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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-05-22 14:17:40 UTC
Update Date2021-09-14 15:45:10 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0002182
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB02182
Metabolite Identification
Common NamePhenylephrine
DescriptionPhenylephrine, also known as mesaton or fenilefrina, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoids. These are phenols that are unsubstituted at the 4-position. Phenylephrine is a very strong basic compound (based on its pKa). Phenylephrine is a bitter tasting compound. Outside of the human body,. It is often used in combination with tropicamide as a synergist when tropicamide alone is not sufficient.
Structure
Data?1582752234
Synonyms
ValueSource
(-)-m-Hydroxy-alpha-(methylaminomethyl)benzyl alcoholChEBI
FenilefrinaChEBI
L-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-N-methylethanolamineChEBI
PhenylephrinumChEBI
R(-)-PhenylephrineChEBI
Phenylephrine minimsKegg
(-)-m-Hydroxy-a-(methylaminomethyl)benzyl alcoholGenerator
(-)-m-Hydroxy-α-(methylaminomethyl)benzyl alcoholGenerator
AdrianolHMDB
Ak-dilateHMDB
Ak-nefrinHMDB
Alcon efrinHMDB
Alconefrin nasal drops 12HMDB
Alconefrin nasal drops 25HMDB
Alconefrin nasal drops 50HMDB
Alconefrin nasal spray 25HMDB
BiomydrinHMDB
DilatairHMDB
DionephrineHMDB
DoktorsHMDB
DurationHMDB
I-phrineHMDB
IsophrimHMDB
IsophrinHMDB
Isopto frinHMDB
m-MethylaminoethanolphenolHMDB
m-OxedrineHMDB
m-SympatholHMDB
m-SympatolHMDB
m-SynephrineHMDB
MesatonHMDB
MesatoneHMDB
MesatonumHMDB
MetaoxedrinHMDB
MetaoxedrineHMDB
MetaoxedrinumHMDB
MetasympatolHMDB
MetasynephrineHMDB
MezatonHMDB
Minims phenylephrineHMDB
MydfrinHMDB
Neo-synephrineHMDB
Neo-synephrine nasal dropsHMDB
Neo-synephrine nasal jellyHMDB
Neo-synephrine nasal sprayHMDB
Neo-synephrine pediatric nasal dropsHMDB
NeofrinHMDB
NeophrynHMDB
NeosynephrineHMDB
NostrilHMDB
Nostril spray pumpHMDB
Nostril spray pump mildHMDB
Ocu-phrin sterile eye dropsHMDB
Ocu-phrin sterile ophthalmic solutionHMDB
OcugestrinHMDB
PhenopticHMDB
PrefrinHMDB
Prefrin liquifilmHMDB
Pyracort DHMDB
R(-)-MezatonHMDB
Relief eye drops for red eyesHMDB
RhinallHMDB
SpersaphrineHMDB
Vicks sinexHMDB
VisadronHMDB
Neo synephrineHMDB
Phenylephrine tannateHMDB
Tannate, phenylephrineHMDB
(R)-3-Hydroxy-alpha-((methylamino)methyl)benzenemethanolHMDB
Phenylephrine hydrochlorideHMDB
Chemical FormulaC9H13NO2
Average Molecular Weight167.205
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight167.094628665
IUPAC Name3-[(1R)-1-hydroxy-2-(methylamino)ethyl]phenol
Traditional Namephenylephrine
CAS Registry Number59-42-7
SMILES
CNC[C@H](O)C1=CC(O)=CC=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C9H13NO2/c1-10-6-9(12)7-3-2-4-8(11)5-7/h2-5,9-12H,6H2,1H3/t9-/m0/s1
InChI KeySONNWYBIRXJNDC-VIFPVBQESA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoids. These are phenols that are unsubstituted at the 4-position.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassPhenols
Sub Class1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoids
Direct Parent1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Aralkylamine
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Secondary amine
  • Alcohol
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic alcohol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological location

Source

Route of exposure

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogP-0.31HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Experimental Chromatographic PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility22 g/LALOGPS
logP10(-0.69) g/LALOGPS
logP10(-0.07) g/LChemAxon
logS10(-0.88) g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.07ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.69ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area52.49 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity47.25 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability18.2 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DarkChem[M+H]+139.65831661259
DarkChem[M-H]-135.08631661259

