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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-05-22 14:17:41 UTC
Update Date2021-10-13 04:38:10 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0002204
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0039128
  • HMDB02204
  • HMDB39128
Metabolite Identification
Common NameAstaxanthin
DescriptionAstaxanthin is the main carotenoid pigment found in aquatic animals. It is also found in some birds, such as flamingoes, quails, and other species. This carotenoid is included in many well-known seafoods such as salmon, trout, red seabream, shrimp, lobster, and fish eggs. Astaxanthin, similar to other carotenoids, cannot be synthesized by animals and must be provided in the diet. Mammals, including humans, lack the ability to synthesize astaxanthin or to convert dietary astaxanthin into vitamin A. Astaxanthin belongs to the xanthophyll class of carotenoids. It is closely related to beta-carotene, lutein, and zeaxanthin, sharing with them many of the general metabolic and physiological functions attributed to carotenoids. In addition, astaxanthin has unique chemical properties based on its molecular structure. The presence of the hydroxyl (OH) and keto (CdO) moieties on each ionone ring explains some of its unique features, namely, the ability to be esterified and a higher antioxidant activity and a more polar nature than other carotenoids. In its free form, astaxanthin is considerably unstable and particularly susceptible to oxidation. Hence it is found in nature either conjugated with proteins (e.g. salmon muscle or lobster exoskeleton) or esterified with one or two fatty acids (monoester and diester forms) which stabilize the molecule. Various astaxanthin isomers have been characterized on the basis of the configuration of the two hydroxyl groups on the molecule. The geometrical and optical isomers of astaxanthin are distributed selectively in different tissues and levels of free astaxanthin in the liver are greater than the corresponding concentration in the plasma, suggesting concentrative uptake by the liver. Astaxanthin, similar to other carotenoids, is a very lipophilic compound and has a low oral bioavailability. This criterion has limited the ability to test this compound in well-defined rodent models of human disease (PMID: 16562856 ). Astaxanthin is a carotenoid widely used in salmonid and crustacean aquaculture to provide the pink colour characteristic of that species. This application has been well documented for over two decades and is currently the major market driver for the pigment. Additionally, astaxanthin also plays a key role as an intermediary in reproductive processes. Synthetic astaxanthin dominates the world market but recent interest in natural sources of the pigment has increased substantially. Common sources of natural astaxanthin are the green algae Haematococcus pluvialis (the red yeast), Phaffia rhodozyma, as well as crustacean byproducts. Astaxanthin possesses an unusual antioxidant activity which has caused a surge in the nutraceutical market for the encapsulated product. Also, health benefits such as cardiovascular disease prevention, immune system boosting, bioactivity against Helicobacter pylori, and cataract prevention, have been associated with astaxanthin consumption. Research on the health benefits of astaxanthin is very recent and has mostly been performed in vitro or at the pre-clinical level with humans (PMID: 16431409 ). Astaxanthin is used in fish farming to induce trout flesh colouring.
