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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2021-09-14 15:44:46 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000143
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0005762
  • HMDB00143
  • HMDB05762
Metabolite Identification
Common NameD-Galactose
DescriptionD-Galactose (CAS: 59-23-4) is an aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. D-Galactose is an energy-providing nutrient and also a necessary basic substrate for the biosynthesis of many macromolecules in the body. Metabolic pathways for D-galactose are important not only for the provision of these pathways but also for the prevention of D-galactose metabolite accumulation. The main source of D-galactose is lactose in the milk of mammals, but it can also be found in some fruits and vegetables. Utilization of D-galactose in all living cells is initiated by the phosphorylation of the hexose by the enzyme galactokinase (E.C. 2.7.1.6) (GALK) to form D-galactose-1-phosphate. In the presence of D-galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (E.C. 2.7.7.12) (GALT) D-galactose-1-phosphate is exchanged with glucose-1-phosphate in UDP-glucose to form UDP-galactose. Glucose-1-phosphate will then enter the glycolytic pathway for energy production. Deficiency of the enzyme GALT in galactosemic patients leads to the accumulation of D-galactose-1-phosphate. Classic galactosemia, a term that denotes the presence of D-galactose in the blood, is the rare inborn error of D-galactose metabolism, diagnosed by the deficiency of the second enzyme of the D-galactose assimilation pathway, GALT, which, in turn, is caused by mutations at the GALT gene (PMID: 15256214 , 11020650 , 10408771 ). Galactose in the urine is a biomarker for the consumption of milk.
Structure
Data?1588107117
Synonyms
ValueSource
ALPHA D-GALACTOSEChEBI
alpha-D-GalChEBI
Gal-alphaChEBI
alpha-D-GalactoseKegg
a D-GALACTOSEGenerator
Α D-galactoseGenerator
a-D-GalGenerator
Α-D-galGenerator
Gal-aGenerator
Gal-αGenerator
a-D-GalactoseGenerator
Α-D-galactoseGenerator
(+)-GalactoseHMDB
5AbpHMDB
8AbpHMDB
alpha-D-GalactopyranoseHMDB
D-(+)-GalactoseHMDB
D-HexoseHMDB
GALHMDB
GalactoseHMDB
Galactose (NF)HMDB
GLAHMDB
GLCHMDB
HexoseHMDB
SHU 508 aMeSH, HMDB
SH-TA-508MeSH, HMDB
SHU 508MeSH, HMDB
LevovistMeSH, HMDB
SHU-508MeSH, HMDB
Chemical FormulaC6H12O6
Average Molecular Weight180.1559
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight180.063388116
IUPAC Name(2S,3R,4S,5R,6R)-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-2,3,4,5-tetrol
Traditional Namegalactose
CAS Registry Number3646-73-9
SMILES
OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H12O6/c7-1-2-3(8)4(9)5(10)6(11)12-2/h2-11H,1H2/t2-,3+,4+,5-,6+/m1/s1
InChI KeyWQZGKKKJIJFFOK-PHYPRBDBSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hexoses. These are monosaccharides in which the sugar unit is a is a six-carbon containing moeity.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentHexoses
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Hexose monosaccharide
  • Oxane
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Hemiacetal
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Polyol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Primary alcohol
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Adverse health effect

Disposition

Biological location

Source

Route of exposure

Process

Naturally occurring process

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point170 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility683 mg/mLNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Experimental Chromatographic Properties

Experimental Collision Cross Sections

Adduct TypeData SourceCCS Value (Å2)Reference
[M-H]-Astarita_neg130.030932474
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility782 g/LALOGPS
logP10(-2.6) g/LALOGPS
logP10(-2.9) g/LChemAxon
logS10(0.64) g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)11.3ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area110.38 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity35.92 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.13 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DarkChem[M+H]+140.16231661259
DarkChem[M-H]-136.18431661259
AllCCS[M+H]+140.81432859911
AllCCS[M-H]-131.80932859911