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Underivatized

MetaboliteSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
PhenylephrineCNC[C@H](O)C1=CC(O)=CC=C12744.8Standard polar33892256
PhenylephrineCNC[C@H](O)C1=CC(O)=CC=C11613.0Standard non polar33892256
PhenylephrineCNC[C@H](O)C1=CC(O)=CC=C11671.4Semi standard non polar33892256

Derivatized

Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
Phenylephrine,1TMS,isomer #1CNC[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)C1=CC=CC(O)=C11696.2Semi standard non polar33892256
Phenylephrine,1TMS,isomer #2CNC[C@H](O)C1=CC=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C11652.2Semi standard non polar33892256
Phenylephrine,1TMS,isomer #3CN(C[C@H](O)C1=CC=CC(O)=C1)[Si](C)(C)C1754.1Semi standard non polar33892256
Phenylephrine,2TMS,isomer #1CNC[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)C1=CC=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C11640.9Semi standard non polar33892256
Phenylephrine,2TMS,isomer #2CN(C[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)C1=CC=CC(O)=C1)[Si](C)(C)C1794.1Semi standard non polar33892256
Phenylephrine,2TMS,isomer #3CN(C[C@H](O)C1=CC=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C1)[Si](C)(C)C1804.2Semi standard non polar33892256
Phenylephrine,3TMS,isomer #1CN(C[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)C1=CC=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C1)[Si](C)(C)C1805.8Semi standard non polar33892256
Phenylephrine,3TMS,isomer #1CN(C[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)C1=CC=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C1)[Si](C)(C)C1802.8Standard non polar33892256
Phenylephrine,3TMS,isomer #1CN(C[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)C1=CC=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C1)[Si](C)(C)C1815.2Standard polar33892256
Phenylephrine,1TBDMS,isomer #1CNC[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C1=CC=CC(O)=C11908.6Semi standard non polar33892256
Phenylephrine,1TBDMS,isomer #2CNC[C@H](O)C1=CC=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)=C11901.7Semi standard non polar33892256
Phenylephrine,1TBDMS,isomer #3CN(C[C@H](O)C1=CC=CC(O)=C1)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1997.2Semi standard non polar33892256
Phenylephrine,2TBDMS,isomer #1CNC[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C1=CC=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)=C12111.5Semi standard non polar33892256
Phenylephrine,2TBDMS,isomer #2CN(C[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C1=CC=CC(O)=C1)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2278.6Semi standard non polar33892256
Phenylephrine,2TBDMS,isomer #3CN(C[C@H](O)C1=CC=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)=C1)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2287.5Semi standard non polar33892256
Phenylephrine,3TBDMS,isomer #1CN(C[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C1=CC=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)=C1)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2524.6Semi standard non polar33892256
Phenylephrine,3TBDMS,isomer #1CN(C[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C1=CC=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)=C1)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2443.0Standard non polar33892256
Phenylephrine,3TBDMS,isomer #1CN(C[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C1=CC=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)=C1)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2205.8Standard polar33892256
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Phenylephrine GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-014i-0900000000-b11a2a880d1683fa6cae2014-06-16HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Phenylephrine GC-EI-TOF (Pegasus III TOF-MS system, Leco; GC 6890, Agilent Technologies) (2 TMS)splash10-01b9-6900000000-bbdd210a846be116dbcd2014-06-16HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Phenylephrine GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-014i-0900000000-b11a2a880d1683fa6cae2017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Phenylephrine GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-01b9-6900000000-bbdd210a846be116dbcd2017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Phenylephrine GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9200000000-3ea7ffd258ffba5a376a2017-08-28Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Phenylephrine GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-014i-4920000000-54a2b2a88914c83610f22017-10-06Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Phenylephrine GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenylephrine Quattro_QQQ 10V, N/A-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-0udi-0900000000-d95a741ffcfe3f7bb7e92012-07-25HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenylephrine Quattro_QQQ 25V, N/A-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-0006-9800000000-7695881b36499169fb712012-07-25HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenylephrine Quattro_QQQ 40V, N/A-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-054o-9200000000-888fce606d860cd39be22012-07-25HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenylephrine LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-014i-0900000000-edfcbc18ccdb6872b7912012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenylephrine LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-00di-0900000000-15132688bbc7ac0be42f2012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenylephrine LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-00di-2900000000-34ccc7192518d4c142102012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenylephrine LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-00di-3900000000-e619f4210f81c11f61be2012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenylephrine LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-00dl-6900000000-3178337a019ac9bf313d2012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenylephrine LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0gb9-0900000000-e738818606836c1d6d1a2012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenylephrine LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0udi-0900000000-36b72327f64f1355a5022012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenylephrine LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 30V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-052o-4900000000-935a9659fe39602b138d2012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenylephrine LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-052f-9800000000-7d83555b537d6fec673b2012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenylephrine LC-ESI-QQ (API3000, Applied Biosystems) 50V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-054o-9400000000-5ef2f6d1da57087e6ac72012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenylephrine LC-ESI-QTOF (UPLC Q-Tof Premier, Waters) , Positive-QTOFsplash10-014i-0900000000-4a910a2109ba191b96e72012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenylephrine LC-ESI-QQ , negative-QTOFsplash10-014i-0900000000-edfcbc18ccdb6872b7912017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenylephrine LC-ESI-QQ , negative-QTOFsplash10-00di-0900000000-15132688bbc7ac0be42f2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenylephrine LC-ESI-QQ , negative-QTOFsplash10-00di-2900000000-34ccc7192518d4c142102017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenylephrine LC-ESI-QQ , negative-QTOFsplash10-00di-3900000000-e8a5a4f1aae0796866a72017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenylephrine LC-ESI-QQ , negative-QTOFsplash10-00dl-6900000000-3178337a019ac9bf313d2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenylephrine 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0uxr-0900000000-8c4893aa69ea6a1ceecb2017-07-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenylephrine 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0uxr-0900000000-4406afb22d76646e2ef82017-07-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenylephrine 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-01c3-7900000000-56a2a2741d2166bf31bc2017-07-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenylephrine 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-014i-0900000000-0cf5a5fa80f87facb9ad2017-07-26Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenylephrine 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-014j-2900000000-687762e0d4bf3efbffec2017-07-26Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenylephrine 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0006-9400000000-140e96de62b4341791d92017-07-26Wishart LabView Spectrum

