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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2020-10-09 20:58:35 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000229
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00229
  • HMDB0059645
  • HMDB59645
Metabolite Identification
Common NameNicotinamide ribotide
DescriptionNicotinamide ribotide (NMN) (CAS: 1094-61-7) is an important intermediate metabolite in the nicotinate and nicotinamide metabolism pathway. Mammals predominantly use nicotinamide rather than nicotinic acid as a precursor for NAD biosynthesis. Instead of the deamidation into nicotinic acid, nicotinamide is directly converted into NMN by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT, EC 2.4.2.12). The enzyme nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNAT, EC 2.7.7.1), which is a member of the nucleotidyltransferase alpha/beta-phosphodiesterase superfamily, catalyzes the reaction NMN + ATP <=> nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) + PPi, representing the final step in the biosynthesis of NAD. NAD is a molecule that plays a fundamental role as a cofactor in cellular redox reactions. Thus NMN is an important metabolite for the maintenance of normal NAD biosynthesis. Circulating NMN levels may play an important role in regulating cell function in physiological and pathophysiological conditions (PMID: 15078171 , 17983582 ).
Structure
Data?1595019045
Synonyms
ValueSource
b-Nicotinamide D-ribonucleotideGenerator
β-Nicotinamide D-ribonucleotideGenerator
Mononucleotide, nicotinamideMeSH
Nicotinamide mononucleotideMeSH
3-(Aminocarbonyl)-1-(5-O-phosphono-beta-D-ribofuranosyl)pyridiniumHMDB
3-(Aminocarbonyl)-1-(5-O-phosphono-β-D-ribofuranosyl)pyridiniumHMDB
NMNHMDB
Nicotinamide ribonucleoside 5'-phosphateHMDB
Nicotinamide ribonucleoside 5’-phosphateHMDB
Nicotinamide ribonucleotideHMDB
Nicotinamide ribotideHMDB
beta-D-NMNHMDB
beta-NMNHMDB
beta-Nicotinamide D-ribonucleotideHMDB
beta-Nicotinamide mononucleotideHMDB
beta-Nicotinamide nucleotideHMDB
beta-Nicotinamide ribonucleotideHMDB
β-D-NMNHMDB
β-NMNHMDB
β-Nicotinamide mononucleotideHMDB
β-Nicotinamide nucleotideHMDB
β-Nicotinamide ribonucleotideHMDB
Chemical FormulaC11H16N2O8P
Average Molecular Weight335.2271
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight335.06442701
IUPAC Name3-carbamoyl-1-[(2R,3R,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-[(phosphonooxy)methyl]oxolan-2-yl]-1lambda5-pyridin-1-ylium
Traditional Name3-carbamoyl-1-[(2R,3R,4S,5R)-3,4-dihydroxy-5-[(phosphonooxy)methyl]oxolan-2-yl]-1lambda5-pyridin-1-ylium
CAS Registry Number75414-16-3
SMILES
NC(=O)C1=C[N+](=CC=C1)[C@@H]1O[C@H](COP(O)(O)=O)[C@@H](O)[C@H]1O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C11H15N2O8P/c12-10(16)6-2-1-3-13(4-6)11-9(15)8(14)7(21-11)5-20-22(17,18)19/h1-4,7-9,11,14-15H,5H2,(H3-,12,16,17,18,19)/p+1/t7-,8-,9-,11-/m1/s1
InChI KeyDAYLJWODMCOQEW-TURQNECASA-O
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as nicotinamide nucleotides. These are pyridine nucleotides, in which the pyridine base is nicotinamide or a derivative thereof.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassNucleosides, nucleotides, and analogues
ClassPyridine nucleotides
Sub ClassNicotinamide nucleotides
Direct ParentNicotinamide nucleotides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Nicotinamide-nucleotide
  • Pentose phosphate
  • Pentose-5-phosphate
  • Glycosyl compound
  • N-glycosyl compound
  • Monosaccharide phosphate
  • Pentose monosaccharide
  • Nicotinamide
  • Pyridine carboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Monoalkyl phosphate
  • Monosaccharide
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • Phosphoric acid ester
  • Alkyl phosphate
  • Pyridine
  • Pyridinium
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Tetrahydrofuran
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Primary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxamide group
  • 1,2-diol
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Azacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Oxacycle
  • Alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic cation
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility4.16 g/LALOGPS
logP-1.5ALOGPS
logP-6.2ChemAxon