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Underivatized

MetaboliteSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
D-GalactoseOC[C@H]1O[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O3448.8Standard polar33892256
D-GalactoseOC[C@H]1O[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O1916.4Standard non polar33892256
D-GalactoseOC[C@H]1O[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O1649.9Semi standard non polar33892256

Derivatized

Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
D-Galactose,1TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O1738.4Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,1TMS,isomer #2C[Si](C)(C)O[C@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]1O1673.8Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,1TMS,isomer #3C[Si](C)(C)O[C@H]1[C@@H](O)O[C@H](CO)[C@H](O)[C@@H]1O1683.6Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,1TMS,isomer #4C[Si](C)(C)O[C@H]1[C@@H](O)[C@@H](CO)O[C@H](O)[C@@H]1O1688.3Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,1TMS,isomer #5C[Si](C)(C)O[C@H]1[C@@H](CO)O[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]1O1678.0Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,2TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O1722.4Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,2TMS,isomer #10C[Si](C)(C)O[C@H]1[C@@H](CO)O[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C1681.6Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,2TMS,isomer #2C[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O)[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O1737.0Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,2TMS,isomer #3C[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@H]1O1742.6Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,2TMS,isomer #4C[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C1712.2Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,2TMS,isomer #5C[Si](C)(C)O[C@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@H](O)[C@H]1O1701.4Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,2TMS,isomer #6C[Si](C)(C)O[C@H]1[C@@H](O)[C@@H](CO)O[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H]1O1703.5Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,2TMS,isomer #7C[Si](C)(C)O[C@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C1679.6Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,2TMS,isomer #8C[Si](C)(C)O[C@H]1[C@@H](O)O[C@H](CO)[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H]1O1697.1Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,2TMS,isomer #9C[Si](C)(C)O[C@H]1[C@@H](O)[C@@H](CO)O[C@H](O)[C@@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C1692.2Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,3TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O1703.6Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,3TMS,isomer #10C[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H]1[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H](O)O[C@@H]1CO1736.7Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,3TMS,isomer #2C[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@H]1O1753.4Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,3TMS,isomer #3C[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C1717.5Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,3TMS,isomer #4C[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O)[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@H]1O1748.2Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,3TMS,isomer #5C[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O)[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C1766.0Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,3TMS,isomer #6C[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C1701.0Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,3TMS,isomer #7C[Si](C)(C)O[C@H]1[C@@H](CO)O[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@H](O)[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C1739.0Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,3TMS,isomer #8C[Si](C)(C)O[C@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@H](O)[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C1733.4Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,3TMS,isomer #9C[Si](C)(C)O[C@H]1[C@@H](O)[C@@H](CO)O[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C1725.4Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,4TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@H]1O1815.5Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,4TMS,isomer #2C[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C1815.2Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,4TMS,isomer #3C[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C1820.5Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,4TMS,isomer #4C[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O)[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C1819.4Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,4TMS,isomer #5C[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H]1[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)O[C@@H]1CO1800.9Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,5TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C1877.4Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,1TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O2002.6Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,1TBDMS,isomer #2CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]1O1940.1Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,1TBDMS,isomer #3CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@H]1[C@@H](O)O[C@H](CO)[C@H](O)[C@@H]1O1940.5Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,1TBDMS,isomer #4CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@H]1[C@@H](O)[C@@H](CO)O[C@H](O)[C@@H]1O1947.1Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,1TBDMS,isomer #5CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@H]1[C@@H](CO)O[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]1O1943.8Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,2TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O2208.7Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,2TBDMS,isomer #10CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@H]1[C@@H](CO)O[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2181.6Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,2TBDMS,isomer #2CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O)[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O2210.9Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,2TBDMS,isomer #3CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@H]1O2219.8Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,2TBDMS,isomer #4CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2197.5Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,2TBDMS,isomer #5CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@H](O)[C@H]1O2193.9Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,2TBDMS,isomer #6CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@H]1[C@@H](O)[C@@H](CO)O[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H]1O2195.0Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,2TBDMS,isomer #7CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2180.7Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,2TBDMS,isomer #8CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@H]1[C@@H](O)O[C@H](CO)[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H]1O2190.8Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,2TBDMS,isomer #9CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@H]1[C@@H](O)[C@@H](CO)O[C@H](O)[C@@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2192.8Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,3TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O2441.4Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,3TBDMS,isomer #10CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H]1[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H](O)O[C@@H]1CO2455.2Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,3TBDMS,isomer #2CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@H]1O2449.6Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,3TBDMS,isomer #3CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2445.1Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,3TBDMS,isomer #4CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O)[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@H]1O2466.7Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,3TBDMS,isomer #5CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O)[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2468.7Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,3TBDMS,isomer #6CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2439.7Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,3TBDMS,isomer #7CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@H]1[C@@H](CO)O[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@H](O)[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2451.2Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,3TBDMS,isomer #8CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@H]1O[C@H](CO)[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@H](O)[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2451.3Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,3TBDMS,isomer #9CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@H]1[C@@H](O)[C@@H](CO)O[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2454.9Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,4TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@H]1O2671.4Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,4TBDMS,isomer #2CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2668.4Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,4TBDMS,isomer #3CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@H](O)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2664.4Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,4TBDMS,isomer #4CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O)[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2681.0Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,4TBDMS,isomer #5CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H]1[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)O[C@@H]1CO2669.4Semi standard non polar33892256
D-Galactose,5TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC[C@H]1O[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@H]1O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2890.3Semi standard non polar33892256
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - D-Galactose GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-066s-0941000000-8f1b68655e0a5ed179e32018-05-25HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - D-Galactose GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ldj-0941000000-84c771fab416aa0a40d82018-05-25HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - D-Galactose GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ktb-0931000000-6f37a774d1ab64585c8d2018-05-25HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - D-Galactose GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-066s-0931000000-9945093085ef7b0de6182018-05-25HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - D-Galactose GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ldj-0931000000-1ed532d5d2897be775df2018-05-25HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - D-Galactose GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9731000000-af5bd67ad0bbb29978392018-05-25HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - D-Galactose GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9621000000-9dad5bd1760a891ace2a2018-05-25HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - D-Galactose GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fr2-0920000000-d0bbaf502997c43971ba2018-05-25HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - D-Galactose GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fr2-1920000000-f47f0b66263744db15ba2018-05-25HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - D-Galactose GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-066s-0941000000-8f1b68655e0a5ed179e32018-05-25HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - D-Galactose GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ldj-0941000000-84c771fab416aa0a40d82018-05-25HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - D-Galactose GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ktb-0931000000-6f37a774d1ab64585c8d2018-05-25HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - D-Galactose GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-066s-0931000000-9945093085ef7b0de6182018-05-25HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - D-Galactose GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ldj-0931000000-1ed532d5d2897be775df2018-05-25HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - D-Galactose GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9731000000-af5bd67ad0bbb29978392018-05-25HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - D-Galactose GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9621000000-9dad5bd1760a891ace2a2018-05-25HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - D-Galactose GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fr2-0920000000-d0bbaf502997c43971ba2018-05-25HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - D-Galactose GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fr2-1920000000-f47f0b66263744db15ba2018-05-25HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - D-Galactose GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0np0-9700000000-e8d638dc817e46b97d7b2016-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - D-Galactose GC-MS (5 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-004i-6122690000-eaf6f7adf34ccd0c667b2017-10-06Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - D-Galactose GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - D-Galactose GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - D-Galactose GC-MS (TMS_1_1) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - D-Galactose GC-MS (TMS_1_2) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - D-Galactose GC-MS (TMS_1_3) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-11-05Wishart LabView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Galactose Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-0f6t-0900000000-70d3989fddd34b894c772012-07-24HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Galactose Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-00ri-9700000000-d454170b4e3ed18ed2d92012-07-24HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Galactose Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-007a-9300000000-81f5f12f84924a34e2c02012-07-24HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Galactose LC-ESI-QTOF 10V, negative-QTOFsplash10-059i-9100000000-33aacf4c62b17cfa394e2020-07-21HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Galactose LC-ESI-QTOF 20V, negative-QTOFsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-79ea696263aaad1687012020-07-21HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Galactose LC-ESI-QTOF 40V, negative-QTOFsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-480461c1cdd9d138dce22020-07-21HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Galactose 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-059i-9100000000-33aacf4c62b17cfa394e2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Galactose 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-79ea696263aaad1687012021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Galactose 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-480461c1cdd9d138dce22021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Galactose 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-01q9-0900000000-b0bc47623e7b2ca31c022016-09-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Galactose 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-03ea-3900000000-648e1637af29cf2a35182016-09-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Galactose 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0007-9200000000-9e6f46a1cbf52d6e347a2016-09-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Galactose 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-004i-2900000000-a4ec4f0b1e29e360a9522016-09-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Galactose 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-01t9-6900000000-7b3ea9c64ecc8d4ac8672016-09-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Galactose 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-052f-9100000000-ec2bf4918640a0a363982016-09-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Galactose 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-004i-2900000000-2448926b508622464fe72021-09-23Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Galactose 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-056r-8900000000-4c073cb93b78120113e62021-09-23Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Galactose 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0a4l-9000000000-ece70093ab5d3c331ac42021-09-23Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Galactose 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-01qa-0900000000-04ceb34d441ff6a757632021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Galactose 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-03dl-9400000000-a8f1ceab155611f949c12021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - D-Galactose 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-01ow-9000000000-358f68fc2b7a72c275462021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum

NMR Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Experimental 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, H2O, experimental)2021-10-10Wishart LabView Spectrum
Experimental 2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 400 MHz, H2O, experimental)2012-12-04Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Lysosome
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Breast Milk
  • Cellular Cytoplasm
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Brain
  • Liver
  • Prostate
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified<440 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Not AvailableNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified<110 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Not AvailableNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified210.0 +/- 92.0 uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified88.3 +/- 34.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified39.0 +/- 12.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified17 (0-39) uMChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
BloodDetected and Quantified1.0 (0.0-5.0) uMAdolescent (13-18 years old)BothNormal details
Breast MilkDetected and Quantified92.3 +/- 49.1 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
details
Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified4.6 (0.0-9.2) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified166.0 +/- 99.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified746.576 +/- 394.103 nmol/g wet fecesNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected and Quantified83.46 +/- 31.16 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.3 (1.3-8.5) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified262.58 +/- 881.72 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified11.9 (5.4-25.2) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.0 (0.0-19.0) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.8 (0.0-11.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0-500 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified15.0 (0.0-33.0) umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.4 (0.0-31.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified10.034 +/- 12.935 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Analysis of 30 no...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified85-140 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified2.720 (0.580-3.980) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothGalactosemia type 1 details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.52 (0.12-1.25) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothHypergalactosemia with porto-hepatic venous shunts and haemangiomas details
BloodDetected and Quantified2.72 (0.58-3.98) uMInfant (0-1 year old)BothGalactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase deficiency (galactosemia) details
BloodDetected and Quantified440-1110 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Not AvailablePatent Ductus Venosus details
BloodDetected and Quantified<110 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Not AvailablePatent Ductus Venosus details
BloodDetected and Quantified330-440 uMChildren (1-13 years old)Not AvailablePatent Ductus Venosus details
Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified1496.5 (921.0 - 2070) uMChildren (1-13 years old)BothGalactosemia details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothBladder cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified12.219 +/- 17.901 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Analysis of 30 no...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase deficiency
  1. Ning C, Segal S: Plasma galactose and galactitol concentration in patients with galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase deficiency galactosemia: determination by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Metabolism. 2000 Nov;49(11):1460-6. [PubMed:11092512 ]
Galactosemia type 1
