Hmdb loader
You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-05-22 14:17:32 UTC
Update Date2021-09-07 16:45:32 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0002024
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0060261
  • HMDB02024
  • HMDB60261
Metabolite Identification
Common NameImidazoleacetic acid
DescriptionImidazol-4-ylacetic acid is a monocarboxylic acid that is acetic acid in which one of the methyl hydrogens has been replaced by an imidazol-4-yl group. It has a role as a mouse metabolite. It is a monocarboxylic acid and a member of imidazoles. It derives from an acetic acid. It is a conjugate acid of an imidazol-4-ylacetate. It is a tautomer of an imidazol-5-ylacetic acid and a 2H-imidazol-4-ylacetic acid. Imidazoleacetic acid, also known as 4(5)-imidazoleacetate or IAA, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as imidazolyl carboxylic acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing a carboxylic acid chain (of at least 2 carbon atoms) linked to an imidazole ring. Imidazoleacetic acid exists in all living organisms, ranging from bacteria to humans. imidazoleacetic acid can be biosynthesized from imidazole-4-acetaldehyde through its interaction with the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase, mitochondrial. In humans, imidazoleacetic acid is involved in histidine metabolism. Outside of the human body, Imidazoleacetic acid has been detected, but not quantified in several different foods, such as chinese cinnamons, jostaberries, vanilla, butternut squash, and red rices. Imidazoleacetic acid is a potentially toxic compound. Imidazoleacetic acid is a metabolite product of Histamine metabolism.
Structure
Data?1582752224
Synonyms
ValueSource
1H-Imidazole-4-acetic acidChEBI
4(5)-ImidazoleacetateChEBI
4-ImidazoleacetateChEBI
Imidazole-4-acetateChEBI
1H-Imidazole-4-acetateGenerator
4(5)-Imidazoleacetic acidGenerator
4-Imidazoleacetic acidGenerator
Imidazole-4-acetic acidGenerator
ImidazoleacetateGenerator
1H-Imidazol-4-ylacetic acidHMDB
IAAHMDB
IMACHMDB
Imidazol-4-ylacetateHMDB
Imidazol-4-ylacetic acidHMDB
Imidazole acetateHMDB
Imidazolyl-4-acetic acidHMDB
IZCHMDB
Lopac-I-0375HMDB
Imidazole-4-acetic acid, sodium saltHMDB
Imidazole-4-acetic acid hydrochlorideHMDB
Chemical FormulaC5H6N2O2
Average Molecular Weight126.1133
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight126.042927446
IUPAC Name2-(1H-imidazol-5-yl)acetic acid
Traditional NameIMAC
CAS Registry Number645-65-8
SMILES
OC(=O)CC1=CN=CN1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H6N2O2/c8-5(9)1-4-2-6-3-7-4/h2-3H,1H2,(H,6,7)(H,8,9)
InChI KeyPRJKNHOMHKJCEJ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as imidazolyl carboxylic acids and derivatives. These are organic compounds containing a carboxylic acid chain (of at least 2 carbon atoms) linked to an imidazole ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassAzoles
Sub ClassImidazoles
Direct ParentImidazolyl carboxylic acids and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Imidazolyl carboxylic acid derivative
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Azacycle
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Adverse health effect

Disposition

Biological location

Source

Route of exposure

Process

Naturally occurring process

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Experimental Chromatographic Properties

Experimental Collision Cross Sections

Adduct TypeData SourceCCS Value (Å2)Reference
[M+H]+MetCCS_train_pos123.05130932474
[M+H]+Not Available124.8http://allccs.zhulab.cn/database/detail?ID=AllCCS00000475
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility53.3 g/LALOGPS
logP10(-0.5) g/LALOGPS
logP10(-1.4) g/LChemAxon
logS10(-0.37) g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.65ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)6.78ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area65.98 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity30.2 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability11.47 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DarkChem[M+H]+125.51131661259
DarkChem[M-H]-121.31431661259

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Underivatized

MetaboliteSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
Imidazoleacetic acidOC(=O)CC1=CN=CN12540.8Standard polar33892256
Imidazoleacetic acidOC(=O)CC1=CN=CN11260.2Standard non polar33892256
Imidazoleacetic acidOC(=O)CC1=CN=CN11551.2Semi standard non polar33892256

