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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2021-09-07 16:24:11 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000223
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00223
Metabolite Identification
Common NameOxalacetic acid
DescriptionOxalacetic acid, also known as oxaloacetic acid, keto-oxaloacetate or 2-oxobutanedioate, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as short-chain keto acids and derivatives. These are keto acids with an alkyl chain the contains less than 6 carbon atoms. Oxalacetic acid is a metabolic intermediate in many processes that occur in animals and plants. It takes part in gluconeogenesis, the urea cycle, the glyoxylate cycle, amino acid synthesis, fatty acid synthesis and the citric acid cycle. Oxalacetic acid exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to plants to humans. Within humans, oxalacetic acid participates in a number of enzymatic reactions. In particular, oxalacetic acid is an intermediate of the citric acid cycle, where it reacts with acetyl-CoA to form citrate, catalyzed by citrate synthase. It is also involved in gluconeogenesis and the urea cycle. In gluconeogenesis oxaloacetate is decarboxylated and phosphorylated by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and becomes 2-phosphoenolpyruvate using guanosine triphosphate (GTP) as phosphate source. In the urea cycle, malate is acted on by malate dehydrogenase to become oxaloacetate, producing a molecule of NADH. After that, oxaloacetate can be recycled to aspartate, as this recycling maintains the flow of nitrogen into the cell. In mice, injections of oxalacetic acid have been shown to promote brain mitochondrial biogenesis, activate the insulin signaling pathway, reduce neuroinflammation and activate hippocampal neurogenesis (PMID: 25027327 ). Oxalacetic acid has also been reported to reduce hyperglycemia in type II diabetes and to extend longevity in C. elegans (PMID: 25027327 ). Outside of the human body, oxalacetic acid has been detected, but not quantified in, several different foods, such as Persian limes, lemon balms, wild rice, canola, and peanuts. This could make oxalacetic acid a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods.
Structure
Data?1582752117
Synonyms
ValueSource
2-Oxobutanedioic acidChEBI
2-Oxosuccinic acidChEBI
3-Carboxy-3-oxopropanoic acidChEBI
Keto-succinic acidChEBI
Ketosuccinic acidChEBI
OAAChEBI
Oxobutanedioic acidChEBI
Oxosuccinic acidChEBI
Oxaloacetic acidKegg
Keto-oxaloacetateKegg
2-OxobutanedioateGenerator
2-OxosuccinateGenerator
3-Carboxy-3-oxopropanoateGenerator
Keto-succinateGenerator
KetosuccinateGenerator
OxobutanedioateGenerator
OxosuccinateGenerator
OxaloacetateGenerator
Keto-oxaloacetic acidGenerator
OxalacetateGenerator
2-KetosuccinateHMDB
2-Ketosuccinic acidHMDB
a-KetosuccinateHMDB
a-Ketosuccinic acidHMDB
alpha-KetosuccinateHMDB
alpha-Ketosuccinic acidHMDB
OxaloethanoateHMDB
Oxaloethanoic acidHMDB
Acid, oxaloaceticHMDB
Acid, oxalaceticHMDB
2 Ketosuccinic acidHMDB
2 oxo Butanedioic acidHMDB
2-oxo-Butanedioic acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC4H4O5
Average Molecular Weight132.0716
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight132.005873238
IUPAC Name2-oxobutanedioic acid
Traditional Nameoxalacetate
CAS Registry Number328-42-7
SMILES
OC(=O)CC(=O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C4H4O5/c5-2(4(8)9)1-3(6)7/h1H2,(H,6,7)(H,8,9)
InChI KeyKHPXUQMNIQBQEV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as short-chain keto acids and derivatives. These are keto acids with an alkyl chain the contains less than 6 carbon atoms.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassKeto acids and derivatives
Sub ClassShort-chain keto acids and derivatives
Direct ParentShort-chain keto acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Beta-keto acid
  • Short-chain keto acid
  • Alpha-keto acid
  • Beta-hydroxy ketone
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • 1,3-dicarbonyl compound
  • Alpha-hydroxy ketone
  • Ketone
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point161 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility134 mg/mLNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility57.1 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.68ALOGPS
logP-0.042ChemAxon
logS-0.36ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.41ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-9.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area91.67 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity24.33 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability10.06 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra

GC-MS

