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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2020-02-26 21:22:26 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000639
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0003435
  • HMDB00639
  • HMDB03435
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGalactaric acid
DescriptionGalactaric acid, also known as mucic acid or galactarate, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glucuronic acid derivatives. Glucuronic acid derivatives are compounds containing a glucuronic acid moiety (or a derivative), which consists of a glucose moiety with the C6 carbon oxidized to a carboxylic acid. Due to the symmetry in the molecule, it is optically inactive even though it has chiral carbon atoms (i.e., it is a meso compound). Mucic acid can be used to replace tartaric acid in self-rising flour or fizzies. Galactaric acid is a very hydrophobic molecule, practically insoluble (in water), and relatively neutral. Galactaric acid exists in all living organisms, ranging from bacteria to humans. Outside of the human body, galactaric acid has been detected, but not quantified in, several different foods, such as fruits, cow milks, cow milks, cow milks, and cow milks. This could make galactaric acid a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods. It has been used as a precursor of adipic acid in the way to nylon by a rhenium-catalyzed deoxydehydration reaction. With potassium bisulfate mucic acid forms 3-hydroxy-2-pyrone by dehydration and decarboxylation. It is insoluble in alcohol, and nearly insoluble in cold water. The acid when fused with caustic alkalis yields oxalic acid. The ammonium salt yields on dry distillation carbon dioxide, ammonia, pyrrol and other substances. When digested with fuming hydrochloric acid for some time it is converted into αα′ furfural dicarboxylic acid while on heating with barium sulfide it is transformed into a thiophene carboxylic acid. Mucic acid forms a crystalline powder, which melts at 210–230 °C. When heated with pyridine to 140 °C, it is converted into allomucic acid.
Structure
Data?1582752146
Synonyms
ValueSource
Acido galactaricoChEBI
Acido mucicoChEBI
GalactarsaeureChEBI
Galactosaccharic acidChEBI
GalaktarsaeureChEBI
Mucic acidChEBI
MucinsaeureChEBI
Saccharolactic acidChEBI
SchleimsaeureChEBI
D-Mucic acidKegg
D-Galactaric acidKegg
GalactarateKegg
GalactosaccharateGenerator
MucateGenerator
SaccharolactateGenerator
D-MucateGenerator
D-GalactarateGenerator
(2R,3S,4R,5S)-2,3,4,5-TetrahydroxyhexanedioateHMDB
(2R,3S,4R,5S)-2,3,4,5-Tetrahydroxyhexanedioic acidHMDB
Hexaric acidHMDB
Meso-galactaric acidHMDB
SchleimsaureHMDB
Strontium galactarate mono-hydrateHMDB
Galactaric acid, sodium saltHMDB
Chemical FormulaC6H10O8
Average Molecular Weight210.1388
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight210.037567296
IUPAC Name(2R,3S,4R,5S)-2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxyhexanedioic acid
Traditional Namemucin
CAS Registry Number526-99-8
SMILES
O[C@@H]([C@@H](O)[C@H](O)C(O)=O)[C@@H](O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H10O8/c7-1(3(9)5(11)12)2(8)4(10)6(13)14/h1-4,7-10H,(H,11,12)(H,13,14)/t1-,2+,3+,4-
InChI KeyDSLZVSRJTYRBFB-DUHBMQHGSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as glucuronic acid derivatives. Glucuronic acid derivatives are compounds containing a glucuronic acid moiety (or a derivative), which consists of a glucose moiety with the C6 carbon oxidized to a carboxylic acid.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbohydrates and carbohydrate conjugates
Direct ParentGlucuronic acid derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Glucuronic acid or derivatives
  • Medium-chain hydroxy acid
  • Medium-chain fatty acid
  • Beta-hydroxy acid
  • Hydroxy fatty acid
  • Monosaccharide
  • Hydroxy acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Alpha-hydroxy acid
  • Fatty acyl
  • Fatty acid
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Polyol
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point220 - 225 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility3.3 mg/mL at 14 °CNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility63.1 g/LALOGPS
logP-1.8ALOGPS
logP-3.1ChemAxon
logS-0.52ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.83ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count8ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area155.52 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity38.14 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability16.99 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (6 TMS)splash10-001l-0987000000-76d3c6748cb8a79adc39Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-001l-0987000000-76d3c6748cb8a79adc39Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-05bf-9400000000-b80ffbca6c943091f16eSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (6 