Derivatized

Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
Imidazoleacetic acid,1TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)CC1=CN=C[NH]11382.6Semi standard non polar33892256
Imidazoleacetic acid,1TMS,isomer #2C[Si](C)(C)N1C=NC=C1CC(=O)O1577.2Semi standard non polar33892256
Imidazoleacetic acid,2TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)CC1=CN=CN1[Si](C)(C)C1588.5Semi standard non polar33892256
Imidazoleacetic acid,2TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)CC1=CN=CN1[Si](C)(C)C1540.6Standard non polar33892256
Imidazoleacetic acid,2TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)CC1=CN=CN1[Si](C)(C)C1861.2Standard polar33892256
Imidazoleacetic acid,1TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)CC1=CN=C[NH]11613.4Semi standard non polar33892256
Imidazoleacetic acid,1TBDMS,isomer #2CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)N1C=NC=C1CC(=O)O1856.0Semi standard non polar33892256
Imidazoleacetic acid,2TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)CC1=CN=CN1[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2066.7Semi standard non polar33892256
Imidazoleacetic acid,2TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)CC1=CN=CN1[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1995.2Standard non polar33892256
Imidazoleacetic acid,2TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)CC1=CN=CN1[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2036.6Standard polar33892256
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Imidazoleacetic acid GC-MS (1 TMS)splash10-0f89-5900000000-420b0de40d13d8210bbc2014-06-16HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Imidazoleacetic acid GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0fc0-5970000000-86a11eed673e756aa38a2014-06-16HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Imidazoleacetic acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0f89-5900000000-420b0de40d13d8210bbc2017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Imidazoleacetic acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0fc0-5970000000-86a11eed673e756aa38a2017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Imidazoleacetic acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-001i-9200000000-3560ea9910e3fb51b1732017-09-01Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Imidazoleacetic acid GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00di-8900000000-05046aa1145002d7c5e82017-10-06Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Imidazoleacetic acid GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Imidazoleacetic acid Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-003r-9600000000-12712603bcc1f0bea1262012-07-25HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Imidazoleacetic acid Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-fc527ff9b17df8a45f5d2012-07-25HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Imidazoleacetic acid Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-001i-9000000000-f50438c3b380c53358cb2012-07-25HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Imidazoleacetic acid LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-004i-0900000000-3e8a5824e3117a9ff6302012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Imidazoleacetic acid LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-001i-9100000000-bd0eae5cae4e35af3bc92012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Imidazoleacetic acid LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-001i-9000000000-029fc71514700cdb72092012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Imidazoleacetic acid LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-001i-9000000000-55f8440d265a11022fb92012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Imidazoleacetic acid LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-001i-9000000000-2f783a29f0103b0f7b592012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Imidazoleacetic acid , negative-QTOFsplash10-001i-9000000000-536179ad66be87ef60522017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Imidazoleacetic acid LC-ESI-QQ , positive-QTOFsplash10-004i-0900000000-3e8a5824e3117a9ff6302017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Imidazoleacetic acid LC-ESI-QQ , positive-QTOFsplash10-001i-9100000000-bd0eae5cae4e35af3bc92017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Imidazoleacetic acid LC-ESI-QQ , positive-QTOFsplash10-001i-9000000000-029fc71514700cdb72092017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Imidazoleacetic acid LC-ESI-QQ , positive-QTOFsplash10-001i-9000000000-55f8440d265a11022fb92017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Imidazoleacetic acid LC-ESI-QQ , positive-QTOFsplash10-001i-9000000000-2f783a29f0103b0f7b592017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Imidazoleacetic acid 0V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-004i-1900000000-2df669861c33e046ef522021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Imidazoleacetic acid 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0f89-9000000000-9ab02097fca907a3b75f2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Imidazoleacetic acid 35V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-001i-9000000000-8c245e2f0f54c3db08d72021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Imidazoleacetic acid 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-001i-9100000000-5976268b58ff0c9c054a2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Imidazoleacetic acid 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-001i-9100000000-ffb1202ccd976a3c4ac62021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Imidazoleacetic acid 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0a4i-1900000000-4b77cf695394035f5cb92015-05-26Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Imidazoleacetic acid 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0a4i-8900000000-3a84b22e5a91324c68a82015-05-26Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Imidazoleacetic acid 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0gc3-9000000000-c43447728a419e4b671a2015-05-26Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Imidazoleacetic acid 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-004i-3900000000-d826c494ed679b7cd08e2015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Imidazoleacetic acid 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0560-9800000000-1d0c114437988870749d2015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Imidazoleacetic acid 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0kal-9100000000-802d3d5a745c25a2b6642015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum

NMR Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Experimental 2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)2012-12-05Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Mitochondria
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Placenta
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.10 +/- 0.005 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified0.0027 +/- 0.0002 uMAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedBoth
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified2.602 (0.645-4.525) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB030508
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID86856
KEGG Compound IDC02835
BioCyc ID4-IMIDAZOLEACETATE
BiGG ID40666
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN ID6445
PubChem Compound96215
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16974
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDIM4AC
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceMadsen Christian; Jensen Anders A; Liljefors Tommy; Kristiansen Uffe; Nielsen Birgitte; Hansen Camilla P; Larsen Mogens; Ebert Bjarke; Bang-Andersen Benny; Krogsgaard-Larsen Povl; Frolund Bente 5-Substituted imidazole-4-acetic acid analogues: synthesis, modeling, and pharmacological characterization of a series of novel gamma-aminobutyric acid(C) receptor agonists. Journal of medicinal chemistry (2007), 50(17), 4147-61.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Khandelwal JK, Prell GD, Morrishow AM, Green JP: Presence and measurement of imidazoleacetic acid, a gamma-aminobutyric acid agonist, in rat brain and human cerebrospinal fluid. J Neurochem. 1989 Apr;52(4):1107-13. [PubMed:2926392 ]
  2. Tsuruta Y, Tomida H, Kohashi K, Ohkura Y: Simultaneous determination of imidazoleacetic acid and N tau- and N pi-methylimidazoleacetic acids in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. J Chromatogr. 1987 Apr 24;416(1):63-9. [PubMed:3597642 ]
  3. Khandelwal JK, Hough LB, Pazhenchevsky B, Morrishow AM, Green JP: Presence and measurement of methylimidazoleacetic acids in brain and body fluids. J Biol Chem. 1982 Nov 10;257(21):12815-9. [PubMed:7130180 ]
  4. Sondergaard I: Quantitative determination of 1,4-methyl-imidazoleacetic acid in urine by high performance liquid chromatography. Allergy. 1982 Nov;37(8):581-6. [PubMed:7181054 ]
  5. Imamura I, Watanabe T, Hase Y, Sakamoto Y, Fukuda Y, Yamamoto H, Tsuruhara T, Wada H: Histamine metabolism in patients with histidinemia: determination of urinary levels of histamine, N tau-methylhistamine, imidazole acetic acid, and its conjugate(s). J Biochem. 1984 Dec;96(6):1925-9. [PubMed:6530403 ]
  6. Thiele I, Swainston N, Fleming RM, Hoppe A, Sahoo S, Aurich MK, Haraldsdottir H, Mo ML, Rolfsson O, Stobbe MD, Thorleifsson SG, Agren R, Bolling C, Bordel S, Chavali AK, Dobson P, Dunn WB, Endler L, Hala D, Hucka M, Hull D, Jameson D, Jamshidi N, Jonsson JJ, Juty N, Keating S, Nookaew I, Le Novere N, Malys N, Mazein A, Papin JA, Price ND, Selkov E Sr, Sigurdsson MI, Simeonidis E, Sonnenschein N, Smallbone K, Sorokin A, van Beek JH, Weichart D, Goryanin I, Nielsen J, Westerhoff HV, Kell DB, Mendes P, Palsson BO: A community-driven global reconstruction of human metabolism. Nat Biotechnol. 2013 May;31(5):419-25. doi: 10.1038/nbt.2488. Epub 2013 Mar 3. [PubMed:23455439 ]
  7. Elshenawy S, Pinney SE, Stuart T, Doulias PT, Zura G, Parry S, Elovitz MA, Bennett MJ, Bansal A, Strauss JF 3rd, Ischiropoulos H, Simmons RA: The Metabolomic Signature of the Placenta in Spontaneous Preterm Birth. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Feb 4;21(3). pii: ijms21031043. doi: 10.3390/ijms21031043. [PubMed:32033212 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Converts gamma-trimethylaminobutyraldehyde into gamma-butyrobetaine. Catalyzes the irreversible oxidation of a broad range of aldehydes to the corresponding acids in an NAD-dependent reaction.
Gene Name:
ALDH9A1
Uniprot ID:
P49189
Molecular weight:
56291.485
Reactions
Imidazole-4-acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Imidazoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Multifunctional enzyme mediating important protective effects. Metabolizes betaine aldehyde to betaine, an important cellular osmolyte and methyl donor. Protects cells from oxidative stress by metabolizing a number of lipid peroxidation-derived aldehydes. Involved in lysine catabolism.
Gene Name:
ALDH7A1
Uniprot ID:
P49419
Molecular weight:
58486.74
Reactions
Imidazole-4-acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Imidazoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Recognizes as substrates free retinal and cellular retinol-binding protein-bound retinal. Seems to be the key enzyme in the formation of an RA gradient along the dorso-ventral axis during the early eye development and also in the development of the olfactory system (By similarity).
Gene Name:
ALDH1A3
Uniprot ID:
P47895
Molecular weight:
56107.995
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
ALDH2
Uniprot ID:
P05091
Molecular weight:
56380.93
Reactions
Imidazole-4-acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Imidazoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidation of long-chain aliphatic aldehydes to fatty acids. Active on a variety of saturated and unsaturated aliphatic aldehydes between 6 and 24 carbons in length. Responsible for conversion of the sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) degradation product hexadecenal to hexadecenoic acid.
Gene Name:
ALDH3A2
Uniprot ID:
P51648
Molecular weight:
54847.36
Reactions
Imidazole-4-acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Imidazoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
ALDHs play a major role in the detoxification of alcohol-derived acetaldehyde. They are involved in the metabolism of corticosteroids, biogenic amines, neurotransmitters, and lipid peroxidation.
Gene Name:
ALDH1B1
Uniprot ID:
P30837
Molecular weight:
57248.96
Reactions
Imidazole-4-acetaldehyde + NAD + Water → Imidazoleacetic acid + NADH + Hydrogen Iondetails