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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2020-02-26 21:22:14 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000484
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00484
Metabolite Identification
Common NameVanillic acid
DescriptionVanillic acid is a phenolic acid found in some forms of vanilla and many other plant extracts. It is a flavouring and scent agent that produces a pleasant, creamy odour. It is the intermediate product in the two-step bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin (J Biotechnol 1996;50(2-3):107-13). Vanillic acid, which is a chlorogenic acid, is an oxidized form of vanillin. It is also an intermediate in the production of vanillin from ferulic acid. Vanillic acid is a metabolic byproduct of caffeic acid and is often found in the urine of humans who have consumed coffee, chocolate, tea, and vanilla-flavoured confectionary. Vanillic acid selectively and specifically inhibits 5'nucleotidase activity (PMID: 16899266 ). Vanillic acid is a microbial metabolite found in Amycolatopsis, Delftia, and Pseudomonas (PMID: 11152072 , 10543794 , 11728709 , 9579070 ).
Structure
Data?1582752134
Synonyms
ValueSource
4-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acidChEBI
4-Hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoateKegg
VanillateGenerator
3-Methoxy-4-hydroxybenzoateHMDB
3-Methoxy-4-hydroxybenzoic acidHMDB
4-Hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzoateHMDB
4-Hydroxy-3-methoxy-benzoic acidHMDB
4-Hydroxy-m-anisateHMDB
4-Hydroxy-m-anisic acidHMDB
Acide vanilliqueHMDB
p-VanillateHMDB
p-Vanillic acidHMDB
Protocatechuic acid 3-methyl esterHMDB
Acid, 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoicHMDB
p Hydroxy m methoxy benzoic acidHMDB
4 Hydroxy 3 methoxybenzoic acidHMDB
Acid, vanillicHMDB
Acid, p-hydroxy-m-methoxy-benzoicHMDB
p-Hydroxy-m-methoxy-benzoic acidHMDB
Vanillic acidKEGG
Chemical FormulaC8H8O4
Average Molecular Weight168.148
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight168.042258738
IUPAC Name4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid
Traditional Namevanillic acid
CAS Registry Number121-34-6
SMILES
COC1=C(O)C=CC(=C1)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C8H8O4/c1-12-7-4-5(8(10)11)2-3-6(7)9/h2-4,9H,1H3,(H,10,11)
InChI KeyWKOLLVMJNQIZCI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as m-methoxybenzoic acids and derivatives. These are benzoic acids in which the hydrogen atom at position 3 of the benzene ring is replaced by a methoxy group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzoic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentM-methoxybenzoic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • M-methoxybenzoic acid or derivatives
  • Hydroxybenzoic acid
  • Methoxyphenol
  • Benzoic acid
  • Anisole
  • Phenoxy compound
  • Benzoyl
  • Phenol ether
  • Methoxybenzene
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Phenol
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Ether
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point211.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility1.5 mg/mL at 14 °CYALKOWSKY,SH & DANNENFELSER,RM (1992)
LogP1.43HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility5.7 g/LALOGPS
logP1.7ALOGPS
logP1.17ChemAxon
logS-1.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.16ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area66.76 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity41.76 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability15.86 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0hp2-2691000000-8409d9c758b023c6576bSpectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0gb9-2900000000-ccd8d4a214bc1a7f08c5Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0hp2-2691000000-8409d9c758b023c6576bSpectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-0g0b-2981000000-a58243e35d1e3a64d2aaSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0g4i-1900000000-851f4a1738be8dd91d47Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00dj-7390000000-18c5f822b380ea00aa26Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0gb9-0900000000-0aa6709c16899e222086Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-9aa2b9d4aa89e6ac12abSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0a4i-0900000000-6d98ebfa89f4b8ee1e6bSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - EI-B (HITACHI M-80) , Positivesplash10-0gb9-2900000000-babed327a6e49c6f7d51Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-105f33777cee542cf6dfSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-05fr-1900000000-a502792703fa2f211035Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-0a4l-5900000000-037ef32f4c68a5252b92Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9800000000-ecd60ac022f5fee1d5efSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-066u-9300000000-c63f7f792794f3c748a0Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF , Negativesplash10-014i-0923211100-7e9f357f7429cff05524Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 20V, Negativesplash10-014i-0923211100-7e9f357f7429cff05524Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF , Negativesplash10-0a4i-0429110000-57f8760ce65d48cdc01fSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0429110000-57f8760ce65d48cdc01fSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF , Negativesplash10-014i-0923211100-7e9f357f7429cff05524Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0900000000-8e112ffa4dcc7c08b0fdSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF , Negativesplash10-0a4i-0429110000-57f8760ce65d48cdc01fSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - ESI-TOF 10V, Negativesplash10-0uxr-0900000000-29a2674dccd1fa478bd5Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-105f33777cee542cf6dfSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-05fr-1900000000-c4ce596998934098267bSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-342964fa3647815dd1d2Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0uxr-0900000000-f16c365899f9d95733d3Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0zfs-5900000000-e5593db0a935e1534bc6Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-6a1a2db582acd95348eaSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0600-0900000000-eda6cfe601d63ed00f8dSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-6900000000-b2c1e3f6b255e94a10afSpectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0gb9-6900000000-c13506201c3612fc7ca5Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR13C NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified4.8 (2.0-8.1) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.099-8.712 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.272 +/- 0.036 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.248 +/- 0.026 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.295 +/- 0.036 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.314 +/- 0.043 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.255 +/- 0.024 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.245 +/- 0.027 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.229 +/- 0.024 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.901 +/- 0.71 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 414 details
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 414 details
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 414 details
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 414 details
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 414 details
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 414 details
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 414 details
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 414 details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Not SpecifiedBoth
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified5.828 +/- 3.0925 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified6.423 +/- 13.857 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified6.542 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified6.661 +/- 4.996 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified2.878 (2.290-4.805) nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 414 details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 414 details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 414 details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 414 details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 414 details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 414 details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 414 details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 414 details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified11.2 +/- 3.2 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.43 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0750-19.200 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.991 +/- 3.942 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.6 (0.6-3.3) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.596 +/- 0.131 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.855 +/- 0.512 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.0 (0.0-2.5) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.574 +/- 0.184 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Hypertension (mild)
details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Hypertension (mild)
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.45 +/- 1.002 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Colorectal cancer
  1. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Eosinophilic esophagitis
  1. (). Mordechai, Hien, and David S. Wishart. .