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-00dr-4900000000-9d943d40beaca3c602a12014-06-16View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 MEOX; 2 TMS)splash10-007a-9210000000-020f60717e2ea79d1ccd2014-06-16View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 MEOX; 2 TMS)splash10-000b-9540000000-a53f674cc98960834f882014-06-16View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 MEOX; 3 TMS)splash10-001a-8940000000-40b790e06141d71809382014-06-16View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-007a-9210000000-020f60717e2ea79d1ccd2017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-000b-9540000000-a53f674cc98960834f882017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-001a-8940000000-40b790e06141d71809382017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0002-4930000000-7e995327b0b9c1af09142017-09-12View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-000f-9100000000-6718417e7196063f95442016-09-22View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00ds-9520000000-5a082ec8843f6fbc3b152017-10-06View Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0006-9000000000-f371299a07d43c23ff1d2015-03-01View Spectrum

LC-MS/MS

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-000i-9000000000-0be675f3aa3e973393b72012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-000f-9000000000-4fba97fcd7b0f2215f752012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-9b1f4171aee6283a3cbd2012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-7c598fd9c78acb94dacd2017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QTOF 3V, positivesplash10-014i-4900000000-e7803730ae7986a1b9fb2020-07-22View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QTOF 4V, positivesplash10-014r-5900000000-8e478338a7c0e65e62ba2020-07-22View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QTOF 5V, positivesplash10-014r-7900000000-f681763317e1ae86e6912020-07-22View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QTOF 7V, positivesplash10-00kr-9600000000-aa8adf9a96041dddbbdd2020-07-22View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QTOF 10V, positivesplash10-000i-9200000000-e62c47ca2bc4929001782020-07-22View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QTOF 15V, positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-5485ddd84a64ea0ca0b92020-07-22View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QTOF 17V, positivesplash10-000i-9000000000-79521cb04a2b23e39c1e2020-07-22View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QTOF 20V, positivesplash10-000m-9000000000-601c8d2ec63f8b01a61e2020-07-22View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QTOF 23V, positivesplash10-000e-9000000000-13d369c58d8930958d922020-07-22View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QTOF 25V, positivesplash10-0005-9000000000-df8387ef907fb71342eb2020-07-22View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QTOF 27V, positivesplash10-0005-9000000000-908644b5d7041346f5822020-07-22View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QTOF 30V, positivesplash10-0005-9000000000-ecca787a800164d0296f2020-07-22View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QTOF 33V, positivesplash10-0005-9000000000-180a7c51b1f93cb8fff22020-07-22View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QTOF 35V, positivesplash10-0005-9000000000-709c49f609f5a711a2882020-07-22View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - QTOF 40V, positivesplash10-0005-9000000000-aa103ab9beb03bd6eb222020-07-22View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-3900000000-6f4e965a3f513bf8db132015-04-24View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-014i-9600000000-8ae7abf60057088e14db2015-04-24View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-01bc-9100000000-5724c215c46a4f5681402015-04-24View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0019-8900000000-829898d0849b1fbf1c282015-04-25View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-9100000000-5a5ff8fb7cb52eebf0c82015-04-25View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9000000000-657d1384d478ddc33b6d2015-04-25View Spectrum

NMR

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)2012-12-04View Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, Sodium phosphate (pH 7.4) in 90% H2O /10% D2O, experimental)2019-09-11View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C] NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, predicted)2012-12-05View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C] NMR Spectrum (2D, 800 MHz, predicted)2019-09-11View Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Mitochondria
  • Peroxisome
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cellular Cytoplasm
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Liver
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified61 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified7.3 (6.1-8.3) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified27 +/- 15 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.2 (1.16-5.94) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.27 (0.51-4.48) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0-5 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