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00b9-6011394000-83b916b3001ad13cf34dSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-052r-9260000000-16fac7d5f0f85285824dSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0abi-9000000000-80a4d5a9910d243f2e48Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative (Annotated)splash10-0abc-9000000000-144a5e96a20e3c66ca9dSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0190000000-53cb6532b098f7615896Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-052r-9430000000-7bc8b56c9c00f7aed59fSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-34bca663662f41b51683Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negativesplash10-05fr-9000000000-c1a4fdc6f3d7d8e237aaSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negativesplash10-05fr-9000000000-f2f36dc0c7eca0f78710Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-052r-9240000000-c24ca4338feeca20c7f5Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-0a4i-0190000000-53cb6532b098f7615896Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-052r-9430000000-7bc8b56c9c00f7aed59fSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-34bca663662f41b51683Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-05fr-9000000000-c1a4fdc6f3d7d8e237aaSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-05fr-9000000000-f2f36dc0c7eca0f78710Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-052r-9240000000-c24ca4338feeca20c7f5Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03dl-1940000000-66a37b8eabfbc367df77Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4r-9700000000-ae255ce964e55a9644c5Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a6r-9100000000-fa70d3c1751580028d65Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0adr-9820000000-19f2dbe53ca43b0a1195Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0a4r-9500000000-e0ce27927a6119cf1489Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0ap0-9100000000-0c338926a15f642737e1Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biospecimen Locations
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.172 +/- 0.160 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.266 +/- 0.160 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
SalivaDetected and Quantified0.312 +/- 0.202 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Normal
    • Sugimoto et al. (...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified12.522 +/- 7.499 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothBladder cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified19.066 +/- 16.587 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Eosinophilic esophagitis
  1. (). Mordechai, Hien, and David S. Wishart. .
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB001205
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID2301286
KEGG Compound IDC00879
BioCyc IDD-GALACTARATE
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGalactaric_acid
METLIN ID5612
PubChem Compound3037582
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID30852
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceFauvarque, Jean-Francois; Guerin, Christophe; Petit, Serge; De Regis, Baynast. Process and electrolytic cell for preparing galactaric acid. Fr. Demande (1994), 14 pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Hirayama A, Nakashima E, Sugimoto M, Akiyama S, Sato W, Maruyama S, Matsuo S, Tomita M, Yuzawa Y, Soga T: Metabolic profiling reveals new serum biomarkers for differentiating diabetic nephropathy. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2012 Dec;404(10):3101-9. doi: 10.1007/s00216-012-6412-x. Epub 2012 Sep 29. [PubMed:23052862 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGTs are of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isozyme is active on polyhydroxylated estrogens (such as estriol, 4-hydroxyestrone and 2-hydroxyestriol) and xenobiotics (such as 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, 4-nitrophenol, 2-aminophenol, 4-hydroxybiphenyl and menthol). It is capable of 6 alpha-hydroxyglucuronidation of hyodeoxycholic acid.
Gene Name:
UGT2B4
Uniprot ID:
P06133
Molecular weight:
60512.035
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate.
Gene Name:
UGT1A4
Uniprot ID:
P22310
Molecular weight:
60024.535
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. Its unique specificity for 3,4-catechol estrogens and estriol suggests it may play an important role in regulating the level and activity of these potent and active estrogen metabolites. Is also active with androsterone, hyodeoxycholic acid and tetrachlorocatechol (in vitro).
Gene Name:
UGT2B7
Uniprot ID:
P16662
Molecular weight:
60720.15
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone.
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular weight:
59590.91
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols.
Gene Name:
UGT1A9
Uniprot ID:
O60656
Molecular weight:
59940.495
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform has specificity for phenols.
Gene Name:
UGT1A6
Uniprot ID:
P19224
Molecular weight:
60750.215