  1. Ning C, Segal S: Plasma galactose and galactitol concentration in patients with galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase deficiency galactosemia: determination by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Metabolism. 2000 Nov;49(11):1460-6. [PubMed:11092512 ]
Patent Ductus Venosus
  1. Sakura N, Mizoguchi N, Eguchi T, Ono H, Mawatari H, Naitou K, Ito K: Elevated plasma bile acids in hypergalactosaemic neonates: a diagnostic clue to portosystemic shunts. Eur J Pediatr. 1997 Sep;156(9):716-8. [PubMed:9296537 ]
Galactosemia
  1. Chen J, Yager C, Reynolds R, Palmieri M, Segal S: Erythrocyte galactose 1-phosphate quantified by isotope-dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Clin Chem. 2002;48(4):604-12. [PubMed:11901058 ]
Colorectal cancer
  1. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
  2. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
  3. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Eosinophilic esophagitis
  1. Slae, M., Huynh, H., Wishart, D.S. (2014). Analysis of 30 normal pediatric urine samples via NMR spectroscopy (unpublished work). NA.
Associated OMIM IDs
  • 230400 (Galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase deficiency)
  • 230400 (Galactosemia type 1)
  • 601466 (Patent Ductus Venosus)
  • 114500 (Colorectal cancer)
  • 610247 (Eosinophilic esophagitis)
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB021787
KNApSAcK IDC00001119
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDC00984
BioCyc IDALPHA-D-GALACTOSE
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGalactose
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound439357
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID28061
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDGAL
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDNot Available
References
Synthesis Reference Avigad, Gad. Synthesis of D-galactose-6-t and D-galactosides-6-t. Carbohydrate Research (1967), 3(4), 430-4.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Tyfield L, Reichardt J, Fridovich-Keil J, Croke DT, Elsas LJ 2nd, Strobl W, Kozak L, Coskun T, Novelli G, Okano Y, Zekanowski C, Shin Y, Boleda MD: Classical galactosemia and mutations at the galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase (GALT) gene. Hum Mutat. 1999;13(6):417-30. [PubMed:10408771 ]
  2. Sreekumar A, Poisson LM, Rajendiran TM, Khan AP, Cao Q, Yu J, Laxman B, Mehra R, Lonigro RJ, Li Y, Nyati MK, Ahsan A, Kalyana-Sundaram S, Han B, Cao X, Byun J, Omenn GS, Ghosh D, Pennathur S, Alexander DC, Berger A, Shuster JR, Wei JT, Varambally S, Beecher C, Chinnaiyan AM: Metabolomic profiles delineate potential role for sarcosine in prostate cancer progression. Nature. 2009 Feb 12;457(7231):910-4. doi: 10.1038/nature07762. [PubMed:19212411 ]
  3. Shoemaker JD, Elliott WH: Automated screening of urine samples for carbohydrates, organic and amino acids after treatment with urease. J Chromatogr. 1991 Jan 2;562(1-2):125-38. [PubMed:2026685 ]
  4. Silwood CJ, Lynch E, Claxson AW, Grootveld MC: 1H and (13)C NMR spectroscopic analysis of human saliva. J Dent Res. 2002 Jun;81(6):422-7. [PubMed:12097436 ]
  5. Ning C, Segal S: Plasma galactose and galactitol concentration in patients with galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase deficiency galactosemia: determination by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Metabolism. 2000 Nov;49(11):1460-6. [PubMed:11092512 ]
  6. Ning C, Reynolds R, Chen J, Yager C, Berry GT, McNamara PD, Leslie N, Segal S: Galactose metabolism by the mouse with galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase deficiency. Pediatr Res. 2000 Aug;48(2):211-7. [PubMed:10926297 ]
  7. Rapoport EM, Nekrasov MV, Khaidukov SV, Svirshchevskaya EV, Zhigis LS, Kozlov LV, Batalova TN, Zubov VP, Bovin NV: Cellular localization of the galactose-binding lectin from human serum. Biochemistry (Mosc). 2000 Nov;65(11):1316-20. [PubMed:11112850 ]
  8. Xu J, Ma M, Purcell WM: Optimizing the enzymatic determination of galactose in the culture medium of rat liver and HepG2 cell spheroids. Anal Biochem. 2002 Dec 15;311(2):179-81. [PubMed:12470678 ]
