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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2021-10-13 04:29:03 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000500
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00500
Metabolite Identification
Common Name4-Hydroxybenzoic acid
Description4-Hydroxybenzoic acid, also known as p-hydroxybenzoate or 4-carboxyphenol, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives. Hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives are compounds containing a hydroxybenzoic acid (or a derivative), which is a benzene ring bearing a carboxyl and a hydroxyl groups. 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid is a white crystalline solid that is slightly soluble in water and chloroform but more soluble in polar organic solvents such as alcohols and acetone. It is a nutty and phenolic tasting compound. 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to plants to humans. 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid can be found naturally in coconut. It is one of the main catechins metabolites found in humans after consumption of green tea infusions. It is also found in wine, in vanilla, in Açaí oil, obtained from the fruit of the açaí palm (Euterpe oleracea), at relatively high concetrations (892±52 mg/kg). It is also found in cloudy olive oil and in the edible mushroom Russula virescens. It has been detected in red huckleberries, rabbiteye blueberries, and corianders and in a lower concentration in olives, red raspberries, and almonds. In humans, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid is involved in ubiquinone biosynthesis. In particular, the enzyme 4-hydroxybenzoate polyprenyltransferase uses a polyprenyl diphosphate and 4-hydroxybenzoate to produce diphosphate and 4-hydroxy-3-polyprenylbenzoate. This enzyme participates in ubiquinone biosynthesis. 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid can be biosynthesized by the enzyme Chorismate lyase. Chorismate lyase is an enzyme that transforms chorismate into 4-hydroxybenzoate and pyruvate. This enzyme catalyses the first step in ubiquinone biosynthesis in Escherichia coli and other Gram-negative bacteria. 4-Hydroxybenzoate is an intermediate in many enzyme-mediated reactions in microbes. For instance, the enzyme 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde dehydrogenase uses 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, NAD+ and H2O to produce 4-hydroxybenzoate, NADH and H+. This enzyme participates in toluene and xylene degradation in bacteria such as Pseudomonas mendocina. 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde dehydrogenase is also found in carrots. The enzyme 4-hydroxybenzoate 1-hydroxylase transforms 4-hydroxybenzoate, NAD(P)H, 2 H+ and O2 into hydroquinone, NAD(P)+, H2O and CO2. This enzyme participates in 2,4-dichlorobenzoate degradation and is found in Candida parapsilosis. The enzyme 4-hydroxybenzoate 3-monooxygenase transforms 4-hydroxybenzoate, NADPH, H+ and O2 into protocatechuate, NADP+ and H2O. This enzyme participates in benzoate degradation via hydroxylation and 2,4-dichlorobenzoate degradation and is found in Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens. 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid is a popular antioxidant in part because of its low toxicity. 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid has estrogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo (PMID 9417843 ).
Structure
Data?1600190476
Synonyms
ValueSource
4-CarboxyphenolChEBI
p-HYDROXYBENZOIC ACIDChEBI
p-Salicylic acidChEBI
Hydroxybenzoic acidKegg
Hydroxybenzenecarboxylic acidKegg
p-HYDROXYBENZOateGenerator
p-SalicylateGenerator
HydroxybenzoateGenerator
HydroxybenzenecarboxylateGenerator
4-HydroxybenzoateGenerator
4-Hydroxy-benzoateHMDB
4-Hydroxy-benzoesaeureHMDB
4-Hydroxy-benzoic acidHMDB
p-CarboxyphenolHMDB
p-Hydroxy-benzoateHMDB
p-Hydroxy-benzoic acidHMDB
Paraben-acidHMDB
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid, calcium saltHMDB
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid, dilithium saltHMDB
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid, disodium saltHMDB
Para-hydroxybenzoic acidHMDB
Sodium p-hydroxybenzoate tetrahydrateHMDB
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid, copper(2+)(1:1) saltHMDB
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid, dipotassium saltHMDB
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid, monopotassium saltHMDB
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid, monosodium saltHMDB
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid, monosodium salt, 11C-labeledHMDB
4-Hydroxybenzene carboxylic acidHMDB
p-Hydroxyl benzoic acidHMDB
4-Hydroxybenzoic acidHMDB
Chemical FormulaC7H6O3
Average Molecular Weight138.122
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight138.031694053
IUPAC NameNot Available
Traditional NameNot Available
CAS Registry Number99-96-7
SMILESNot Available
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C7H6O3/c8-6-3-1-5(2-4-6)7(9)10/h1-4,8H,(H,9,10)
InChI KeyFJKROLUGYXJWQN-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives. Hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives are compounds containing a hydroxybenzoic acid (or a derivative), which is a benzene ring bearing a carboxyl and a hydroxyl groups.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassBenzoic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentHydroxybenzoic acid derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Hydroxybenzoic acid
  • Benzoic acid
  • Benzoyl
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Phenol
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Adverse health effect