Cellular CytoplasmDetected and Quantified2 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothAnoxia details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Anoxia
  1. Zupke C, Sinskey AJ, Stephanopoulos G: Intracellular flux analysis applied to the effect of dissolved oxygen on hybridomas. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1995 Dec;44(1-2):27-36. [PubMed:8579834 ]
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB031075
KNApSAcK IDC00001197
Chemspider ID945
KEGG Compound IDC00036
BioCyc IDOXALACETIC_ACID
BiGG ID33604
Wikipedia LinkOxaloacetic_acid
METLIN ID123
PubChem Compound970
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID30744
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDOAA
MarkerDB IDMDB00000105
References
Synthesis ReferenceHeidelberger, Charles; Hurlbert, Robert B. The synthesis of oxalacetic acid-I-C14 and orotic acid-6-C14. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1950), 72 4704-6.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Efimov AS, Gulyi MF, Shcherbak AV, Dzvonkevich ND: [Levels of Krebs cycle metabolites in the blood and urine of patients with diabetes mellitus]. Probl Endokrinol (Mosk). 1983 Mar-Apr;29(2):10-4. [PubMed:6856592 ]
  2. el-Sharabasy MM: Observations on calcium oxalate stone formers. Br J Urol. 1992 Nov;70(5):474-7. [PubMed:1361403 ]
  3. Dworzak E, Grunicke H, Berger H, Jarosch E, Haas H, Hopfel I: [Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency in a child with persistent lactic acidosis]. J Clin Chem Clin Biochem. 1985 Jun;23(6):323-9. [PubMed:3926941 ]
  4. Koike K, Koike M: Fluorescent analysis of alpha-keto acids in serum and urine by high-performance liquid chromatography. Anal Biochem. 1984 Sep;141(2):481-7. [PubMed:6437276 ]
  5. Zupke C, Sinskey AJ, Stephanopoulos G: Intracellular flux analysis applied to the effect of dissolved oxygen on hybridomas. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 1995 Dec;44(1-2):27-36. [PubMed:8579834 ]
  6. Esenmo E, Chandramouli V, Schumann WC, Kumaran K, Wahren J, Landau BR: Use of 14CO2 in estimating rates of hepatic gluconeogenesis. Am J Physiol. 1992 Jul;263(1 Pt 1):E36-41. [PubMed:1322046 ]
  7. Petrarulo M, Facchini P, Cerelli E, Marangella M, Linari F: Citrate in urine determined with a new citrate lyase method. Clin Chem. 1995 Oct;41(10):1518-21. [PubMed:7586527 ]
  8. Sperl W, Maurer H, Dworschak E, Hopfel I, Hammerer I: [Lactic acid acidosis with mitochondrial myopathy due to a pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency]. Padiatr Padol. 1985;20(1):55-67. [PubMed:3919358 ]
  9. Olubuyide IO, Festing MF, Chapman C, Higginson J, Whicher JT: Discriminant analysis of biochemical parameters in liver disease. Trop Gastroenterol. 1997 Jan-Mar;18(1):15-9. [PubMed:9197166 ]
  10. Rabinovich PD, Miliushkin PV: [Content of biological oxidation metabolites in the blood and urine of peptic ulcer patients]. Vopr Med Khim. 1979 Nov-Dec;25(6):755-8. [PubMed:516538 ]
  11. Schauenstein E, Kronberger L, Schaur RJ, Fink E, Georgiopulos E: [Malate and oxaloacetate levels in whole blood of patients with and without malignant tumor diseases]. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 1973 Jun 29;85(26):478-82. [PubMed:4717666 ]
  12. Sweatman BC, Farrant RD, Holmes E, Ghauri FY, Nicholson JK, Lindon JC: 600 MHz 1H-NMR spectroscopy of human cerebrospinal fluid: effects of sample manipulation and assignment of resonances. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 1993 Aug;11(8):651-64. [PubMed:8257730 ]
  13. Allen RH, Stabler SP, Savage DG, Lindenbaum J: Elevation of 2-methylcitric acid I and II levels in serum, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with cobalamin deficiency. Metabolism. 1993 Aug;42(8):978-88. [PubMed:8345822 ]
  14. Wong LT, Davidson AG, Applegarth DA, Dimmick JE, Norman MG, Toone JR, Pirie G, Wong J: Biochemical and histologic pathology in an infant with cross-reacting material (negative) pyruvate carboxylase deficiency. Pediatr Res. 1986 Mar;20(3):274-9. [PubMed:3085060 ]
  15. Wilkins HM, Harris JL, Carl SM, E L, Lu J, Eva Selfridge J, Roy N, Hutfles L, Koppel S, Morris J, Burns JM, Michaelis ML, Michaelis EK, Brooks WM, Swerdlow RH: Oxaloacetate activates brain mitochondrial biogenesis, enhances the insulin pathway, reduces inflammation and stimulates neurogenesis. Hum Mol Genet. 2014 Dec 15;23(24):6528-41. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddu371. Epub 2014 Jul 15. [PubMed:25027327 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 17 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in ATP citrate synthase activity
Specific function:
ATP citrate-lyase is the primary enzyme responsible for the synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-CoA in many tissues. Has a central role in de novo lipid synthesis. In nervous tissue it may be involved in the biosynthesis of acetylcholine.
