J Steroid Biochem. 1984 Jul;21(1):87-92. [PubMed:6748658 ]
  9. Cicoira M, Zanolla L, Franceschini L, Rossi A, Golia G, Zeni P, Caruso B, Zardini P: Relation of aldosterone "escape" despite angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor administration to impaired exercise capacity in chronic congestive heart failure secondary to ischemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol. 2002 Feb 15;89(4):403-7. [PubMed:11835920 ]
  10. Goodfriend TL, Kelley DE, Goodpaster BH, Winters SJ: Visceral obesity and insulin resistance are associated with plasma aldosterone levels in women. Obes Res. 1999 Jul;7(4):355-62. [PubMed:10440591 ]
  11. Lewicka S, Vecsei P, Bige K, Fisher T, Winter J, Abdelhamid S, Heinrich U, Bokkenheuser VD: Urinary excretion of aldosterone metabolite Kelly-M1 in patients with adrenal dysfunction. J Steroid Biochem. 1988 Mar;29(3):333-9. [PubMed:3258645 ]
  12. Heindl S, Holzschneider J, Hinz A, Sayk F, Fehm HL, Dodt C: Acute effects of aldosterone on the autonomic nervous system and the baroreflex function in healthy humans. J Neuroendocrinol. 2006 Feb;18(2):115-21. [PubMed:16420280 ]
  13. Engeli S, Bohnke J, Gorzelniak K, Janke J, Schling P, Bader M, Luft FC, Sharma AM: Weight loss and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Hypertension. 2005 Mar;45(3):356-62. Epub 2005 Jan 3. [PubMed:15630041 ]
  14. Velazquez H, Perazella MA, Wright FS, Ellison DH: Renal mechanism of trimethoprim-induced hyperkalemia. Ann Intern Med. 1993 Aug 15;119(4):296-301. [PubMed:8328738 ]
  15. Touger L, Joseph M, Hasan KS: Hypertension in a patient with aldosterone deficiency. Endocr Pract. 2005 Mar-Apr;11(2):104-7. [PubMed:15901525 ]
  16. Summa V, Camargo SM, Bauch C, Zecevic M, Verrey F: Isoform specificity of human Na(+), K(+)-ATPase localization and aldosterone regulation in mouse kidney cells. J Physiol. 2004 Mar 1;555(Pt 2):355-64. Epub 2003 Dec 23. [PubMed:14694143 ]
  17. Fox CS, Larson MG, Hwang SJ, Leip EP, Rifai N, Levy D, Benjamin EJ, Murabito JM, Meigs JB, Vasan RS: Cross-sectional relations of serum aldosterone and urine sodium excretion to urinary albumin excretion in a community-based sample. Kidney Int. 2006 Jun;69(11):2064-9. [PubMed:16572107 ]
  18. Badalian SS, Mikhailov AV: [Characteristics of the renin-aldosterone system of the fetoplacental complex in fetal erythroblastosis]. Akush Ginekol (Mosk). 1990 May;(5):55-8. [PubMed:2118736 ]
  19. Tanemoto M, Abe T, Obara N, Abe M, Satoh F, Ito S: Successful treatment of severe hypertension with the combination of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blocker. Hypertens Res. 2003 Oct;26(10):863-8. [PubMed:14621191 ]
  20. Pitt B, Stier CT Jr, Rajagopalan S: Mineralocorticoid receptor blockade: new insights into the mechanism of action in patients with cardiovascular disease. J Renin Angiotensin Aldosterone Syst. 2003 Sep;4(3):164-8. [PubMed:14608520 ]
  21. Simons K, Toomre D: Lipid rafts and signal transduction. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Oct;1(1):31-9. [PubMed:11413487 ]
  22. Watson AD: Thematic review series: systems biology approaches to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Lipidomics: a global approach to lipid analysis in biological systems. J Lipid Res. 2006 Oct;47(10):2101-11. Epub 2006 Aug 10. [PubMed:16902246 ]
  23. Sethi JK, Vidal-Puig AJ: Thematic review series: adipocyte biology. Adipose tissue function and plasticity orchestrate nutritional adaptation. J Lipid Res. 2007 Jun;48(6):1253-62. Epub 2007 Mar 20. [PubMed:17374880 ]
  24. Lingwood D, Simons K: Lipid rafts as a membrane-organizing principle. Science. 2010 Jan 1;327(5961):46-50. doi: 10.1126/science.1174621. [PubMed:20044567 ]
  25. Gunstone, Frank D., John L. Harwood, and Albert J. Dijkstra (2007). The lipid handbook with CD-ROM. CRC Press.

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 14 proteins in total.