NMR Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Experimental 2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)2012-12-05Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Bladder
  • Brain
  • Kidney
  • Neuron
  • Prostate
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Spleen
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified2.3 (0.029-3.0) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0019 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00388
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB022891
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID5818
KEGG Compound IDC07441
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkPhenylephrine
METLIN ID699
PubChem Compound6041
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID8093
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Kamiya A, Kawada T, Yamamoto K, Michikami D, Ariumi H, Miyamoto T, Uemura K, Sugimachi M, Sunagawa K: Muscle sympathetic nerve activity averaged over 1 minute parallels renal and cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in response to a forced baroreceptor pressure change. Circulation. 2005 Jul 19;112(3):384-6. Epub 2005 Jul 5. [PubMed:15998668 ]
  2. Thebault S, Zholos A, Enfissi A, Slomianny C, Dewailly E, Roudbaraki M, Parys J, Prevarskaya N: Receptor-operated Ca2+ entry mediated by TRPC3/TRPC6 proteins in rat prostate smooth muscle (PS1) cell line. J Cell Physiol. 2005 Jul;204(1):320-8. [PubMed:15672411 ]
  3. Rios JD, Horikawa Y, Chen LL, Kublin CL, Hodges RR, Dartt DA, Zoukhri D: Age-dependent alterations in mouse exorbital lacrimal gland structure, innervation and secretory response. Exp Eye Res. 2005 Apr;80(4):477-91. [PubMed:15781275 ]
  4. Gao YJ, Zeng ZH, Teoh K, Sharma AM, Abouzahr L, Cybulsky I, Lamy A, Semelhago L, Lee RM: Perivascular adipose tissue modulates vascular function in the human internal thoracic artery. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2005 Oct;130(4):1130-6. [PubMed:16214530 ]
  5. Gonzalez-Cadavid NF, Ryndin I, Vernet D, Magee TR, Rajfer J: Presence of NMDA receptor subunits in the male lower urogenital tract. J Androl. 2000 Jul-Aug;21(4):566-78. [PubMed:10901443 ]
  6. Grassi G, Dell'Oro R, Facchini A, Quarti Trevano F, Bolla GB, Mancia G: Effect of central and peripheral body fat distribution on sympathetic and baroreflex function in obese normotensives. J Hypertens. 2004 Dec;22(12):2363-9. [PubMed:15614031 ]
  7. Bouchelouche K, Andersen L, Alvarez S, Nordling J, Bouchelouche P: Increased contractile response to phenylephrine in detrusor of patients with bladder outlet obstruction: effect of the alpha1A and alpha1D-adrenergic receptor antagonist tamsulosin. J Urol. 2005 Feb;173(2):657-61. [PubMed:15643283 ]
  8. Boschmann M, Krupp G, Luft FC, Klaus S, Jordan J: In vivo response to alpha(1)-adrenoreceptor stimulation in human white adipose tissue. Obes Res. 2002 Jun;10(6):555-8. [PubMed:12055332 ]
  9. Chueh SC, Chern JW, Choong CM, Guh JH, Teng CM: Characterization of some novel alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonists in human hyperplastic prostate. Eur J Pharmacol. 2002 Jun 7;445(1-2):125-31. [PubMed:12065203 ]
  10. Wang SY, Song Y, Xu M, Hao TP, Han QD, Zhang YY: [Redistribution of three alpha1-adrenergic receptor subtypes in the stably transfected HEK 293A cells upon agonist stimulation.]. Sheng Li Xue Bao. 2005 Aug 25;57(4):480-5. [PubMed:16094496 ]