Gene Name:
ACLY
Uniprot ID:
P53396
Molecular weight:
120838.27
Reactions
ADP + Phosphate + Acetyl-CoA + Oxalacetic acid → Adenosine triphosphate + Citric acid + Coenzyme Adetails
Adenosine triphosphate + Citric acid + Coenzyme A → ADP + Phosphate + Acetyl-CoA + Oxalacetic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Pyruvate carboxylase catalyzes a 2-step reaction, involving the ATP-dependent carboxylation of the covalently attached biotin in the first step and the transfer of the carboxyl group to pyruvate in the second. Catalyzes in a tissue specific manner, the initial reactions of glucose (liver, kidney) and lipid (adipose tissue, liver, brain) synthesis from pyruvate.
Gene Name:
PC
Uniprot ID:
P11498
Molecular weight:
129632.565
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Pyruvic acid + Hydrogen carbonate → ADP + Phosphate + Oxalacetic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring acyl groups, acyl groups converted into alkyl on transfer
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
CS
Uniprot ID:
O75390
Molecular weight:
51712.025
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + Water + Oxalacetic acid → Citric acid + Coenzyme Adetails
Citric acid + Coenzyme A → Acetyl-CoA + Water + Oxalacetic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in D-amino-acid oxidase activity
Specific function:
Selectively catalyzes the oxidative deamination of D-aspartate and its N-methylated derivative, N-methyl D-aspartate.
Gene Name:
DDO
Uniprot ID:
Q99489
Molecular weight:
40992.53
Reactions
D-Aspartic acid + Water + Oxygen → Oxalacetic acid + Ammonia + Hydrogen peroxidedetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
Specific function:
Plays a key role in amino acid metabolism (By similarity).
Gene Name:
GOT1
Uniprot ID:
P17174
Molecular weight:
46247.14
Reactions
L-Aspartic acid + Oxoglutaric acid → Oxalacetic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
Specific function:
Catalyzes the irreversible transamination of the L-tryptophan metabolite L-kynurenine to form kynurenic acid (KA). Plays a key role in amino acid metabolism. Important for metabolite exchange between mitochondria and cytosol. Facilitates cellular uptake of long-chain free fatty acids.
Gene Name:
GOT2
Uniprot ID:
P00505
Molecular weight:
47517.285
Reactions
L-Aspartic acid + Oxoglutaric acid → Oxalacetic acid + L-Glutamic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ME1
Uniprot ID:
P48163
Molecular weight:
64149.075
Reactions
Oxalacetic acid → Pyruvic acid + CO(2)details
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
MDH2
Uniprot ID:
P40926
Molecular weight:
35502.935
Reactions
Malic acid + NAD → Oxalacetic acid + NADHdetails
Malic acid + NAD → Oxalacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ME3
Uniprot ID:
Q16798
Molecular weight:
67067.875
Reactions
Oxalacetic acid → Pyruvic acid + CO(2)details
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity, acting on the CH-OH group of donors, NAD or NADP as acceptor
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
MDH1
Uniprot ID:
P40925
Molecular weight:
38627.255
Reactions
Malic acid + NAD → Oxalacetic acid + NADHdetails
Malic acid + NAD → Oxalacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 17 proteins in total.