Structure
Data?1582752236
Synonyms
ValueSource
(3S,3's)-AstaxanthinChEBI
3,3'-Dihydroxy-beta,beta-carotene-4,4'-dioneChEBI
3,3'-Dihydroxy-beta-carotene-4,4'-dioneChEBI
all-trans-(3S,3's)-AstaxanthinChEBI
AstaxanthineChEBI
e 161JChEBI
OvoesterChEBI
(3S,3's)-3,3'-Dihydroxy-beta,beta-carotene-4,4'-dioneKegg
3,3'-Dihydroxy-b,b-carotene-4,4'-dioneGenerator
3,3'-Dihydroxy-β,β-carotene-4,4'-dioneGenerator
3,3'-Dihydroxy-b-carotene-4,4'-dioneGenerator
3,3'-Dihydroxy-β-carotene-4,4'-dioneGenerator
(3S,3's)-3,3'-Dihydroxy-b,b-carotene-4,4'-dioneGenerator
(3S,3's)-3,3'-Dihydroxy-β,β-carotene-4,4'-dioneGenerator
(3S,3's)-all-trans-AstaxanthinHMDB
all-trans-3,3'-Dihydroxy-b-carotene-4,4'-dione (8ci)HMDB
all-trans-3,3'-Dihydroxy-beta-carotene-4,4'-dione (8ci)HMDB
all-trans-AstaxanthinHMDB
AstaREALHMDB
Astaxanthin (6ci)HMDB
BioAstinHMDB
BioAstin oleoresinHMDB
Carophyll pinkHMDB
Lucantin pinkHMDB
NatupinkHMDB
trans-AstaxanthinHMDB
e-AstaxanthinHMDB
(3S,3’S)-3,3’-dihydroxy-β,β-carotene-4,4’-dioneHMDB
(3S,3’S)-astaxanthinHMDB
(3S,3’S)-all-trans-astaxanthinHMDB
(S,S)-AstaxanthinHMDB
all-trans-(3S,3’S)-astaxanthinHMDB
AstaxanthinHMDB
Chemical FormulaC40H52O4
Average Molecular Weight596.852
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight596.386560154
IUPAC Name(6S)-6-hydroxy-3-[(1E,3E,5E,7E,9E,11E,13E,15E,17E)-18-[(4S)-4-hydroxy-2,6,6-trimethyl-3-oxocyclohex-1-en-1-yl]-3,7,12,16-tetramethyloctadeca-1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17-nonaen-1-yl]-2,4,4-trimethylcyclohex-2-en-1-one
Traditional Nameastaxanthin
CAS Registry Number472-61-7
SMILES
C\C(\C=C\C=C(/C)\C=C\C1=C(C)C(=O)[C@@H](O)CC1(C)C)=C/C=C/C=C(\C)/C=C/C=C(\C)/C=C/C1=C(C)C(=O)[C@@H](O)CC1(C)C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C40H52O4/c1-27(17-13-19-29(3)21-23-33-31(5)37(43)35(41)25-39(33,7)8)15-11-12-16-28(2)18-14-20-30(4)22-24-34-32(6)38(44)36(42)26-40(34,9)10/h11-24,35-36,41-42H,25-26H2,1-10H3/b12-11+,17-13+,18-14+,23-21+,24-22+,27-15+,28-16+,29-19+,30-20+/t35-,36-/m0/s1
InChI KeyMQZIGYBFDRPAKN-UWFIBFSHSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as xanthophylls. These are carotenoids containing an oxygenated carotene backbone. Carotenes are characterized by the presence of two end-groups (mostly cyclohexene rings, but also cyclopentene rings or acyclic groups) linked by a long branched alkyl chain. Carotenes belonging form a subgroup of the carotenoids family. Xanthophylls arise by oxygenation of the carotene backbone.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassPrenol lipids
Sub ClassTetraterpenoids
Direct ParentXanthophylls
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Xanthophyll
  • Cyclohexenone
  • Cyclic ketone
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Ketone
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological location

Source

Route of exposure

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point182.5 °CNot Available
Boiling Point774.04 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility7.9e-10 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
LogP8.163 (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Experimental Chromatographic PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.00067 g/LALOGPS
logP10(7.4) g/LALOGPS
logP10(8.05) g/LChemAxon
logS10(-6) g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.07ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area74.6 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count10ChemAxon
Refractivity195.98 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability73.77 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
BioavailabilityNoChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Underivatized

MetaboliteSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
AstaxanthinC\C(\C=C\C=C(/C)\C=C\C1=C(C)C(=O)[C@@H](O)CC1(C)C)=C/C=C/C=C(\C)/C=C/C=C(\C)/C=C/C1=C(C)C(=O)[C@@H](O)CC1(C)C6997.9Standard polar33892256
AstaxanthinC\C(\C=C\C=C(/C)\C=C\C1=C(C)C(=O)[C@@H](O)CC1(C)C)=C/C=C/C=C(\C)/C=C/C=C(\C)/C=C/C1=C(C)C(=O)[C@@H](O)CC1(C)C5013.8Standard non polar33892256
AstaxanthinC\C(\C=C\C=C(/C)\C=C\C1=C(C)C(=O)[C@@H](O)CC1(C)C)=C/C=C/C=C(\C)/C=C/C=C(\C)/C=C/C1=C(C)C(=O)[C@@H](O)CC1(C)C4994.3Semi standard non polar33892256

Derivatized

Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
Astaxanthin,1TMS,isomer #1CC1=C(/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C2=C(C)C(=O)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)CC2(C)C)C(C)(C)C[C@H](O)C1=O4995.5Semi standard non polar33892256
Astaxanthin,1TMS,isomer #2CC1=C(/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C2=C(C)C(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C(O)CC2(C)C)C(C)(C)C[C@H](O)C1=O4918.1Semi standard non polar33892256
Astaxanthin,2TMS,isomer #1CC1=C(/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C2=C(C)C(=O)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)CC2(C)C)C(C)(C)C[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)C1=O4925.8Semi standard non polar33892256