logS-2.3ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.21ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.6ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count7ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count5ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area163.42 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity71.71 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability29.05 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00tb-5902000000-fcee9746cbbfd4c7b910Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-000b-9321310000-a76824e42fa52329c65eSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-1009000000-5f50c20045d0b9493f33Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-004j-5219000000-3b516421e6f26f4266eeSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0005-9500000000-4760ef36c1253b7200ebSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-2009000000-388bca4c5bcdaaf421c3Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-002b-9001000000-1dc8f508da2995c85814Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-b190037f5b434f05678bSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
  • Nucleus
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Placenta
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot Available
Normal
      Not Available
details
UrineDetected and Quantified66.67 - 133.33 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)FemaleEpithelial ovarian cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified133.33 - 600 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Sodium nitrate consumption
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Sodium nitrate consumption
  1. Jansen EH, van den Berg RH, Boink AB, Hegger C, Meulenbelt J: A new physiological biomarker for nitrate exposure in humans. Toxicol Lett. 1995 May;77(1-3):265-9. [PubMed:7618150 ]
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB021912
KNApSAcK IDC00019694
Chemspider ID13554
KEGG Compound IDC00455
BioCyc IDNICOTINAMIDE_NUCLEOTIDE
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound14181
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID14648
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDMDB00000111
References
Synthesis ReferenceLiu, Rihe; Visscher, Johannes. A novel preparation of nicotinamide mononucleotide. Nucleosides & Nucleotides (1994), 13(5), 1215-16.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Ohdoi C, Nyhan WL, Kuhara T: Chemical diagnosis of Lesch-Nyhan syndrome using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2003 Jul 15;792(1):123-30. [PubMed:12829005 ]
  2. Schuberth J: Volatile compounds detected in blood of drunk drivers by headspace/capillary gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry. Biol Mass Spectrom. 1991 Nov;20(11):699-702. [PubMed:1799580 ]
  3. Emanuelli M, Raffaelli N, Amici A, Balducci E, Natalini P, Ruggieri S, Magni G: The antitumor drug, 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitroso-urea, inactivates human nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase. Biochem Pharmacol. 1995 Feb 14;49(4):575-9. [PubMed:7872964 ]
  4. Moriya F, Hashimoto Y: Postmortem production of ethanol and n-propanol in the brain of drowned persons. Am J Forensic Med Pathol. 2004 Jun;25(2):131-3. [PubMed:15166764 ]
  5. Magni G, Amici A, Emanuelli M, Orsomando G, Raffaelli N, Ruggieri S: Structure and function of nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase. Curr Med Chem. 2004 Apr;11(7):873-85. [PubMed:15078171 ]
  6. Revollo JR, Korner A, Mills KF, Satoh A, Wang T, Garten A, Dasgupta B, Sasaki Y, Wolberger C, Townsend RR, Milbrandt J, Kiess W, Imai S: Nampt/PBEF/Visfatin regulates insulin secretion in beta cells as a systemic NAD biosynthetic enzyme. Cell Metab. 2007 Nov;6(5):363-75. [PubMed:17983582 ]
  7. Elshenawy S, Pinney SE, Stuart T, Doulias PT, Zura G, Parry S, Elovitz MA, Bennett MJ, Bansal A, Strauss JF 3rd, Ischiropoulos H, Simmons RA: The Metabolomic Signature of the Placenta in Spontaneous Preterm Birth. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Feb 4;21(3). pii: ijms21031043. doi: 10.3390/ijms21031043. [PubMed:32033212 ]

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 16 proteins in total.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in hydrolase activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes extracellular nucleotides into membrane permeable nucleosides.
Gene Name:
NT5E
Uniprot ID:
P21589
Molecular weight:
57948.125
Reactions
Nicotinamide ribotide + Water → Nicotinamide riboside + Phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of deoxyribonucleotides. Helps to regulate adenosine levels (By similarity).
Gene Name:
NT5C1B
Uniprot ID:
Q96P26
Molecular weight:
68803.055
Reactions
Nicotinamide ribotide + Water → Nicotinamide riboside + Phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of deoxyribonucleotides and has a broad substrate specificity. Helps to regulate adenosine levels in heart during ischemia and hypoxia.