General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Has steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase activity. In addition to this activity, the 18 or 19-hydroxylation of steroids and the aromatization of androstendione to estrone have also been ascribed to cytochrome P450 XIB.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Deoxycorticosterone + Reduced adrenal ferredoxin + Oxygen → Aldosterone + Oxidized adrenal ferredoxin + Waterdetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Efficiently catalyzes the reduction of progesterone, androstenedione, 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and testosterone to 5-beta-reduced metabolites. The bile acid intermediates 7-alpha,12-alpha-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one can also act as substrates.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
11b,21-Dihydroxy-3,20-oxo-5b-pregnan-18-al + NADP → Aldosterone + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in protein serine/threonine kinase activity
Specific function:
Protein kinase that plays an important role in cellular stress response. Activates certain potassium, sodium, and chloride channels, suggesting an involvement in the regulation of processes such as cell survival, neuronal excitability and renal sodium excretion. Sustained high levels and activity may contribute to conditions such as hypertension and diabetic nephropathy. Mediates cell survival signals, phosphorylates and negatively regulates pro-apoptotic FOXO3A. Phosphorylates NEDD4L, which leads to its inactivation and to the subsequent activation of various channels and transporters such as ENaC, KCNA3/Kv1.3 or EAAT1. Isoform 2 exhibited a greater effect on cell plasma membrane expression of ENaC and Na(+) transport than isoform 1
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Cordas E, Naray-Fejes-Toth A, Fejes-Toth G: Subcellular location of serum- and glucocorticoid-induced kinase-1 in renal and mammary epithelial cells. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007 May;292(5):C1971-81. Epub 2007 Jan 3. [PubMed:17202226 ]
General function:
Involved in transmembrane receptor protein tyrosine kinase activity
Specific function:
Isoform 2 may act as an antagonist of EGF action
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. McEneaney V, Harvey BJ, Thomas W: Aldosterone rapidly activates protein kinase D via a mineralocorticoid receptor/EGFR trans-activation pathway in the M1 kidney CCD cell line. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2007 Nov-Dec;107(3-5):180-90. Epub 2007 Jun 22. [PubMed:17681751 ]
General function:
Involved in intracellular signaling pathway
Specific function:
Converts transient diacylglycerol (DAG) signals into prolonged physiological effects, downstream of PKC. Involved in resistance to oxidative stress through activation of NF-kappa-B
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. McEneaney V, Harvey BJ, Thomas W: Aldosterone regulates rapid trafficking of epithelial sodium channel subunits in renal cortical collecting duct cells via protein kinase D activation. Mol Endocrinol. 2008 Apr;22(4):881-92. doi: 10.1210/me.2007-0225. Epub 2008 Jan 17. [PubMed:18202152 ]
General function:
Involved in collagen binding
Specific function:
Anastellin binds fibronectin and induces fibril formation. This fibronectin polymer, named superfibronectin, exhibits enhanced adhesive properties. Both anastellin and superfibronectin inhibit tumor growth, angiogenesis and metastasis. Anastellin activates p38 MAPK and inhibits lysophospholipid signaling
Gene Name:
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Molecular weight:
  1. Lai L, Chen J, Hao CM, Lin S, Gu Y: Aldosterone promotes fibronectin production through a Smad2-dependent TGF-beta1 pathway in mesangial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2006 Sep 15;348(1):70-5. Epub 2006 Jul 21. [PubMed:16876110 ]
General function:
Involved in hormone activity
Specific function:
Cardiac hormone which may function as a paracrine antifibrotic factor in the heart. Also plays a key role in cardiovascular homeostasis through natriuresis, diuresis, vasorelaxation, and inhibition of renin and aldosterone secretion. Specifically binds and stimulates the cGMP production of the NPR1 receptor. Binds the clearance receptor NPR3
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Uniprot ID:
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General function:
Involved in insulin-like growth factor binding
Specific function:
Major connective tissue mitoattractant secreted by vascular endothelial cells. Promotes proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes. Mediates heparin- and divalent cation-dependent cell adhesion in many cell types including fibroblasts, myofibroblasts, endothelial and epithelial cells. Enhances fibroblast growth factor-induced DNA synthesis
Gene Name:
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Molecular weight:
  1. Gauer S, Segitz V, Goppelt-Struebe M: Aldosterone induces CTGF in mesangial cells by activation of the glucocorticoid receptor. Nephrol Dial Transplant. 2007 Nov;22(11):3154-9. Epub 2007 Jun 30. [PubMed:17602195 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Receptor for angiotensin II. Mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol- calcium second messenger system
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Yamada M, Kushibiki M, Osanai T, Tomita H, Okumura K: Vasoconstrictor effect of aldosterone via angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor: possible role of AT1 receptor dimerization. Cardiovasc Res. 2008 Jul 1;79(1):169-78. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvn064. Epub 2008 Mar 7. [PubMed:18326554 ]
General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
Specific function:
Receptor for both mineralocorticoids (MC) such as aldosterone and glucocorticoids (GC) such as corticosterone or cortisol. Binds to mineralocorticoid response elements (MRE) and transactivates target genes. The effect of MC is to increase ion and water transport and thus raise extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure and lower potassium levels
Gene Name:
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Molecular weight:
  1. White WB: Drospirenone with 17beta-estradiol in the postmenopausal woman with hypertension. Climacteric. 2007 Feb;10 Suppl 1:25-31. [PubMed:17364595 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 14 proteins in total.