  9. Seiler CA, Renner EL, Czerniak A, Didonna D, Buchler MW, Reichen J: Early acute cellular rejection: no effect on late hepatic allograft function in man. Transpl Int. 1999;12(3):195-201. [PubMed:10429957 ]
  10. Schadewaldt P, Hammen HW, Loganathan K, Bodner-Leidecker A, Wendel U: Analysis of concentration and (13)C enrichment of D-galactose in human plasma. Clin Chem. 2000 May;46(5):612-9. [PubMed:10794741 ]
  11. Fenn PT, Ning C, Segal S, Blair IA: Determination of [(13)C]galactose enrichment in human plasma by gas chromatography/positive chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry. J Mass Spectrom. 2000 Feb;35(2):218-23. [PubMed:10679984 ]
  12. van den Nieuwenhof IM, Renardel de Lavalette C, Diaz N, van Die I, van den Berg TK: Differential galactosylation of neuronal and haematopoietic signal regulatory protein-alpha determines its cellular binding-specificity. J Cell Sci. 2001 Apr;114(Pt 7):1321-9. [PubMed:11256998 ]
  13. Hernandez DE, Cohen A, Fisher D, Correnti M, Harner R: Antibody levels against galactosyl (alpha1 --> 3) galactose epitopes in cervical mucus from patients with human papillomavirus infection. Gynecol Oncol. 2002 Mar;84(3):374-7. [PubMed:11855872 ]
  14. Ono H, Mawatari H, Mizoguchi N, Eguchi T, Sakura N, Hamakawa M: Transient galactosemia detected by neonatal mass screening. Pediatr Int. 1999 Jun;41(3):281-4. [PubMed:10365579 ]
  15. Tamamori A, Fujimoto A, Okano Y, Kobayashi K, Saheki T, Tagami Y, Takei H, Shigematsu Y, Hata I, Ozaki H, Tokuhara D, Nishimura Y, Yorifuji T, Igarashi N, Ohura T, Shimizu T, Inui K, Sakai N, Abukawa D, Miyakawa T, Matsumori M, Ban K, Kaneko H, Yamano T: Effects of citrin deficiency in the perinatal period: feasibility of newborn mass screening for citrin deficiency. Pediatr Res. 2004 Oct;56(4):608-14. Epub 2004 Aug 4. [PubMed:15295082 ]
  16. Wang ZJ, Berry GT, Dreha SF, Zhao H, Segal S, Zimmerman RA: Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy of brain metabolites in galactosemia. Ann Neurol. 2001 Aug;50(2):266-9. [PubMed:11506413 ]
  17. Niebroj-Dobosz I, Janik P, Jamrozik Z, Kwiecinski H: Immunochemical quantification of glycoconjugates in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients. Eur J Neurol. 1999 May;6(3):335-40. [PubMed:10210915 ]
  18. Schmidt LE, Ott P, Tygstrup N: Galactose elimination capacity as a prognostic marker in patients with severe acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity: 10 years' experience. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2004 May;2(5):418-24. [PubMed:15118981 ]
  19. Vironen J, Kellokumpu S, Andersson LC, Kellokumpu I: Comparison of a peanut agglutinin test and an immunochemical faecal occult blood test in detecting colorectal neoplasia in symptomatic patients. Scand J Clin Lab Invest. 2004 Apr;64(2):140-5. [PubMed:15115252 ]
  20. Yago H, Kohgo Y, Kato J, Watanabe N, Sakamaki S, Niitsu Y: Detection and quantification of soluble asialoglycoprotein receptor in human serum. Hepatology. 1995 Feb;21(2):383-8. [PubMed:7843709 ]
  21. Chen J, Yager C, Reynolds R, Palmieri M, Segal S: Erythrocyte galactose 1-phosphate quantified by isotope-dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Clin Chem. 2002;48(4):604-12. [PubMed:11901058 ]
  22. Mizoguchi N, Ono H, Eguchi T, Sakura N: Galactose metabolites in blood from neonates with and without hypergalactosaemia detected by mass screening. Eur J Pediatr. 2000 Nov;159(11):851-3. [PubMed:11079200 ]
  23. Cavalli C, Teng C, Battaglia FC, Bevilacqua G: Free sugar and sugar alcohol concentrations in human breast milk. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2006 Feb;42(2):215-21. [PubMed:16456418 ]
  24. Shamsuddin AM, Tyner GT, Yang GY: Common expression of the tumor marker D-galactose-beta-[1-->3]-N-acetyl-D-galactosamine by different adenocarcinomas: evidence of field effect phenomenon. Cancer Res. 1995 Jan 1;55(1):149-52. [PubMed:7805025 ]
