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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2021-10-13 04:30:23 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0000703
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB00703
Metabolite Identification
Common NameMandelic acid
DescriptionIt is an isomer of cresotinic acid (2-hydroxy-3-methylbenzoic acid) and oxymethylbenzoic acid (2-methoxybenzoic acid). Derivatives of mandelic acid are formed as a result of metabolism of adrenaline and noradrenaline by monoamine oxidase and catechol-o-methyl transferase. It is also present in certain skin care products, is an intermediate molecule in the production of other biochemicals, may be used as an analytical reagent and is a precursor in the manufacture of dyes. Mandelic acid is an aromatic alpha hydroxy acid with the molecular formula C8H8O3. It is a white crystalline solid that is soluble in water and most common organic solvents. Mandelic acid is found to be associated with phenylketonuria, which is an inborn error of metabolism.
Structure
Data?1582752150
Synonyms
ValueSource
(S)-2-Hydroxy-2-phenylacetic acidChEBI
(S)-alpha-Hydroxybenzeneacetic acidChEBI
(S)-MandelsaeureChEBI
L-Mandelic acidChEBI
(S)-2-Hydroxy-2-phenylacetateKegg
(S)-Mandelic acidKegg
(S)-a-HydroxybenzeneacetateGenerator
(S)-a-Hydroxybenzeneacetic acidGenerator
(S)-alpha-HydroxybenzeneacetateGenerator
(S)-Α-hydroxybenzeneacetateGenerator
(S)-Α-hydroxybenzeneacetic acidGenerator
L-MandelateGenerator
(S)-MandelateGenerator
MandelateGenerator
(RS)-MandelateHMDB
(RS)-Mandelic acidHMDB
2-Hydroxy-2-phenylacetateHMDB
2-Hydroxy-2-phenylacetic acidHMDB
2-Hydroxy-2-phenylethanoateHMDB
2-Hydroxy-2-phenylethanoic acidHMDB
2-Phenyl-2-hydroxyacetateHMDB
2-Phenyl-2-hydroxyacetic acidHMDB
2-PhenylglycolateHMDB
2-Phenylglycolic acidHMDB
a-Hydroxy-a-toluateHMDB
a-Hydroxy-a-toluic acidHMDB
a-HydroxybenzeneacetateHMDB
a-Hydroxybenzeneacetic acidHMDB
a-HydroxyphenylacetateHMDB
a-Hydroxyphenylacetic acidHMDB
Almond acidHMDB
alpha-Hydroxy-alpha-toluateHMDB
alpha-Hydroxy-alpha-toluic acidHMDB
alpha-HydroxybenzeneacetateHMDB
alpha-Hydroxybenzeneacetic acidHMDB
alpha-HydroxyphenylacetateHMDB
alpha-Hydroxyphenylacetic acidHMDB
AmygdalateHMDB
Amygdalic acidHMDB
DL-AmygdalateHMDB
DL-Amygdalic acidHMDB
DL-Hydroxy(phenyl)acetateHMDB
DL-Hydroxy(phenyl)acetic acidHMDB
DL-MandelateHMDB
DL-Mandelic acidHMDB
ParamandelateHMDB
Paramandelic acidHMDB
PhenylglycolateHMDB
Phenylglycolic acidHMDB
PhenylhydroxyacetateHMDB
Phenylhydroxyacetic acidHMDB
UromalineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC8H8O3
Average Molecular Weight152.1473
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight152.047344122
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-hydroxy-2-phenylacetic acid
Traditional Name(S)-mandelic acid
CAS Registry Number90-64-2
SMILES
O[C@H](C(O)=O)C1=CC=CC=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C8H8O3/c9-7(8(10)11)6-4-2-1-3-5-6/h1-5,7,9H,(H,10,11)/t7-/m0/s1
InChI KeyIWYDHOAUDWTVEP-ZETCQYMHSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzene and substituted derivatives. These are aromatic compounds containing one monocyclic ring system consisting of benzene.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassBenzene and substituted derivatives
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentBenzene and substituted derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Hydroxy acid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Alpha-hydroxy acid
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aromatic alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Adverse health effect

Disposition

Biological location

Source

Route of exposure

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point120 - 122 °CNot Available
Boiling Point321.83 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility181 mg/mLNot Available
LogP0.62HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Experimental Spectral Properties

Experimental Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeData SourceCCS Value (Å2)Reference
AllCCS[M-H]-Not Available131.1http://allccs.zhulab.cn/database/detail?ID=AllCCS00002103
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility16.8 g/LALOGPS
logP10(0.66) g/LALOGPS
logP10(0.9) g/LChemAxon
logS10(-0.96) g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.75ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area57.53 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity38.7 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability14.66 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Spectral Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DarkChem[M+H]+133.54331661259
DarkChem[M-H]-128.90231661259
AllCCS[M+H]+133.18132859911
AllCCS[M-H]-128.85832859911