  11. Guh JH, Hsieh CH, Teng CM: Investigation of the effects of some alkaloidal alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists on human hyperplastic prostate. Eur J Pharmacol. 1999 Jun 25;374(3):503-10. [PubMed:10422796 ]
  12. Nomiya M, Yamaguchi O: A quantitative analysis of mRNA expression of alpha 1 and beta-adrenoceptor subtypes and their functional roles in human normal and obstructed bladders. J Urol. 2003 Aug;170(2 Pt 1):649-53. [PubMed:12853849 ]
  13. Lam KY, Yuen AP: Cancer of the larynx in Hong Kong: a clinico-pathological study. Eur J Surg Oncol. 1996 Apr;22(2):166-70. [PubMed:8608835 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the oxidative deamination of biogenic and xenobiotic amines and has important functions in the metabolism of neuroactive and vasoactive amines in the central nervous system and peripheral tissues. MAOA preferentially oxidizes biogenic amines such as 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), norepinephrine and epinephrine.
Gene Name:
MAOA
Uniprot ID:
P21397
Molecular weight:
59681.27
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine- induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is oxymetazoline > clonidine > epinephrine > norepinephrine > phenylephrine > dopamine > p-synephrine > p-tyramine > serotonin = p-octopamine. For antagonists, the rank order is yohimbine > phentolamine = mianserine > chlorpromazine = spiperone = prazosin > propanolol > alprenolol = pindolol
Gene Name:
ADRA2A
Uniprot ID:
P08913
Molecular weight:
48956.3
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Alpha-2 adrenergic receptors mediate the catecholamine- induced inhibition of adenylate cyclase through the action of G proteins. The rank order of potency for agonists of this receptor is clonidine > norepinephrine > epinephrine = oxymetazoline > dopamine > p-tyramine = phenylephrine > serotonin > p-synephrine / p-octopamine. For antagonists, the rank order is yohimbine > chlorpromazine > phentolamine > mianserine > spiperone > prazosin > alprenolol > propanolol > pindolol
Gene Name:
ADRA2B
Uniprot ID:
P18089
Molecular weight:
49953.1
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol- calcium second messenger system. Its effect is mediated by G(q) and G(11) proteins
Gene Name:
ADRA1A
Uniprot ID:
P35348
Molecular weight:
51486.0
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
This alpha-adrenergic receptor mediates its action by association with G proteins that activate a phosphatidylinositol- calcium second messenger system
Gene Name:
ADRA1B
Uniprot ID:
P35368
Molecular weight:
56835.4
General function:
Involved in nucleotide binding
Specific function:
May be a regulated effector of stress granule assembly. Phosphorylation-dependent sequence-specific endoribonuclease in vitro. Cleaves exclusively between cytosine and adenine and cleaves MYC mRNA preferentially at the 3'-UTR. ATP- and magnesium-dependent helicase. Unwinds preferentially partial DNA and RNA duplexes having a 17 bp annealed portion and either a hanging 3' tail or hanging tails at both 5'- and 3'-ends. Unwinds DNA/DNA, RNA/DNA, and RNA/RNA substrates with comparable efficiency. Acts unidirectionally by moving in the 5' to 3' direction along the bound single-stranded DNA.
Gene Name:
G3BP1
Uniprot ID:
Q13283
Molecular weight:
52164.045