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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2021-09-07 16:24:42 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000532
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00532
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAcetylglycine
DescriptionN-Acetyl-glycine or N-Acetylglycine, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as N-acyl-alpha amino acids. N-acyl-alpha amino acids are compounds containing an alpha amino acid which bears an acyl group at its terminal nitrogen atom. N-Acetylglycine can also be classified as an alpha amino acid or a derivatized alpha amino acid. Technically, N-Acetylglycine is a biologically available N-terminal capped form of the proteinogenic alpha amino acid glycine. N-acetyl amino acids can be produced either via direct synthesis of specific N-acetyltransferases or via the proteolytic degradation of N-acetylated proteins by specific hydrolases. N-terminal acetylation of proteins is a widespread and highly conserved process in eukaryotes that is involved in protection and stability of proteins (PMID: 16465618 ). About 85% of all human proteins and 68% of all yeast proteins are acetylated at their N-terminus (PMID: 21750686 ). Several proteins from prokaryotes and archaea are also modified by N-terminal acetylation. The majority of eukaryotic N-terminal-acetylation reactions occur through N-acetyltransferase enzymes or NAT’s (PMID: 30054468 ). These enzymes consist of three main oligomeric complexes NatA, NatB, and NatC, which are composed of at least a unique catalytic subunit and one unique ribosomal anchor. The substrate specificities of different NAT enzymes are mainly determined by the identities of the first two N-terminal residues of the target protein. The human NatA complex co-translationally acetylates N-termini that bear a small amino acid (A, S, T, C, and occasionally V and G) (PMID: 30054468 ). NatA also exists in a monomeric state and can post-translationally acetylate acidic N-termini residues (D-, E-). NatB and NatC acetylate N-terminal methionine with further specificity determined by the identity of the second amino acid. N-acetylated amino acids, such as N-acetylglycine can be released by an N-acylpeptide hydrolase from peptides generated by proteolytic degradation (PMID: 16465618 ). In addition to the NAT enzymes and protein-based acetylation, N-acetylation of free glycine can also occur. In particular, N-Acetylglycine can be biosynthesized from glycine and acetyl-CoA by the enzyme glycine N-acyltransferase (GLYAT) (EC 2.3.1.13). Excessive amounts N-acetyl amino acids including N-acetylglycine (as well as N-acetylserine, N-acetylglutamine, N-acetylglutamate, N-acetylalanine, Nacetylmethionine and smaller amounts of N-acetylthreonine, N-acetylleucine, N-acetylvaline and N-acetylisoleucine) can be detected in the urine with individuals with acylase I deficiency, a genetic disorder (PMID: 16465618 ). Aminoacylase I is a soluble homodimeric zinc binding enzyme that catalyzes the formation of free aliphatic amino acids from N-acetylated precursors. In humans, Aminoacylase I is encoded by the aminoacylase 1 gene (ACY1) on chromosome 3p21 that consists of 15 exons (OMIM 609924 ). Individuals with aminoacylase I deficiency will experience convulsions, hearing loss and difficulty feeding (PMID: 16465618 ). ACY1 can also catalyze the reverse reaction, the synthesis of acetylated amino acids. Many N-acetylamino acids, including N-acetylglycine, are classified as uremic toxins if present in high abundance in the serum or plasma (PMID: 26317986 ; PMID: 20613759 ). Uremic toxins are a diverse group of endogenously produced molecules that, if not properly cleared or eliminated by the kidneys, can cause kidney damage, cardiovascular disease and neurological deficits (PMID: 18287557 ).
Structure
Data?1582752137
Synonyms
ValueSource
Ac-gly-OHChEBI
Acetamidoacetic acidChEBI
Aceturic acidChEBI
Acetylamino-acetic acidChEBI
Acetylaminoacetic acidChEBI
Ethanoylaminoethanoic acidChEBI
AcetamidoacetateGenerator
AcetateGenerator
Acetic acidGenerator
Acetylamino-acetateGenerator
AcetylaminoacetateGenerator
EthanoylaminoethanoateGenerator
15N-Acetylglycine a-radicalHMDB
2-AcetamidoacetateHMDB
2-Acetamidoacetic acidHMDB
Ac glyHMDB
AceturateHMDB
AcetylglycocollHMDB
N-Acetyl-glycineHMDB
N-AcetylglycineHMDB
N-Acetylglycine sodium saltHMDB
AcetylglycinateHMDB
AcetylglycineChEBI
Chemical FormulaC4H7NO3
Average Molecular Weight117.1033
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight117.042593095
IUPAC Name2-acetamidoacetic acid
Traditional Nameaceturate
CAS Registry Number543-24-8
SMILES
CC(=O)NCC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C4H7NO3/c1-3(6)5-2-4(7)8/h2H2,1H3,(H,5,6)(H,7,8)
InChI KeyOKJIRPAQVSHGFK-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as n-acyl-alpha amino acids. N-acyl-alpha amino acids are compounds containing an alpha amino acid which bears an acyl group at its terminal nitrogen atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentN-acyl-alpha amino acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • N-acyl-alpha-amino acid
  • Carboximidic acid
  • Carboximidic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Source:

Biological location:

Role

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point207 - 209 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility26.3 mg/mL at 15 °CNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility51.3 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.89ALOGPS
logP-1.3ChemAxon
logS-0.36ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.77ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area66.4 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity25.45 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability10.69 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Spectral Properties

Collision Cross Sections

NameAdductTypeData SourceValueReference
DarkChem[M+H]+PredictedNot Available123.93931661259
DarkChem[M-H]-PredictedNot Available118.38431661259
AllCCS[M+H]+PredictedNot Available128.11932859911
AllCCS[M-H]-PredictedNot Available124.06232859911

Retention Indices

Underivatized

Not Available

Derivatized

DerivativeValueReference
Acetylglycine,1TMS,#11282.7444https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Acetylglycine,1TMS,#21303.6528https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Acetylglycine,1TBDMS,#11527.3947https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Acetylglycine,1TBDMS,#21513.8164https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Spectra

GC-MS

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-0ff1-0900000000-7f59efc7318abb307de52014-06-16View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-008c-9000000000-c8db9b668b0e8c2555562017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0ff1-0900000000-7f59efc7318abb307de52017-09-12View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-6e94aa462921d578bd622017-09-01View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00dl-9100000000-4dfecaab8191f77717432017-10-06View Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0006-9000000000-6e94aa462921d578bd622021-09-05View Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4i-9800000000-24fa3ff739ff064312ab2021-09-18View Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0a4i-8900000000-5b42adf83e422cffefb62021-09-18View Spectrum

LC-MS/MS

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004i-9000000000-e0f8be2f6c11bf3ffb192012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-b3dd5f7718c7ca2f137a2012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-7b4e818e7fb8f7ad37fe2012-07-24View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-00di-9300000000-fa29c9711fbb335293602012-08-31View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-00di-9300000000-fa29c9711fbb335293602017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , negativesplash10-01b9-7900000000-1477d110314b9fcbf5412017-09-14View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-016r-9700000000-a6a0c2dacd758a89690e2015-04-24View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-056r-9100000000-41073c517efcd76b3e9b2015-04-24View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-054o-9000000000-3586ff7ce2dbe6b00d8b2015-04-24View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-01b9-9800000000-4671448e0c1ab50647ad2015-04-25View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00xr-9300000000-0903cfde2598dd206fd82015-04-25View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-05fu-9000000000-3804a2ffeab5041930782015-04-25View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-fb068beb910cc297fe082021-09-06View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-a547a5eae9d1214412162021-09-06View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-3e41fac5f6672fb6dde32021-09-06View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-00b9-9000000000-ec01b0881bf9700e6a2d2021-09-07View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00di-9000000000-deb62fa6b5d9bedf72462021-09-07View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-72151fe834469283bec92021-09-07View Spectrum

