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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2020-02-26 21:22:24 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000613
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00613
Metabolite Identification
Common NameErythronic acid
DescriptionErythronic acid is a sugar component of aqueous humour (eye). It may be derived from glycated proteins or from degradation of ascorbic acid. Erythronic acid is a normal organic acid present in a healthy adult and pediatric population. It has been found in urine, plasma, CSF, and synovial fluid (PMID: 14708889 , 8087979 , 8376520 , 10420182 ). Erythronic acid is formed when N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) is oxidized. GlcNAc is a constituent of hyaluronic acid (HA), a polysaccharide consisting of alternating units of glucuronic acid and GlcNAc, present as an aqueous solution in synovial fluid. In the synovial fluid of patients suffering from rheumatoid arthritis, HA is thought to be degraded either by radicals generated by Fenton chemistry (Fe2+/H2O2) or by NaOCl generated by myeloperoxidase (PMID: 10614067 ).
Structure
Data?1582752144
Synonyms
ValueSource
Erythro-2,3,4-trihydroxybutyric acidChEBI
Erythro-2,3,4-trihydroxybutyrateGenerator
ErythronateGenerator
(R*,r*)-2,3,4-trihydroxy-butanoateHMDB
(R*,r*)-2,3,4-trihydroxy-butanoic acidHMDB
2,3,4-TrihydroxybutanoateHMDB
2,3,4-Trihydroxybutanoic acidHMDB
D-ErythronateHMDB
Erythronic acidChEBI
Chemical FormulaC4H8O5
Average Molecular Weight136.1033
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight136.037173366
IUPAC Name(2R,3R)-2,3,4-trihydroxybutanoic acid
Traditional Nameerythronic acid
CAS Registry Number13752-84-6
SMILES
OC[C@@H](O)[C@@H](O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C4H8O5/c5-1-2(6)3(7)4(8)9/h2-3,5-7H,1H2,(H,8,9)/t2-,3-/m1/s1
InChI KeyJPIJQSOTBSSVTP-PWNYCUMCSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as sugar acids and derivatives. Sugar acids and derivatives are compounds containing a saccharide unit which bears a carboxylic acid group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentSugar acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Beta-hydroxy acid
  • Short-chain hydroxy acid
  • Sugar acid
  • Alpha-hydroxy acid
  • Hydroxy acid
  • Monosaccharide
  • Fatty acid
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Polyol
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Alcohol
  • Carbonyl group
  • Primary alcohol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Source:

Biological location:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point100 - 102 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility488 g/LALOGPS
logP-2.1ALOGPS
logP-2.1ChemAxon
logS0.55ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.4ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area97.99 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity26.35 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability11.68 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS)splash10-0gc3-1980000000-3bdd6daf86a88d7ca9d8Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0gc3-1980000000-3bdd6daf86a88d7ca9d8Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-08i0-9000000000-a6368075271779e24860Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (4 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-05i9-9135200000-540f14ba652277646ad0Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014r-3900000000-2b3d3fb29e0133c070faSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-03di-9300000000-9c5553554eff5afd7d2cSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0r6v-9100000000-b760f5ab8de654f72611Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-009l-9300000000-cea0b9791733d92b7dacSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0abl-9100000000-5893bc2f3c3758ba4459Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0ab9-9000000000-b86ae9d1fd6d44595e98Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Placenta
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified2.0 (0.0-5.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified<5 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified5.0 +/- 5.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified17.9 (7.1-49.7) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified18.8 (11.9-36.2) umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified8.5 (5.5-22.2) umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.0 (3.9-17.6) umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified109.0 +/- 19.0 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified20.0 +/- 8.0 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • Geigy Scientific ...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothBladder cancer details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Colorectal cancer
  1. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
  2. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
  3. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB022143
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID2061231
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDCPD-19877
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN ID5586
PubChem Compound2781043
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID37655
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB ID
References
Synthesis ReferenceHeikkila, Heikki; Alen, Raimo; Kauko, Siru; Lindroos, Mirja; Nurmi, Juha; Sarmala, Paivi; Tylli, Matti. Method for producing xylitol and erythritol from arabinoxylan-containing materials. Eur. Pat. Appl. (2000), 9 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Guneral F, Bachmann C: Age-related reference values for urinary organic acids in a healthy Turkish pediatric population. Clin Chem. 1994 Jun;40(6):862-6. [PubMed:8087979 ]
  2. Hoffmann GF, Meier-Augenstein W, Stockler S, Surtees R, Rating D, Nyhan WL: Physiology and pathophysiology of organic acids in cerebrospinal fluid. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1993;16(4):648-69. [PubMed:8412012 ]
  3. Boulat O, Gradwohl M, Matos V, Guignard JP, Bachmann C: Organic acids in the second morning urine in a healthy Swiss paediatric population. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2003 Dec;41(12):1642-58. [PubMed:14708889 ]
  4. Hoffmann GF, Seppel CK, Holmes B, Mitchell L, Christen HJ, Hanefeld F, Rating D, Nyhan WL: Quantitative organic acid analysis in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma: reference values in a pediatric population. J Chromatogr. 1993 Jul 23;617(1):1-10. [PubMed:8376520 ]
  5. Harding JJ, Hassett PC, Rixon KC, Bron AJ, Harvey DJ: Sugars including erythronic and threonic acids in human aqueous humour. Curr Eye Res. 1999 Aug;19(2):131-6. [PubMed:10420182 ]
  6. Jahn M, Baynes JW, Spiteller G: The reaction of hyaluronic acid and its monomers, glucuronic acid and N-acetylglucosamine, with reactive oxygen species. Carbohydr Res. 1999 Oct 15;321(3-4):228-34. [PubMed:10614067 ]
  7. Elshenawy S, Pinney SE, Stuart T, Doulias PT, Zura G, Parry S, Elovitz MA, Bennett MJ, Bansal A, Strauss JF 3rd, Ischiropoulos H, Simmons RA: The Metabolomic Signature of the Placenta in Spontaneous Preterm Birth. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Feb 4;21(3). pii: ijms21031043. doi: 10.3390/ijms21031043. [PubMed:32033212 ]