  25. Wan CC, Muldrey JE, Li SC, Li YT: beta-Mannosidase from the mushroom Polyporus sulfureus. J Biol Chem. 1976 Jul 25;251(14):4384-8. [PubMed:6478 ]
  26. Redaelli CA, Dufour JF, Wagner M, Schilling M, Husler J, Krahenbuhl L, Buchler MW, Reichen J: Preoperative galactose elimination capacity predicts complications and survival after hepatic resection. Ann Surg. 2002 Jan;235(1):77-85. [PubMed:11753045 ]
  27. Rudzeviciene O, Narkeviciute I, Eidukevicius R: Lactose malabsorption in young Lithuanian children with atopic dermatitis. Acta Paediatr. 2004 Apr;93(4):482-6. [PubMed:15188975 ]
  28. Lai K, Klapa MI: Alternative pathways of galactose assimilation: could inverse metabolic engineering provide an alternative to galactosemic patients? Metab Eng. 2004 Jul;6(3):239-44. [PubMed:15256214 ]
  29. Liu G, Hale GE, Hughes CL: Galactose metabolism and ovarian toxicity. Reprod Toxicol. 2000 Sep-Oct;14(5):377-84. [PubMed:11020650 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 15 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the NADPH-dependent reduction of a wide variety of carbonyl-containing compounds to their corresponding alcohols with a broad range of catalytic efficiencies.
Gene Name:
AKR1B1
Uniprot ID:
P15121
Molecular weight:
35853.125
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HK3
Uniprot ID:
P52790
Molecular weight:
99024.56
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + D-Galactose → ADP + Glucose 6-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HK2
Uniprot ID:
P52789
Molecular weight:
102379.06
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + D-Galactose → ADP + Glucose 6-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
HK1
Uniprot ID:
P19367
Molecular weight:
102485.1
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + D-Galactose → ADP + Glucose 6-phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in galactosylceramidase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the galactose ester bonds of galactosylceramide, galactosylsphingosine, lactosylceramide, and monogalactosyldiglyceride. Enzyme with very low activity responsible for the lysosomal catabolism of galactosylceramide, a major lipid in myelin, kidney and epithelial cells of small intestine and colon.
Gene Name:
GALC
Uniprot ID:
P54803
Molecular weight:
77062.86
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
LPH splits lactose in the small intestine.
Gene Name:
LCT
Uniprot ID:
P09848
Molecular weight:
218584.77
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
GLA
Uniprot ID:
P06280
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity, hydrolyzing O-glycosyl compounds
Specific function:
Cleaves beta-linked terminal galactosyl residues from gangliosides, glycoproteins, and glycosaminoglycans. Isoform 2 has no beta-galactosidase catalytic activity, but plays functional roles in the formation of extracellular elastic fibers (elastogenesis) and in the development of connective tissue. Seems to be identical to the elastin-binding protein (EBP), a major component of the non-integrin cell surface receptor expressed on fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, chondroblasts, leukocytes, and certain cancer cell types. In elastin producing cells, associates with tropoelastin intracellularly and functions as a recycling molecular chaperone which facilitates the secretions of tropoelastin and its assembly into elastic fibers.
Gene Name:
GLB1
Uniprot ID:
P16278
Molecular weight:
Not Available
General function:
Involved in galactokinase activity
Specific function:
Acts on GalNAc. Also acts as a galactokinase when galactose is present at high concentrations. May be involved in a salvage pathway for the reutilization of free GalNAc derived from the degradation of complex carbohydrates.
Gene Name:
GALK2
Uniprot ID:
Q01415
Molecular weight:
49234.57
General function:
Involved in galactokinase activity
Specific function:
Major enzyme for galactose metabolism.
Gene Name:
GALK1
Uniprot ID:
P51570
Molecular weight:
42271.805

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 15 proteins in total.