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Record Information
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2020-02-26 21:22:53 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB01050
Metabolite Identification
Common NameHypochlorite
DescriptionThe hypochlorite ion is ClO-. A hypochlorite compound is a chemical compound containing this group. Hypochlorite is a strong oxidant. About 28% of oxygen consumed by phagocytes upon activation participates in its generation. Hypochlorite reacts with H2O2 producing singlet oxygen (1O2) - a strong initiator of Lipid peroxidation. O-sub 2, along with H2O2 can serve as the substrate for myeloperoxidase. When this takes place, Hypochlorite is formed. Hypochlorite is able to modify antioxidants incorporated into lipoproteins such as Alpha-tocopherol, Beta-carotene, lycopene, and ubiquinol-10. It is also able to modify a number of proteins which possess antioxidant functions such as ceruloplasmin, transferrin, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. Active myeloperoxidase is found at sites of atherosclerotic damage to the arterial vessel wall in humans. Lipid peroxidation is known to contribute to the development of pathological processes, among them atherosclerosis. The present hypothesis is that blood lipoproteins modified by Lipid peroxidation play a key role in the pathogenesis of this disease. One of the possible reasons for the appearance of oxidized blood lipoproteins in blood is the interaction of native blood lipoproteins with the reactive oxygen species generated by stimulated neutrophils, monocytes and other cells. The main reaction of Hypochlorite with unsaturated lipid is probably the generation of chlorohydrins. However, this reaction is not accompanied by generation of free radicals and Lipid peroxidation. This reaction is accompanied by the production of free radicals (but not singlet oxygen), probably alkoxyl radicals, which may play a role in the initiation of Hypochlorite-induced Lipid peroxidation. (PMID: 9260000 , Biofactors. 1997;6(2):181-90.).
Hypochloric acidChEBI
Hypochlorige saeureChEBI
Hypochlic acidGenerator
Hypochlorous acidsHMDB
HypochloriteMeSH, KEGG
Chemical FormulaClHO
Average Molecular Weight52.46
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight51.971592361
IUPAC Namehypochlorous acid
Traditional Namehypochlorous acid
CAS Registry Number14380-61-1
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of inorganic compounds known as non-metal hypochlorites. These are inorganic non-metallic compounds containing a hypochlorite as its largest oxoanion.
KingdomInorganic compounds
Super ClassHomogeneous non-metal compounds
ClassNon-metal oxoanionic compounds
Sub ClassNon-metal hypochlorites
Direct ParentNon-metal hypochlorites
Alternative ParentsNot Available
SubstituentsNot Available
Molecular FrameworkNot Available
External DescriptorsNot Available



Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
pKa (Strongest Acidic)7.93ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-5.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area20.23 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity8.7 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability3.49 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0udi-9000000000-6b032789f452447eaa10Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0udi-9000000000-5de344503979a4f5b010Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0udi-9000000000-5de344503979a4f5b010Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0udi-9000000000-5de344503979a4f5b010Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0udi-9000000000-f4c1e86745fdf19ff4dfSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0udi-9000000000-f4c1e86745fdf19ff4dfSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0udi-9000000000-f4c1e86745fdf19ff4dfSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biospecimen LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB022391
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDC19697
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkHypochlorous acid
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound24341
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID24757
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB ID
Synthesis ReferenceTaylor, M. C. Hypochlorites. (1926), US 1609328 19261207 CAN 21:2408 AN 1927:2408
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Ross MP, Spiller HA: Fatal ingestion of sodium hypochlorite bleach with associated hypernatremia and hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis. Vet Hum Toxicol. 1999 Apr;41(2):82-6. [PubMed:10192136 ]
  2. Panasenko OM, Sergienko VI: Hypochlorite, oxidative modification of plasma lipoproteins, and atherosclerosis. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2001 May;131(5):407-15. [PubMed:11550040 ]
  3. Hawkins CL, Pattison DI, Davies MJ: Hypochlorite-induced oxidation of amino acids, peptides and proteins. Amino Acids. 2003 Dec;25(3-4):259-74. Epub 2003 Jul 29. [PubMed:14661089 ]
  4. Zakharash MP, Malynovs'kyi SIu, Bytenko DI, Tsiura IuP, Rami AS: [Use of sodium hypochlorite in surgery]. Lik Sprava. 2005 Apr-May;(3):20-9. [PubMed:16025672 ]
  5. Clasen T, Edmondson P: Sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) tablets as an alternative to sodium hypochlorite for the routine treatment of drinking water at the household level. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2006 Mar;209(2):173-81. Epub 2006 Jan 4. [PubMed:16387550 ]
  6. Spencer HR, Ike V, Brennan PA: Review: the use of sodium hypochlorite in endodontics--potential complications and their management. Br Dent J. 2007 May 12;202(9):555-9. [PubMed:17496870 ]
  7. Mehdipour O, Kleier DJ, Averbach RE: Anatomy of sodium hypochlorite accidents. Compend Contin Educ Dent. 2007 Oct;28(10):544-6, 548, 550. [PubMed:18018389 ]
  8. Gatot A, Arbelle J, Leiberman A, Yanai-Inbar I: Effects of sodium hypochlorite on soft tissues after its inadvertent injection beyond the root apex. J Endod. 1991 Nov;17(11):573-4. [PubMed:1812208 ]
  9. Keller MS: Re: sternal cupping. Radiology. 1982 Dec;145(3):854. [PubMed:7146426 ]
  10. Racioppi F, Daskaleros PA, Besbelli N, Borges A, Deraemaeker C, Magalini SI, Martinez Arrieta R, Pulce C, Ruggerone ML, Vlachos P: Household bleaches based on sodium hypochlorite: review of acute toxicology and poison control center experience. Food Chem Toxicol. 1994 Sep;32(9):845-61. [PubMed:7927083 ]
  11. Avlicino AA, Newton CL: Proposal for experimental studies to evaluate sodium hypochlorite dialysate in retroviral treatment. Med Hypotheses. 1994 Mar;42(3):169-72. [PubMed:8057971 ]
  12. Panasenko OM: The mechanism of the hypochlorite-induced lipid peroxidation. Biofactors. 1997;6(2):181-90. [PubMed:9260000 ]
  13. Rutala WA, Weber DJ: Uses of inorganic hypochlorite (bleach) in health-care facilities. Clin Microbiol Rev. 1997 Oct;10(4):597-610. [PubMed:9336664 ]
  14. Clarkson RM, Moule AJ: Sodium hypochlorite and its use as an endodontic irrigant. Aust Dent J. 1998 Aug;43(4):250-6. [PubMed:9775472 ]
  15. Eventov VL, Andrianova MIu, Kukaeva EA: [Detoxication and disinfection by sodium hypochlorite]. Med Tekh. 1998 Nov-Dec;(6):36-9. [PubMed:9949989 ]