Astaxanthin,2TMS,isomer #2CC1=C(/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C2=C(C)C(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C(O[Si](C)(C)C)CC2(C)C)C(C)(C)C[C@H](O)C1=O4813.6Semi standard non polar33892256
Astaxanthin,2TMS,isomer #3CC1=C(/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C2=C(C)C(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C(O)CC2(C)C)C(C)(C)C[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)C1=O4836.2Semi standard non polar33892256
Astaxanthin,2TMS,isomer #4CC1=C(/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C2=C(C)C(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C(O)CC2(C)C)C(C)(C)CC(O)=C1O[Si](C)(C)C4770.8Semi standard non polar33892256
Astaxanthin,3TMS,isomer #1CC1=C(/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C2=C(C)C(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C(O[Si](C)(C)C)CC2(C)C)C(C)(C)C[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)C1=O4740.0Semi standard non polar33892256
Astaxanthin,3TMS,isomer #1CC1=C(/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C2=C(C)C(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C(O[Si](C)(C)C)CC2(C)C)C(C)(C)C[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)C1=O4672.6Standard non polar33892256
Astaxanthin,3TMS,isomer #1CC1=C(/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C2=C(C)C(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C(O[Si](C)(C)C)CC2(C)C)C(C)(C)C[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)C1=O4760.4Standard polar33892256
Astaxanthin,3TMS,isomer #2CC1=C(/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C2=C(C)C(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C(O[Si](C)(C)C)CC2(C)C)C(C)(C)CC(O)=C1O[Si](C)(C)C4672.9Semi standard non polar33892256
Astaxanthin,3TMS,isomer #2CC1=C(/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C2=C(C)C(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C(O[Si](C)(C)C)CC2(C)C)C(C)(C)CC(O)=C1O[Si](C)(C)C4550.6Standard non polar33892256
Astaxanthin,3TMS,isomer #2CC1=C(/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C2=C(C)C(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C(O[Si](C)(C)C)CC2(C)C)C(C)(C)CC(O)=C1O[Si](C)(C)C4799.2Standard polar33892256
Astaxanthin,4TMS,isomer #1CC1=C(/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C2=C(C)C(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C(O[Si](C)(C)C)CC2(C)C)C(C)(C)CC(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C1O[Si](C)(C)C4598.0Semi standard non polar33892256
Astaxanthin,4TMS,isomer #1CC1=C(/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C2=C(C)C(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C(O[Si](C)(C)C)CC2(C)C)C(C)(C)CC(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C1O[Si](C)(C)C4551.6Standard non polar33892256
Astaxanthin,4TMS,isomer #1CC1=C(/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C2=C(C)C(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C(O[Si](C)(C)C)CC2(C)C)C(C)(C)CC(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C1O[Si](C)(C)C4709.3Standard polar33892256
Astaxanthin,1TBDMS,isomer #1CC1=C(/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C2=C(C)C(=O)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)CC2(C)C)C(C)(C)C[C@H](O)C1=O5196.2Semi standard non polar33892256
Astaxanthin,1TBDMS,isomer #2CC1=C(/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C2=C(C)C(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)=C(O)CC2(C)C)C(C)(C)C[C@H](O)C1=O5169.0Semi standard non polar33892256
Astaxanthin,2TBDMS,isomer #1CC1=C(/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C2=C(C)C(=O)[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)CC2(C)C)C(C)(C)C[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C1=O5362.6Semi standard non polar33892256
Astaxanthin,2TBDMS,isomer #2CC1=C(/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C2=C(C)C(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)=C(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)CC2(C)C)C(C)(C)C[C@H](O)C1=O5306.0Semi standard non polar33892256
Astaxanthin,2TBDMS,isomer #3CC1=C(/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C2=C(C)C(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)=C(O)CC2(C)C)C(C)(C)C[C@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C1=O5313.5Semi standard non polar33892256
Astaxanthin,2TBDMS,isomer #4CC1=C(/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C(C)=C/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C=C(C)/C=C/C2=C(C)C(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)=C(O)CC2(C)C)C(C)(C)CC(O)=C1O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C5266.2Semi standard non polar33892256