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound ID414
FooDB IDFDB000846
KNApSAcK IDC00002682
Chemspider ID8155
KEGG Compound IDC06672
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkVanillic acid
METLIN ID5471
PubChem Compound8468
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID30816
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferencePearl, Irwin A. Reactions of vanillin and its derived compounds. I. The reaction of vanillin with silver oxide. Journal of the American Chemical Society (1946), 68 429-32.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Ebinger G, Verheyden R: On the occurence of vanillic acid in human brain and cerebrospinal fluid. J Neurol. 1976 Apr 23;212(2):133-8. [PubMed:57225 ]
  2. Lee BL, New AL, Kok PW, Ong HY, Shi CY, Ong CN: Urinary trans,trans-muconic acid determined by liquid chromatography: application in biological monitoring of benzene exposure. Clin Chem. 1993 Sep;39(9):1788-92. [PubMed:8375048 ]
  3. Muskiet FA, Groen A: Urinary excretion of conjugated homovanillic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and vanillic acid by persons on their usual diet and patients with neuroblastoma. Clin Chem. 1979 Jul;25(7):1281-4. [PubMed:455649 ]
  4. Dhananjaya BL, Nataraju A, Rajesh R, Raghavendra Gowda CD, Sharath BK, Vishwanath BS, D'Souza CJ: Anticoagulant effect of Naja naja venom 5'nucleotidase: demonstration through the use of novel specific inhibitor, vanillic acid. Toxicon. 2006 Sep 15;48(4):411-21. Epub 2006 Jul 7. [PubMed:16899266 ]
  5. Achterholt S, Priefert H, Steinbuchel A: Identification of Amycolatopsis sp. strain HR167 genes, involved in the bioconversion of ferulic acid to vanillin. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2000 Dec;54(6):799-807. [PubMed:11152072 ]
  6. Overhage J, Priefert H, Steinbuchel A: Biochemical and genetic analyses of ferulic acid catabolism in Pseudomonas sp. Strain HR199. Appl Environ Microbiol. 1999 Nov;65(11):4837-47. [PubMed:10543794 ]
  7. Plaggenborg R, Steinbuchel A, Priefert H: The coenzyme A-dependent, non-beta-oxidation pathway and not direct deacetylation is the major route for ferulic acid degradation in Delftia acidovorans. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2001 Nov 27;205(1):9-16. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2001.tb10918.x. [PubMed:11728709 ]
  8. Venturi V, Zennaro F, Degrassi G, Okeke BC, Bruschi CV: Genetics of ferulic acid bioconversion to protocatechuic acid in plant-growth-promoting Pseudomonas putida WCS358. Microbiology. 1998 Apr;144 ( Pt 4):965-73. doi: 10.1099/00221287-144-4-965. [PubMed:9579070 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone.
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular weight:
59590.91
Reactions
Vanillic acid → 6-(4-carboxy-2-methoxyphenoxy)-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxane-2-carboxylic aciddetails
Vanillic acid → 3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoyloxy)oxane-2-carboxylic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Mitochondrial acyltransferase which transfers an acyl group to the N-terminus of glycine and glutamine, although much less efficiently. Can conjugate numerous substrates to form a variety of N-acylglycines, with a preference for benzoyl-CoA over phenylacetyl-CoA as acyl donors. Thereby detoxify xenobiotics, such as benzoic acid or salicylic acid, and endogenous organic acids, such as isovaleric acid.
Gene Name:
GLYAT
Uniprot ID:
Q6IB77
Molecular weight:
18506.33
Reactions
Vanillic acid → Vanilloylglycinedetails
General function:
sulfotransferase activity
Specific function:
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfate conjugation of phenolic monoamines (neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin) and phenolic and catechol drugs.
Gene Name:
SULT1A3
Uniprot ID:
P0DMM9
Molecular weight:
34195.96
Reactions
Vanillic acid → Vanillic acid 4-O-sulfatedetails