Disposition

Biological location

Source

Route of exposure

Process

Naturally occurring process

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point213.00 to 215.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm HgThe Good Scents Company Information System
Boiling Point334.00 to 335.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm HgThe Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility5 mg/mLNot Available
LogP1.58HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Experimental Spectral Properties

Experimental Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeData SourceCCS Value (Å2)Reference
AllCCS[M-H]-Not Available121.1http://allccs.zhulab.cn/database/detail?ID=AllCCS00000292
Predicted Molecular PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Spectral Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DarkChem[M+H]+129.09131661259
DarkChem[M-H]-127.31531661259
AllCCS[M+H]+128.98132859911
AllCCS[M-H]-124.45632859911

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Derivatized

Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid,1TMS,#1C[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)C1=CC=C(O)C=C11590.9Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid,1TMS,#2C[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=C(C(=O)O)C=C11623.4Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid,2TMS,#1C[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)C1=CC=C(O[Si](C)(C)C)C=C11642.4Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid,1TBDMS,#1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)C1=CC=C(O)C=C11848.1Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid,1TBDMS,#2CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=C(C(=O)O)C=C11867.2Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid,2TBDMS,#1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)C1=CC=C(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C=C12141.0Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-01b9-0490000000-89473836b0071542185e2014-06-16HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (Non-derivatized)splash10-00xu-2890000000-dd5367ba838ccd5b29d82014-06-16HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-00di-9540000000-11db590137f79b7a32bf2014-06-16HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-00xu-3890000000-7e553522b6ec5c075e252014-06-16HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-00dr-5900000000-9b1d88421f1e1ded16f92017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9700000000-a9bb4b71d8b23a56ca672017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0079-6900000000-617d58eb059c1e918ca02017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-00dr-4900000000-97bfa38b0d6bc152d4702017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-00dr-7900000000-290af590b1fc44a869692017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-01b9-0490000000-d6001fb50397705d3e0b2017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-01b9-0490000000-89473836b0071542185e2017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00xu-2890000000-dd5367ba838ccd5b29d82017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00di-9540000000-11db590137f79b7a32bf2017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-00xu-3890000000-7e553522b6ec5c075e252017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00xu-2980000000-0ba0ea7d63bd7fff3b222017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0079-5900000000-fcde26d72ca8445dff7e2016-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00xu-7950000000-cc553d409cc2a872749d2017-10-06Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-00dr-6900000000-71548845dbf99346758d2015-03-01Not AvailableView Spectrum