Gene Name:
NT5C1A
Uniprot ID:
Q9BXI3
Molecular weight:
41020.145
Reactions
Nicotinamide ribotide + Water → Nicotinamide riboside + Phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in metal ion binding
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of deoxyribonucleotides, with a preference for dUMP and dTMP, intermediate activity towards dGMP, and low activity towards dCMP and dAMP.
Gene Name:
NT5C
Uniprot ID:
Q8TCD5
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Nicotinamide ribotide + Water → Nicotinamide riboside + Phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in phosphatase activity
Specific function:
Dephosphorylates specifically the 5' and 2'(3')-phosphates of uracil and thymine deoxyribonucleotides, and so protects mitochondrial DNA replication from excess dTTP. Has only marginal activity towards dIMP and dGMP.
Gene Name:
NT5M
Uniprot ID:
Q9NPB1
Molecular weight:
Not Available
Reactions
Nicotinamide ribotide + Water → Nicotinamide riboside + Phosphatedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Involved primarily in ATP hydrolysis at the plasma membrane. Plays a role in regulating pyrophosphate levels, and functions in bone mineralization and soft tissue calcification. In vitro, has a broad specificity, hydrolyzing other nucleoside 5' triphosphates such as GTP, CTP, TTP and UTP to their corresponding monophosphates with release of pyrophosphate and diadenosine polyphosphates, and also 3',5'-cAMP to AMP. May also be involved in the regulation of the availability of nucleotide sugars in the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi, and the regulation of purinergic signaling. Appears to modulate insulin sensitivity.
Gene Name:
ENPP1
Uniprot ID:
P22413
Molecular weight:
104923.58
Reactions
NAD + Water → Adenosine monophosphate + Nicotinamide ribotidedetails
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Cleaves a variety of phosphodiester and phosphosulfate bonds including deoxynucleotides, nucleotide sugars, and NAD (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ENPP3
Uniprot ID:
O14638
Molecular weight:
100123.54
Reactions
NAD + Water → Adenosine monophosphate + Nicotinamide ribotidedetails
General function:
Involved in nucleotidyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of NAD(+) from nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) and ATP. Can also use the deamidated form; nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN) as substrate with the same efficiency. Can use triazofurin monophosphate (TrMP) as substrate. Also catalyzes the reverse reaction, i.e. the pyrophosphorolytic cleavage of NAD(+). For the pyrophosphorolytic activity, prefers NAD(+) and NAAD as substrates and degrades NADH, nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NHD) and nicotinamide guanine dinucleotide (NGD) less effectively. Fails to cleave phosphorylated dinucleotides NADP(+), NADPH and NAADP(+). Protects against axonal degeneration following mechanical or toxic insults.
Gene Name:
NMNAT1
Uniprot ID:
Q9HAN9
Molecular weight:
31932.22
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Nicotinamide ribotide → Pyrophosphate + NADdetails
General function:
Involved in nucleotidyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of NAD(+) from nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) and ATP. Can also use the deamidated form; nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN) as substrate with the same efficiency. Can use triazofurin monophosphate (TrMP) as substrate. Can also use GTP and ITP as nucleotide donors. Also catalyzes the reverse reaction, i.e. the pyrophosphorolytic cleavage of NAD(+). For the pyrophosphorolytic activity, can use NAD (+), NADH, NAAD, nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NHD), nicotinamide guanine dinucleotide (NGD) as substrates. Fails to cleave phosphorylated dinucleotides NADP(+), NADPH and NAADP(+). Protects against axonal degeneration following injury.
Gene Name:
NMNAT3
Uniprot ID:
Q96T66
Molecular weight:
18255.08
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Nicotinamide ribotide → Pyrophosphate + NADdetails
General function:
Involved in nucleotidyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the formation of NAD(+) from nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) and ATP. Can also use the deamidated form; nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN) as substrate but with a lower efficiency. Cannot use triazofurin monophosphate (TrMP) as substrate. Also catalyzes the reverse reaction, i.e. the pyrophosphorolytic cleavage of NAD(+). For the pyrophosphorolytic activity prefers NAD(+), NADH and NAAD as substrates and degrades nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NHD) less effectively. Fails to cleave phosphorylated dinucleotides NADP(+), NADPH and NAADP(+).
Gene Name:
NMNAT2
Uniprot ID:
Q9BZQ4
Molecular weight:
34438.38
Reactions
Adenosine triphosphate + Nicotinamide ribotide → Pyrophosphate + NADdetails

Only showing the first 10 proteins. There are 16 proteins in total.