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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2005-11-16 15:48:42 UTC
Update Date2020-03-25 20:09:52 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0001310
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB01310
Metabolite Identification
Common NameD-Alanine
DescriptionAlanine is a nonessential amino acid made in the body from the conversion of the carbohydrate pyruvate or the breakdown of DNA and the dipeptides carnosine and anserine. It is highly concentrated in muscle and is one of the most important amino acids released by muscle, functioning as a major energy source. Plasma alanine is often decreased when the BCAA (Branched Chain Amino Acids) are deficient. This finding may relate to muscle metabolism. Alanine is highly concentrated in meat products and other high-protein foods like wheat germ and cottage cheese. Alanine is an important participant as well as regulator in glucose metabolism. Alanine levels parallel blood sugar levels in both diabetes and hypoglycemia, and alanine reduces both severe hypoglycemia and the ketosis of diabetes. It is an important amino acid for lymphocyte reproduction and immunity. Alanine therapy has helped dissolve kidney stones in experimental animals. Normal alanine metabolism, like that of other amino acids, is highly dependent upon enzymes that contain vitamin B6. Alanine, like GABA, taurine and glycine, is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. http://www.dcnutrition.com/AminoAcids/). Alanine can be found in some Gram-positive bacteria (PMID: 24752840 ).
Structure
Data?1582752191
Synonyms
ValueSource
(2R)-2-Aminopropanoic acidChEBI
(R)-2-Aminopropanoic acidChEBI
(R)-AlanineChEBI
D-2-Aminopropionic acidChEBI
D-AlaChEBI
D-AlaninChEBI
D-alpha-AlanineChEBI
D-alpha-Aminopropionic acidChEBI
DALChEBI
(2R)-2-AminopropanoateGenerator
(R)-2-AminopropanoateGenerator
D-2-AminopropionateGenerator
D-a-AlanineGenerator
D-α-alanineGenerator
D-a-AminopropionateGenerator
D-a-Aminopropionic acidGenerator
D-alpha-AminopropionateGenerator
D-α-aminopropionateGenerator
D-α-aminopropionic acidGenerator
AlanineHMDB, MeSH
D(-)-a -AlanineHMDB
D(-)-alpha-AlanineHMDB
D-(-)-AlanineHMDB
(2R)-2-Aminopropionic acidHMDB
(R)-2-Aminopropionic acidHMDB
D(-)-α-AlanineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC3H7NO2
Average Molecular Weight89.0932
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight89.047678473
IUPAC Name(2R)-2-aminopropanoic acid
Traditional NameD-alanine
CAS Registry Number338-69-2
SMILES
C[C@@H](N)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C3H7NO2/c1-2(4)3(5)6/h2H,4H2,1H3,(H,5,6)/t2-/m1/s1
InChI KeyQNAYBMKLOCPYGJ-UWTATZPHSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alanine and derivatives. Alanine and derivatives are compounds containing alanine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of alanine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentAlanine and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alanine or derivatives
  • Alpha-amino acid
  • D-alpha-amino acid
  • Amino acid
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Primary aliphatic amine
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological location:

Source:

Role

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point292 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility165 mg/mLNot Available
LogP-2.912Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility447 g/LALOGPS
logP-3ALOGPS
logP-2.8ChemAxon
logS0.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)2.47ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.48ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.32 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity20.5 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability8.54 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-d31f7a2ed8284a740b59Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00di-9500000000-d9aff70e7ddd0c94cf50Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-597f42bcde0e9f005b7eSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9000000000-ffef20b2a24280b6fac1Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0007-9000000000-5494d4107e065019362aSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-536fa384ea61b8df326eSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-447340852e905814000eSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-320cdf459ab1249aeeadSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-e42a8e9c2a1c69fb6bb2Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-2c2b7ae491c5edb0c9caSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-4832fe79b009c4a4841eSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-b70e34a4340b1eba96fbSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-536fa384ea61b8df326eSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-447340852e905814000eSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-4f17ee45605aa5062be3Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-89574d659c7bde46108eSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-a2eab41650cb9ab9ccd1Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-a667a47345081b445cc9Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-2c2b7ae491c5edb0c9caSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-4832fe79b009c4a4841eSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QQ , positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-b70e34a4340b1eba96fbSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-080ffbbf05d95b7bcfe6Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-0dfcc5cb0b7d9f01e04aSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-002f-9000000000-130c999fe6b63419cfa1Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-2ddc0bb04bae8f928a23Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-9000000000-98c403c9cd494594babfSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00di-9000000000-38a12affa4e4f4e91626Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified444.61(116.67) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified448.89(115.71) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.98-92.078 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.77-78.73 umol/mmol creatinineAdolescent (13-18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.33-58.60 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified10.52-340.09 umol/mmol creatinineInfant (0-1 year old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified11.42-169.68 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified7.24-146.94 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified247.2 (89.1) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleDown syndrome pregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified231.9 (87.3) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified293.4 +/- 83.44 uMAdult (>18 years old)Female
Pregnancy with fetuses with trisomy 18
details
BloodDetected and Quantified258.62 +/- 85.38 uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified263.8 (51.5) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleEarly preeclampsia details
BloodDetected and Quantified332.1 (184.2) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified284.62 (65.96) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy with fetus having congenital heart defect details
BloodDetected and Quantified267.32 (53.39) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
BloodDetected and Quantified496.62(101.29) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHeart failure with preserved ejection fraction details
BloodDetected and Quantified366.8 (204.8) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleLate-onset preeclampsia details
BloodDetected and Quantified323.8 (151.2) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemalePregnancy details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified78 uMNot SpecifiedNot Specifiedpropionic acidemia details
UrineDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothBladder cancer details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Early preeclampsia
  1. Bahado-Singh RO, Akolekar R, Mandal R, Dong E, Xia J, Kruger M, Wishart DS, Nicolaides K: Metabolomics and first-trimester prediction of early-onset preeclampsia. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012 Oct;25(10):1840-7. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2012.680254. Epub 2012 Apr 28. [PubMed:22494326 ]
Pregnancy
  1. Bahado-Singh RO, Akolekar R, Mandal R, Dong E, Xia J, Kruger M, Wishart DS, Nicolaides K: Metabolomics and first-trimester prediction of early-onset preeclampsia. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2012 Oct;25(10):1840-7. doi: 10.3109/14767058.2012.680254. Epub 2012 Apr 28. [PubMed:22494326 ]
  2. Bahado-Singh RO, Akolekar R, Mandal R, Dong E, Xia J, Kruger M, Wishart DS, Nicolaides K: First-trimester metabolomic detection of late-onset preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Jan;208(1):58.e1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2012.11.003. Epub 2012 Nov 13. [PubMed:23159745 ]
  3. Bahado-Singh RO, Akolekar R, Mandal R, Dong E, Xia J, Kruger M, Wishart DS, Nicolaides K: Metabolomic analysis for first-trimester Down syndrome prediction. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 May;208(5):371.e1-8. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2012.12.035. Epub 2013 Jan 8. [PubMed:23313728 ]
  4. Bahado-Singh RO, Akolekar R, Chelliah A, Mandal R, Dong E, Kruger M, Wishart DS, Nicolaides K: Metabolomic analysis for first-trimester trisomy 18 detection. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Jul;209(1):65.e1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2013.03.028. Epub 2013 Mar 25. [PubMed:23535240 ]
  5. Bahado-Singh RO, Ertl R, Mandal R, Bjorndahl TC, Syngelaki A, Han B, Dong E, Liu PB, Alpay-Savasan Z, Wishart DS, Nicolaides KH: Metabolomic prediction of fetal congenital heart defect in the first trimester. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Sep;211(3):240.e1-240.e14. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2014.03.056. Epub 2014 Apr 1. [PubMed:24704061 ]
Late-onset preeclampsia
  1. Bahado-Singh RO, Akolekar R, Mandal R, Dong E, Xia J, Kruger M, Wishart DS, Nicolaides K: First-trimester metabolomic detection of late-onset preeclampsia. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Jan;208(1):58.e1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ajog.2012.11.003. Epub 2012 Nov 13. [PubMed:23159745 ]
Propionic acidemia
  1. Scholl-Burgi S, Haberlandt E, Gotwald T, Albrecht U, Baumgartner Sigl S, Rauchenzauner M, Rostasy K, Karall D: Stroke-like episodes in propionic acidemia caused by central focal metabolic decompensation. Neuropediatrics. 2009 Apr;40(2):76-81. doi: 10.1055/s-0029-1231065. Epub 2009 Oct 6. [PubMed:19809936 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB01786
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB022546
KNApSAcK IDC00019654
Chemspider ID64234
KEGG Compound IDC00133
BioCyc IDD-ALANINE
BiGG ID33977
Wikipedia LinkAlanine
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound71080
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID15570
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDALA_D
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Hamase K, Konno R, Morikawa A, Zaitsu K: Sensitive determination of D-amino acids in mammals and the effect of D-amino-acid oxidase activity on their amounts. Biol Pharm Bull. 2005 Sep;28(9):1578-84. [PubMed:16141519 ]
  2. D'Aniello A, Vetere A, Fisher GH, Cusano G, Chavez M, Petrucelli L: Presence of D-alanine in proteins of normal and Alzheimer human brain. Brain Res. 1992 Oct 2;592(1-2):44-8. [PubMed:1450921 ]
  3. Fukushima T, Santa T, Homma H, Nagatomo R, Imai K: Determination of D-amino acids in serum from patients with renal dysfunction. Biol Pharm Bull. 1995 Aug;18(8):1130-2. [PubMed:8535409 ]
  4. Nagata Y, Masui R, Akino T: The presence of free D-serine, D-alanine and D-proline in human plasma. Experientia. 1992 Oct 15;48(10):986-8. [PubMed:1426150 ]
  5. Fisher GH, D'Aniello A, Vetere A, Padula L, Cusano GP, Man EH: Free D-aspartate and D-alanine in normal and Alzheimer brain. Brain Res Bull. 1991 Jun;26(6):983-5. [PubMed:1933416 ]
  6. Radkov AD, Moe LA: Bacterial synthesis of D-amino acids. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2014 Jun;98(12):5363-74. doi: 10.1007/s00253-014-5726-3. Epub 2014 Apr 22. [PubMed:24752840 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in D-amino-acid oxidase activity
Specific function:
Regulates the level of the neuromodulator D-serine in the brain. Has high activity towards D-DOPA and contributes to dopamine synthesis. Could act as a detoxifying agent which removes D-amino acids accumulated during aging. Acts on a variety of D-amino acids with a preference for those having small hydrophobic side chains followed by those bearing polar, aromatic, and basic groups. Does not act on acidic amino acids.
Gene Name:
DAO
Uniprot ID:
P14920
Molecular weight:
39473.75