NMR Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Experimental 2D NMR[1H, 1H]-TOCSY 2D NMR Spectrum (experimental)2012-12-04Wishart LabView Spectrum
Experimental 2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)2012-12-05Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Sweat
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 418 details
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 418 details
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 418 details
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 418 details
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 418 details
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 418 details
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 418 details
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot Available
Normal
      Not Available
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2.447 +/- 0.192 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2.423 +/- 0.19 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2.599 +/- 0.232 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2.73 +/- 0.226 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2.676 +/- 0.168 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2.387 +/- 0.158 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified2.326 +/- 0.221 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected and Quantified20.885 +/- 18.445 uMAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified4.996 +/- 4.923 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified5.358 +/- 5.575 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified6.516 +/- 5.647 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified8.326 +/- 10.136 nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedBoth
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified5.430 +/- 4.416 nmol/g wet fecesNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified1.441 (0.203-12.0690) nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified29.684 +/- 31.132 nmol/g wet fecesNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified30.23 +/- 31.32 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
SweatDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.346 +/- 1.104 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 418 details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 418 details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.7 (0.9-3.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 418 details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 418 details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 418 details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 418 details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 418 details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.39-0.75 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.751 +/- 2.414 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.8 (0.7-29) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.66+/- 1.18 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.8 +/- 1.8 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.36-0.57 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.291 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.230-5.900 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.0 (0.1-13.5) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.5 (0.1-2.8) umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.5 (0.7-13.7) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.6 (0.1-11.1) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.0 (0.6-4.2) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.717 +/- 0.196 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.4(1.3-3.6) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.5 +/- 0.22 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Supradiaphragmatic malignancy
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.988 +/- 2.795 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.158 +/- 2.557 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified8.201 +/- 12.712 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Hypertension (mild)
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Hypertension (mild)
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothBladder cancer details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Supradiaphragmatic malignancy
  1. Goudas LC, Langlade A, Serrie A, Matson W, Milbury P, Thurel C, Sandouk P, Carr DB: Acute decreases in cerebrospinal fluid glutathione levels after intracerebroventricular morphine for cancer pain. Anesth Analg. 1999 Nov;89(5):1209-15. [PubMed:10553836 ]
Colorectal cancer
  1. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
  2. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Eosinophilic esophagitis
  1. (). Mordechai, Hien, and David S. Wishart. .
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB04242
Phenol Explorer Compound ID418
FooDB IDFDB010508
KNApSAcK IDC00000856
Chemspider ID132
KEGG Compound IDC00156
BioCyc ID4-hydroxybenzoate
BiGG ID34069
Wikipedia Link4-Hydroxybenzoic_acid
METLIN ID5486
PubChem Compound135
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID30763
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH ID4HBZ
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDrw1040201
References
Synthesis ReferenceIvanov, G. E.; Slavcheva, L. Preparation, properties, and applications of p-hydroxy-benzoic acid. Khimiya i Industriya (1922-1988) (1966), 38(10), 458-63.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Guneral F, Bachmann C: Age-related reference values for urinary organic acids in a healthy Turkish pediatric population. Clin Chem. 1994 Jun;40(6):862-6. [PubMed:8087979 ]
  2. Soni MG, Taylor SL, Greenberg NA, Burdock GA: Evaluation of the health aspects of methyl paraben: a review of the published literature. Food Chem Toxicol. 2002 Oct;40(10):1335-73. [PubMed:12387298 ]
  3. Shibusawa H, Sano Y, Yamamoto T, Kambegawa A, Ohkawa T, Satoh N, Okinaga S, Arai K: A radioimmunoassay of serum 16alpha-hydroxypregnenolone with specific antiserum. Endocrinol Jpn. 1978 Apr;25(2):185-9. [PubMed:668632 ]
  4. Wiebe LI, Mercer JR, Ryan AJ: Urinary metabolites of 3,5-di-(1-[13C]methyl-1-methylethyl)4-hydroxytoluene (BHT-13C) in man. Drug Metab Dispos. 1978 May-Jun;6(3):296-302. [PubMed:26551 ]
  5. Sakurai M, Ohsako M, Nagano M, Nakamura C, Tsuzuki O, Ichikawa M, Matsumoto Y: [Effect of human serum albumin on transport of drugs through human erythrocyte membranes]. Yakugaku Zasshi. 1996 Aug;116(8):630-8. [PubMed:8831264 ]
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Enzymes

General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone.
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular weight:
59590.91
Reactions
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid → 6-(4-carboxyphenoxy)-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxane-2-carboxylic aciddetails
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid → 3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(4-hydroxybenzoyloxy)oxane-2-carboxylic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in prenyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the prenylation of para-hydroxybenzoate (PHB) with an all-trans polyprenyl group. Mediates the second step in the final reaction sequence of coenzyme Q (CoQ) biosynthesis, which is the condensation of the polyisoprenoid side chain with PHB.
Gene Name:
COQ2
Uniprot ID:
Q96H96
Molecular weight:
45593.67
Reactions
A polyprenyl diphosphate + 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid → Pyrophosphate + a 4-hydroxy-3-polyprenylbenzoatedetails
Geranyl-PP + 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid → 4-Hydroxy-3-polyprenylbenzoate + Pyrophosphatedetails
all-trans-Hexaprenyl diphosphate + 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid → 3-Hexaprenyl-4-hydroxybenzoic acid + Pyrophosphatedetails
Solanesyl-PP + 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid → Pyrophosphate + Prenyl benzoatedetails
General function:
Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Mitochondrial acyltransferase which transfers an acyl group to the N-terminus of glycine and glutamine, although much less efficiently. Can conjugate numerous substrates to form a variety of N-acylglycines, with a preference for benzoyl-CoA over phenylacetyl-CoA as acyl donors. Thereby detoxify xenobiotics, such as benzoic acid or salicylic acid, and endogenous organic acids, such as isovaleric acid.
Gene Name:
GLYAT
Uniprot ID:
Q6IB77
Molecular weight:
18506.33
Reactions
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid → 4-Hydroxyhippuric aciddetails
General function:
sulfotransferase activity
Specific function:
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfate conjugation of phenolic monoamines (neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin) and phenolic and catechol drugs.
Gene Name:
SULT1A3
Uniprot ID:
P0DMM9
Molecular weight:
34195.96
Reactions
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid → 4-hydroxybenzoic acid-4-O-sulphatedetails