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Record Information
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2020-02-26 21:22:28 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00667
Metabolite Identification
Common NameL-Thyronine
DescriptionIodide is actively absorbed from the bloodstream and concentrated in the thyroid follicles. (If there is a deficiency of dietary iodine, the thyroid enlarges in an attempt to trap more iodine, resulting in goitre.) Via a reaction with the enzyme thyroperoxidase, iodine is covalently bound to tyrosine residues in the thyroglobulin molecules, forming monoiodotyrosine (MIT) and diiodotyrosine (DIT). Linking two moieties of DIT produces thyroxine. Combining one particle of MIT and one particle of DIT produces triiodothyronine. The thyronamines function via some unknown mechanism to inhibit neuronal activity; this plays an important role in the hibernation cycles of mammals. One effect of administering the thyronamines is a severe drop in body temperature. Both T3 and T4 are used to treat thyroid hormone deficiency (hypothyroidism). They are both absorbed well by the gut, so can be given orally. Levothyroxine, the most commonly used synthetic thyroxine form, is a stereoisomer of physiological thyroxine, which is metabolised more slowly and hence usually only needs once-daily administration. Natural desiccated thyroid hormones, which are derived from pig thyroid glands, are a "natural" hypothyroid treatment containing 20% T3 and traces of T2, T1 and calcitonin. A group of metabolites derived from thyroxine and triiodothyronine via the peripheral enzymatic removal of iodines from the thyroxine nucleus. Thyronine is the thyroxine nucleus devoid of its four iodine atoms.
Chemical FormulaC15H15NO4
Average Molecular Weight273.2839
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight273.100107973
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-amino-3-[4-(4-hydroxyphenoxy)phenyl]propanoic acid
Traditional Namethyronine
CAS Registry Number1596-67-4
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylalanine and derivatives. Phenylalanine and derivatives are compounds containing phenylalanine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of phenylalanine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentPhenylalanine and derivatives
Alternative Parents
  • Phenylalanine or derivatives
  • Diphenylether
  • Diaryl ether
  • 3-phenylpropanoic-acid
  • Amphetamine or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • L-alpha-amino acid
  • Phenol ether
  • Phenoxy compound
  • Aralkylamine
  • Phenol
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Benzenoid
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Ether
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Amine
  • Organic oxide
  • Primary amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physiological effect

Health effect:



Biological location:

Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point255 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.05 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.61ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.26ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area92.78 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity73.34 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability27.72 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-004j-8890000000-063f8216e411912c2cf5Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0udi-5329100000-f43bd1463108b6a840a3Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0adi-0090000000-0c68e00d57e7915b5486Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014i-2950000000-eb4bb2399809067f70a6Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-014l-6900000000-9a61d9007b69a8a69798Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-05di-0090000000-f5a6acd9aacd1337d8efSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-004i-0290000000-04f1d4a27147d2e5de3eSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-014i-8910000000-485f22cea6f55f284b41Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-00di-0090000000-91792b99e52e68749b3dSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-05fr-1290000000-447661ac05f8a8443c16Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-9800000000-b0151cc80b1606bc9792Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Spleen
  • Thyroid Gland
Normal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified0.29 +/- 0.084 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0038 +/- 0.00048 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0010 +/- 0.00038 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified0.34 +/- 0.02 uMAdult (>18 years old)Both
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0069 +/- 0.0014 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothHyperthyroidism details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.00028 +/- 0.00017 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Chronic renal disease
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
  1. Malin JP, Kodding R, Fuhrmann H, von zur Muhlen A: T4, T3 and rT3 levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Neurol. 1989 Jan;236(1):57-9. [PubMed:2915230 ]
  1. Chopra IJ, Boado RJ, Geffner DL, Solomon DH: A radioimmunoassay for measurement of thyronine and its acetic acid analog in urine. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1988 Sep;67(3):480-7. [PubMed:3410934 ]
Chronic kidney disease
  1. Ramsden DB, Farmer M, Mohammed MN, McGonigle RS, Sheppard MC: 3,5-Diiodotyrosine and thyronine in the urine of patients with chronic renal disease. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf). 1986 May;24(5):491-5. [PubMed:3098453 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
  • 105400 (Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis)
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB022172
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID4574450
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkThyronine
PubChem Compound5461103
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID30662
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceHarrington, C. R.; Rivers, Rosalind V. Pitt. New synthesis of thyronine. Journal of the Chemical Society (1940), 1101-3.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Chopra IJ, Wu SY, Teco GN, Santini F: A radioimmunoassay for measurement of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine sulfate: studies in thyroidal and nonthyroidal diseases, pregnancy, and neonatal life. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1992 Jul;75(1):189-94. [PubMed:1619009 ]
  2. Malin JP, Kodding R, Fuhrmann H, von zur Muhlen A: T4, T3 and rT3 levels in serum and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. J Neurol. 1989 Jan;236(1):57-9. [PubMed:2915230 ]
  3. Lomo LC, Zhang F, McCormick DJ, Giraldo AA, David CS, Kong YC: Flexibility of the thyroiditogenic T cell repertoire for murine autoimmune thyroiditis in CD8-deficient (beta2m -/-) and T cell receptor Vbeta(c) congenic mice. Autoimmunity. 1998;27(3):127-33. [PubMed:9609129 ]
  4. LoPresti JS, Anderson KP, Nicoloff JT: Does a hidden pool of reverse triiodothyronine (rT3) production contribute to total thyroxine (T4) disposal in high T4 states in man. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1990 May;70(5):1479-84. [PubMed:2335581 ]
  5. Ramsden DB, Farmer M, Mohammed MN, Willetts P: Mass spectral properties of volatile derivatives of thyronine (T0) and use of these in the study of thyronine excretion in eu-, hyper- and hypothyroidism. Biomed Mass Spectrom. 1984 Apr;11(4):193-8. [PubMed:6733255 ]
  6. Morell M, Fernandez-Guillien FJ, Lopez-Garcia JM: Levels of L-T3 in maternal and foetal compartments following experimental modifications of the maternal thyroid state in rats. Arch Int Physiol Biochim Biophys. 1994 Jan-Feb;102(1):1-3. [PubMed:7516725 ]
  7. Kohrle J: The deiodinase family: selenoenzymes regulating thyroid hormone availability and action. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2000 Dec;57(13-14):1853-63. [PubMed:11215512 ]