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Derivatized

Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
Mandelic acid,1TMS,#1C[Si](C)(C)O[C@H](C(=O)O)C1=CC=CC=C11460.9Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Mandelic acid,1TMS,#2C[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)[C@@H](O)C1=CC=CC=C11414.7Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Mandelic acid,2TMS,#1C[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)C1=CC=CC=C11474.7Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Mandelic acid,1TBDMS,#1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@H](C(=O)O)C1=CC=CC=C11697.0Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Mandelic acid,1TBDMS,#2CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)[C@@H](O)C1=CC=CC=C11652.5Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Mandelic acid,2TBDMS,#1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C1=CC=CC=C11927.8Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Mandelic acid GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-004j-0900000000-b53183d87b331db9b7db2017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Mandelic acid GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-004j-0900000000-b53183d87b331db9b7db2018-05-18HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Mandelic acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a4i-9700000000-2d141c7d9cfc97cc9b762017-08-28Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Mandelic acid GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-004i-2910000000-de71bbd7bcfd35e2bbe52017-10-06Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Mandelic acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Mandelic acid Quattro_QQQ 10V, Negative-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-0zfr-0900000000-31443907299c1634fe9f2012-07-24HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Mandelic acid Quattro_QQQ 25V, Negative-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-0pdi-4900000000-d32dc8f06b5e94c7b3b92012-07-24HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Mandelic acid Quattro_QQQ 40V, Negative-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-0zfr-1900000000-f1e179f7f6654c2442502012-07-24HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Mandelic acid LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0udi-0900000000-15fb1f5429449730eb572012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Mandelic acid LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0a4i-1900000000-66724d8d0612c1da0f0a2012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Mandelic acid LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0a4l-9500000000-6d480b6841c2a90ea8722012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Mandelic acid LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0a4l-9100000000-817dbc1408c9336f23cc2012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Mandelic acid LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-f924dd96a6635e2ad5b22012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Mandelic acid LC-ESI-QQ , negative-QTOFsplash10-0udi-0900000000-15fb1f5429449730eb572017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Mandelic acid LC-ESI-QQ , negative-QTOFsplash10-0a4i-1900000000-66724d8d0612c1da0f0a2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Mandelic acid LC-ESI-QQ , negative-QTOFsplash10-0a4l-9500000000-96b7d7c57c085b66c0aa2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Mandelic acid LC-ESI-QQ , negative-QTOFsplash10-0a4l-9100000000-817dbc1408c9336f23cc2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Mandelic acid LC-ESI-QQ , negative-QTOFsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-f924dd96a6635e2ad5b22017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Mandelic acid 35V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0udi-0900000000-2d7a2f949d0d3d446a492021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Mandelic acid 35V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000i-0900000000-c0c136dca9a3ed6fd3762021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Mandelic acid 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-b1718872e9065a923bc92021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Mandelic acid 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0pb9-0900000000-036a833e3ff39dd5fa3d2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Mandelic acid 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0zg0-0900000000-dc883eccc7ede36262742017-07-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Mandelic acid 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0a4i-1900000000-43028c230f4ad5a4568c2017-07-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Mandelic acid 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0pdi-9500000000-d3b486d397a2e852f3a42017-07-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Mandelic acid 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0zfr-0900000000-d3c9a003466ac58be74f2017-07-26Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Mandelic acid 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0pdi-5900000000-cadf8b3761e31a6e33c52017-07-26Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Mandelic acid 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-004i-9200000000-b906b74a2aa4ffe7facc2017-07-26Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Mandelic acid 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0zfr-1900000000-62ebdc9508b56ca81f8a2021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Mandelic acid 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0a6r-7900000000-1f515b6e62c594acde142021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum

NMR Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Experimental 2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)2012-12-05Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected and Quantified0.565 (0.164-3.608) nmol/g wet fecesAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.407 +/- 2.009 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.966 +/- 0.669 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.27-0.48 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableConsuming polyphenols described by Phenol-Explorer entry 958 details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.23-0.40 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.817 +/- 0.520 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.115 +/- 0.817 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.486 +/- 0.966 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.063 (0.053-1.746) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified1.4 (1.1-1.7) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
UrineDetected and Quantified10.129 +/- 10.329 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified123.8 +/- 2.8 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothOccupational exposure to styrene details
UrineDetected and Quantified14.119 +/- 5.722 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)BothPhenylketonuria details
UrineDetected and Quantified34.182 +/- 22.293 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Phenylketonuria
details
UrineDetected and Quantified35.669 +/- 20.0636 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Both
Phenylketonuria
details
UrineDetected and Quantified8.00 +/- 9.00 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothPhenylketonuria details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Colorectal cancer
  1. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
  2. Sinha R, Ahn J, Sampson JN, Shi J, Yu G, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Goedert JJ: Fecal Microbiota, Fecal Metabolome, and Colorectal Cancer Interrelations. PLoS One. 2016 Mar 25;11(3):e0152126. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0152126. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27015276 ]
Phenylketonuria
  1. Monch E, Kneer J, Jakobs C, Arnold M, Diehl H, Batzler U: Examination of urine metabolites in the newborn period and during protein loading tests at 6 months of age--Part 1. Eur J Pediatr. 1990;149 Suppl 1:S17-24. [PubMed:2091926 ]
  2. Rampini S, Vollmin JA, Bosshard HR, Muller M, Curtius HC: Aromatic acids in urine of healthy infants, persistent hyperphenylalaninemia, and phenylketonuria, before and after phenylalanine load. Pediatr Res. 1974 Jul;8(7):704-9. [PubMed:4837567 ]
Eosinophilic esophagitis
  1. (). Mordechai, Hien, and David S. Wishart. .
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB03357
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB022191
KNApSAcK IDC00037426
Chemspider ID388690
KEGG Compound IDC01984
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkMandelic acid
METLIN ID5671
PubChem Compound439616
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID32800
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDMDB00000228
Good Scents IDrw1136021
References
Synthesis ReferenceChen, Jianfeng; Chen, Hao. Process for preparation of mandelic acid by membrane separation technology. Faming Zhuanli Shenqing Gongkai Shuomingshu (2007), 7pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Strittmatter M, Isenberg E, Grauer MT, Hamann G, Schimrigk K: CSF substance P somatostatin and monoaminergic transmitter metabolites in patients with narcolepsy. Neurosci Lett. 1996 Nov 1;218(2):99-102. [PubMed:8945737 ]
  2. Kimura A, Mahara R, Inoue T, Nomura Y, Murai T, Kurosawa T, Tohma M, Noguchi K, Hoshiyama A, Fujisawa T, Kato H: Profile of urinary bile acids in infants and children: developmental pattern of excretion of unsaturated ketonic bile acids and 7beta-hydroxylated bile acids. Pediatr Res. 1999 Apr;45(4 Pt 1):603-9. [PubMed:10203155 ]
  3. Krivankova L, Pantuckova P, Gebauer P, Bocek P, Caslavska J, Thormann W: Chloride present in biological samples as a tool for enhancement of sensitivity in capillary zone electrophoretic analysis of anionic trace analytes. Electrophoresis. 2003 Jan;24(3):505-17. [PubMed:12569541 ]
  4. Crespi H, Armando I, Tumilasci O, Levin G, Massimo J, Barontini M, Perec C: Catecholamines levels and parotid secretion in children with chronic atopic dermatitis. J Invest Dermatol. 1982 Jun;78(6):493-7. [PubMed:7086169 ]
  5. Cheung IY, Cheung NK: Molecular detection of GAGE expression in peripheral blood and bone marrow: utility as a tumor marker for neuroblastoma. Clin Cancer Res. 1997 May;3(5):821-6. [PubMed:9815755 ]
  6. Kaniwa N, Ogata H, Aoyagi N, Ejima A, Takahashi T, Uezono Y, Imazato Y: Effect of food on the bioavailability of cyclandelate from commercial capsules. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1991 Jun;49(6):641-7. [PubMed:2060253 ]
  7. Vodicka P, Bastlova T, Vodickova L, Peterkova K, Lambert B, Hemminki K: Biomarkers of styrene exposure in lamination workers: levels of O6-guanine DNA adducts, DNA strand breaks and mutant frequencies in the hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase gene in T-lymphocytes. Carcinogenesis. 1995 Jul;16(7):1473-81. [PubMed:7614680 ]
  8. Suarez A, Rico F, Clavero-Nunez JA, Garcia-Barreno P: Amniotic fluid catecholamine metabolites in maternal smoking. Gynecol Obstet Invest. 1990;30(3):143-6. [PubMed:2265798 ]
  9. Kolstad HA, Bonde JP, Spano M, Giwercman A, Zschiesche W, Kaae D, Larsen SB, Roeleveld N: Change in semen quality and sperm chromatin structure following occupational styrene exposure. ASCLEPIOS. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 1999 May;72(3):135-41. [PubMed:10392560 ]
  10. Corona GL, Cucchi ML, Frattini P, Santagostino G, Schinelli S, Romani A, Pola A, Zerbi F, Savoldi F: Clinical and biochemical responses to therapy in Alzheimer's disease and multi-infarct dementia. Eur Arch Psychiatry Neurol Sci. 1989;239(2):79-86. [PubMed:2478368 ]
  11. Fukuda T, Ito H, Mukainaka T, Tokuda H, Nishino H, Yoshida T: Anti-tumor promoting effect of glycosides from Prunus persica seeds. Biol Pharm Bull. 2003 Feb;26(2):271-3. [PubMed:12576693 ]