NMR

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)2012-12-04View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C] NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, predicted)2012-12-05View Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Placenta
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified69.7 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified109.44 +/- 85.64 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified56.76 +/- 35.67 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Zerihun T. Dame, ...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (24-38years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.5965–9.7889 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (25-30 years old)Both
Not Available
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.4939–1.8484 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (25-30 years old)Both
Not Available
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.4180–3.4660 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (25-30 years old)Both
Not Available
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
UrineDetected and Quantified170 +/- 18 nmol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)MaleAminoacylase I deficiency details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Colorectal cancer
  1. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
  2. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Aminoacylase I deficiency
  1. Van Coster RN, Gerlo EA, Giardina TG, Engelke UF, Smet JE, De Praeter CM, Meersschaut VA, De Meirleir LJ, Seneca SH, Devreese B, Leroy JG, Herga S, Perrier JP, Wevers RA, Lissens W: Aminoacylase I deficiency: a novel inborn error of metabolism. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Dec 23;338(3):1322-6. Epub 2005 Nov 2. [PubMed:16274666 ]
  2. A J, Trygg J, Gullberg J, Johansson AI, Jonsson P, Antti H, Marklund SL, Moritz T: Extraction and GC/MS analysis of the human blood plasma metabolome. Anal Chem. 2005 Dec 15;77(24):8086-94. [PubMed:16351159 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB02713
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB022100
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID10507
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkAceturic acid
METLIN ID5517
PubChem Compound10972
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID40410
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDMDB00000183
References
Synthesis ReferenceLin, Jiang Jen; Knifton, John F.; Yeakey, Ernest L. Preparation of N-acetylglycine. U.S. (1990), 5 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Elshenawy S, Pinney SE, Stuart T, Doulias PT, Zura G, Parry S, Elovitz MA, Bennett MJ, Bansal A, Strauss JF 3rd, Ischiropoulos H, Simmons RA: The Metabolomic Signature of the Placenta in Spontaneous Preterm Birth. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Feb 4;21(3). pii: ijms21031043. doi: 10.3390/ijms21031043. [PubMed:32033212 ]
  2. Sass JO, Mohr V, Olbrich H, Engelke U, Horvath J, Fliegauf M, Loges NT, Schweitzer-Krantz S, Moebus R, Weiler P, Kispert A, Superti-Furga A, Wevers RA, Omran H: Mutations in ACY1, the gene encoding aminoacylase 1, cause a novel inborn error of metabolism. Am J Hum Genet. 2006 Mar;78(3):401-9. Epub 2006 Jan 18. [PubMed:16465618 ]
  3. Van Damme P, Hole K, Pimenta-Marques A, Helsens K, Vandekerckhove J, Martinho RG, Gevaert K, Arnesen T: NatF contributes to an evolutionary shift in protein N-terminal acetylation and is important for normal chromosome segregation. PLoS Genet. 2011 Jul;7(7):e1002169. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002169. Epub 2011 Jul 7. [PubMed:21750686 ]
  4. Ree R, Varland S, Arnesen T: Spotlight on protein N-terminal acetylation. Exp Mol Med. 2018 Jul 27;50(7):1-13. doi: 10.1038/s12276-018-0116-z. [PubMed:30054468 ]
  5. Tanaka H, Sirich TL, Plummer NS, Weaver DS, Meyer TW: An Enlarged Profile of Uremic Solutes. PLoS One. 2015 Aug 28;10(8):e0135657. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0135657. eCollection 2015. [PubMed:26317986 ]
  6. Toyohara T, Akiyama Y, Suzuki T, Takeuchi Y, Mishima E, Tanemoto M, Momose A, Toki N, Sato H, Nakayama M, Hozawa A, Tsuji I, Ito S, Soga T, Abe T: Metabolomic profiling of uremic solutes in CKD patients. Hypertens Res. 2010 Sep;33(9):944-52. doi: 10.1038/hr.2010.113. Epub 2010 Jul 8. [PubMed:20613759 ]
  7. Vanholder R, Baurmeister U, Brunet P, Cohen G, Glorieux G, Jankowski J: A bench to bedside view of uremic toxins. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008 May;19(5):863-70. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2007121377. Epub 2008 Feb 20. [PubMed:18287557 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Mitochondrial acyltransferase which transfers an acyl group to the N-terminus of glycine and glutamine, although much less efficiently. Can conjugate numerous substrates to form a variety of N-acylglycines, with a preference for benzoyl-CoA over phenylacetyl-CoA as acyl donors. Thereby detoxify xenobiotics, such as benzoic acid or salicylic acid, and endogenous organic acids, such as isovaleric acid.
Gene Name:
GLYAT
Uniprot ID:
Q6IB77
Molecular weight:
18506.33
General function:
Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Acyltransferase which transfers an acyl group to the N-terminus of glutamine. Can use phenylacetyl-CoA as an acyl donor.
Gene Name:
GLYATL1
Uniprot ID:
Q969I3
Molecular weight:
35100.895
General function:
Involved in glycine N-acyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Mitochondrial acyltransferase which transfers the acyl group to the N-terminus of glycine. Conjugates numerous substrates, such as arachidonoyl-CoA and saturated medium and long-chain acyl-CoAs ranging from chain-length C8:0-CoA to C18:0-CoA, to form a variety of N-acylglycines. Shows a preference for monounsaturated fatty acid oleoyl-CoA (C18:1-CoA) as an acyl donor. Does not exhibit any activity toward C22:6-CoA and chenodeoxycholoyl-CoA, nor toward serine or alanine.
Gene Name:
GLYATL2
Uniprot ID:
Q8WU03
Molecular weight:
34277.055