You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-02-28 10:47:30 UTC
Update Date2020-11-09 23:16:09 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0001886
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB01886
Metabolite Identification
Common Name3-Methylxanthine
Description3-Methylxanthine, also known as 3 MX or purine analog, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as xanthines. These are purine derivatives with a ketone group conjugated at carbons 2 and 6 of the purine moiety. 3-Methylxanthine is an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa).
Structure
Data?1582752214
Synonyms
ValueSource
2-oxo-3-MethylhypoxanthineChEBI
3 MXChEBI
3,9-Dihydro-3-methyl-1H-purine-2,6-dioneChEBI
3-Methyl-3,7(9)-dihydro-purine-2,6-dioneChEBI
3-Methyl-3,9-dihydro-2H,6H-purine-2,6-dioneChEBI
3-Methylxanthine, methyl-(13)C-labeledHMDB
3-Methylxanthine, monosodium saltHMDB
3-Methylxanthine, monopotassium saltHMDB
2,6-Dihydroxy-3-methylpurineHMDB
3-Methyl xanthineHMDB
3-Methyl-3,9-dihydro-purine-2,6-dioneHMDB
Purine analogHMDB
3-MethylxanthineChEBI
Chemical FormulaC6H6N4O2
Average Molecular Weight166.1374
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight166.049075456
IUPAC Name3-methyl-2,3,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione
Traditional Name3-methylxanthine
CAS Registry Number1076-22-8
SMILES
CN1C2=C(NC=N2)C(=O)NC1=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H6N4O2/c1-10-4-3(7-2-8-4)5(11)9-6(10)12/h2H,1H3,(H,7,8)(H,9,11,12)
InChI KeyGMSNIKWWOQHZGF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as xanthines. These are purine derivatives with a ketone group conjugated at carbons 2 and 6 of the purine moiety.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassImidazopyrimidines
Sub ClassPurines and purine derivatives
Direct ParentXanthines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Xanthine
  • Purinone
  • Alkaloid or derivatives
  • Pyrimidone
  • Hydroxypyrimidine
  • Pyrimidine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Azacycle
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point> 300 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogP-0.50GASPARI,F & BONATI,M (1987)
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility12.7 g/LALOGPS
logP-0.46ALOGPS
logP-0.99ChemAxon
logS-1.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)7.86ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.76ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area78.09 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity40.04 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability14.75 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-01bj-5900000000-e52c5f846a0fa5fe07efSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-004i-1900000000-ddc5f6a902d7bbd1fb47Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-01b9-1900000000-c8fefaf49ff542098257Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0006-9100000000-e21e77b88dfb9995efddSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positivesplash10-014i-1900000000-e5e3ab4240496c2d1174Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-18cbc6f55db32d03e9fbSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-18cbc6f55db32d03e9fbSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-014i-1900000000-e5e3ab4240496c2d1174Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-014i-0900000000-c30c1961ecbdf271a24eSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-014i-1900000000-ab9e73c4012de4c80f38Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-014i-9100000000-8c4dac19316eed77c6dcSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-014i-0900000000-ef5279264b1ae3a9f2c0Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-01bc-5900000000-ae2f574c67e566bead1cSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9100000000-1a0783c7fb8ec28a786fSpectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Kidney
  • Liver
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableNormal
      Not Available
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified10.322 +/- 9.229 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.73 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
    • Shaykhutdinov RA,...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.0 (2.3-6.3) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified6.2 (1.4-17.8) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
UrineDetected and Quantified12.755 +/- 12.241 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothAutosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) details
UrineDetected and Quantified8.0 (5.0-14.0) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Asthma
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Colorectal cancer
  1. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Asthma
  1. Zydron M, Baranowski J, Baranowska I: Separation, pre-concentration, and HPLC analysis of methylxanthines in urine samples. J Sep Sci. 2004 Oct;27(14):1166-72. [PubMed:15537072 ]
Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease
  1. Gronwald W, Klein MS, Zeltner R, Schulze BD, Reinhold SW, Deutschmann M, Immervoll AK, Boger CA, Banas B, Eckardt KU, Oefner PJ: Detection of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease by NMR spectroscopic fingerprinting of urine. Kidney Int. 2011 Jun;79(11):1244-53. doi: 10.1038/ki.2011.30. Epub 2011 Mar 9. [PubMed:21389975 ]
Eosinophilic esophagitis
  1. (). Mordechai, Hien, and David S. Wishart. .
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB022724
KNApSAcK IDC00043196
Chemspider ID63805
KEGG Compound IDC16357
BioCyc IDRXN-11546
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkXanthine
METLIN ID2820
PubChem Compound70639
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID62207
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDMDB00029999
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Knoppert DC, Spino M, Beck R, Thiessen JJ, MacLeod SM: Cystic fibrosis: enhanced theophylline metabolism may be linked to the disease. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1988 Sep;44(3):254-64. [PubMed:3046811 ]
  2. Miller M, Opheim KE, Raisys VA, Motulsky AG: Theophylline metabolism: variation and genetics. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1984 Feb;35(2):170-82. [PubMed:6362955 ]
  3. Desiraju RK, Sugita ET, Mayock RL: Determination of theophylline and its metabolites by liquid chromatography. J Chromatogr Sci. 1977 Dec;15(12):563-8. [PubMed:591601 ]
  4. Tarka SM Jr, Arnaud MJ, Dvorchik BH, Vesell ES: Theobromine kinetics and metabolic disposition. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 1983 Oct;34(4):546-55. [PubMed:6617078 ]
  5. Geraets L, Moonen HJ, Wouters EF, Bast A, Hageman GJ: Caffeine metabolites are inhibitors of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 at physiological concentrations. Biochem Pharmacol. 2006 Sep 28;72(7):902-10. Epub 2006 Jul 25. [PubMed:16870158 ]
  6. Orlando R, Padrini R, Perazzi M, De Martin S, Piccoli P, Palatini P: Liver dysfunction markedly decreases the inhibition of cytochrome P450 1A2-mediated theophylline metabolism by fluvoxamine. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2006 May;79(5):489-99. [PubMed:16678550 ]
  7. Tateishi T, Asoh M, Yamaguchi A, Yoda T, Okano YJ, Koitabashi Y, Kobayashi S: Developmental changes in urinary elimination of theophylline and its metabolites in pediatric patients. Pediatr Res. 1999 Jan;45(1):66-70. [PubMed:9890610 ]