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Astaxanthin GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-001i-2000090000-c6336112eb898c2f0a482017-09-01Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Astaxanthin GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0udi-3000019000-6b5720849187b199d6bf2017-10-06Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Astaxanthin GC-MS (TMS_1_2) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Astaxanthin GC-MS (TMS_2_1) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Astaxanthin GC-MS (TMS_2_2) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Astaxanthin GC-MS (TMS_2_3) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Astaxanthin GC-MS (TMS_2_4) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Astaxanthin GC-MS (TBDMS_1_1) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Astaxanthin GC-MS (TBDMS_1_2) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Astaxanthin GC-MS (TBDMS_2_1) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Astaxanthin GC-MS (TBDMS_2_2) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Astaxanthin GC-MS (TBDMS_2_3) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Astaxanthin GC-MS (TBDMS_2_4) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-16Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Astaxanthin GC-MS ("Astaxanthin,1TMS,#1" TMS) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-20Wishart LabView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Astaxanthin 30V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0002-0961030000-dc7a74c186ee85f204fa2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Astaxanthin 30V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0002-0961030000-368bb77cba4aef27a5cb2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Astaxanthin 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0002-0000090000-ce16b33770cb7a4b2ff72021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Astaxanthin 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0002-0232390000-f37e3530214c99f633062016-08-02Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Astaxanthin 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-004i-1296830000-ac8ea41a53a053acb7c82016-08-02Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Astaxanthin 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-03fr-0185910000-7af6a00762ad7e8ee75d2016-08-02Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Astaxanthin 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0002-0000090000-248171e80348a7e1d17e2016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Astaxanthin 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0002-0000090000-b9759de23c7494bb7b2d2016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Astaxanthin 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-004i-0333390000-074ea5de5d017bafdb5e2016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Astaxanthin 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-004m-0142590000-4e72a5bda186fd51912c2021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Astaxanthin 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-03fr-0195650000-3ee8ba797d4a2fb9c80f2021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Astaxanthin 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-01u3-0013900000-71e9a6336700d9e8fca62021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Astaxanthin 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0002-0001090000-836dc358b0a566457c262021-09-23Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Astaxanthin 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-004j-0117190000-07d5d205542df36e4f5b2021-09-23Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Astaxanthin 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-002b-0239230000-7be6270484a4c641a4682021-09-23Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.092 +/- 0.025 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB06543
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB018640
KNApSAcK IDC00000918
Chemspider ID4444636
KEGG Compound IDC08580
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkAstaxanthin
METLIN ID3671
PubChem Compound5281224
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID40968
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDrw1416251
References
Synthesis ReferenceBerg, Michael; Essl, Stefan; Hugentobler, Max. Process for the preparation of astaxanthin. PCT Int. Appl. (2007), 19pp.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Hussein G, Sankawa U, Goto H, Matsumoto K, Watanabe H: Astaxanthin, a carotenoid with potential in human health and nutrition. J Nat Prod. 2006 Mar;69(3):443-9. [PubMed:16562856 ]
  2. Higuera-Ciapara I, Felix-Valenzuela L, Goycoolea FM: Astaxanthin: a review of its chemistry and applications. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2006;46(2):185-96. [PubMed:16431409 ]
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