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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-05-22 14:18:00 UTC
Update Date2020-11-09 23:17:02 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0002643
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB02643
Metabolite Identification
Common Name3-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropanoic acid
Description3-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropanoic acid (HPHPA) is an organic acid detected in human urine. It is relatively abundant in adult human urine and it is normally relatively benign. It is thought that the presence of this acid is from nutritional sources (i.e. dietary phenylalanine or polyphenols). However, there has been a considerable degree of ambiguity in the origin and/or significance of this compound (PMID: 11978597 ). Recently, it has been reported that HPHPA is actually an abnormal phenylalanine metabolite arising from bacterial metabolism in the gastrointestinal tract. Specifically, HPHPA appears to arise from the action of the anaerobic bacteria Clostridia sp. (PMID: 20423563 ; PMID: 24063620 ). Elevated levels of HPHPA have been reported in the urine of children with autism as well as in adult patients with schizophrenia. It has been proposed that HPHPA may be a bacterial metabolite of m-tyrosine, a tyrosine analog that causes symptoms of autism in experimental animals. Under certain conditions, HPHPA can act as a neurotoxin and a metabotoxin. A neurotoxin causes damage to nerve cells and nerve tissues. A metabotoxin is an endogenously produced metabolite that causes adverse health effects at chronically high levels. Chronically high levels of HPHPA are associated with autism and schizophrenia. The mechanism by which HPHPA exerts its toxic effects is not clear. It may function as a catecholamine analog and disrupt catecholamine signalling, especially in younger individuals. Alternately, HPHPA may function as an amino acid analog to tyrosine and phenylalanine. High plasma concentrations of phenylalanine (and possibly HPHPA) are known to influence the blood-brain barrier transport of large neutral amino acids. This altered transport is believed to interfere with the function of different cerebral enzyme systems in the developing brain. Studies have shown that higher levels of HPHPA are associated with overgrowth of Clostridia in the gut, including Clostridium difficile, Clostridium sporogenes, Clostridium botulinum, Clostridium calortolerans, Clostridium mangenoyi, Clostridium ghoni, Clostridium bifermentans, Clostridium sordelli. (PMID: 20423563 ; PMID: 24063620 )
Structure
Data?1582752253
Synonyms
ValueSource
(3-Hydroxyphenyl)hydracrylic acidChEBI
3'-Hydroxyphenylhydracrylic acidChEBI
3-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropionic acidChEBI
3-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)hydracrylic acidChEBI
3-(m-Hydroxyphenyl)hydracrylic acidChEBI
3-Hydroxy-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acidChEBI
3-Hydroxyphenyl-hydracrylic acidChEBI
b-(m-Hydroxyphenyl)hydracrylic acidChEBI
beta-(m-Hydroxyphenyl)hydracrylic acidChEBI
HPHPAChEBI
(3-Hydroxyphenyl)hydracrylateGenerator
3'-HydroxyphenylhydracrylateGenerator
3-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropionateGenerator
3-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)hydracrylateGenerator
3-(m-Hydroxyphenyl)hydracrylateGenerator
3-Hydroxy-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propionateGenerator
3-Hydroxyphenyl-hydracrylateGenerator
b-(m-Hydroxyphenyl)hydracrylateGenerator
beta-(m-Hydroxyphenyl)hydracrylateGenerator
Β-(m-hydroxyphenyl)hydracrylateGenerator
Β-(m-hydroxyphenyl)hydracrylic acidGenerator
3-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropanoateGenerator
HPHPA CPDHMDB
beta-(Meta-hydroxyphenyl)hydracrylic acidHMDB
MHPHAHMDB
Chemical FormulaC9H10O4
Average Molecular Weight182.1733
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight182.057908808
IUPAC Name3-hydroxy-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid
Traditional Namemhpha
CAS Registry Number3247-75-4
SMILES
OC(CC(O)=O)C1=CC(O)=CC=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C9H10O4/c10-7-3-1-2-6(4-7)8(11)5-9(12)13/h1-4,8,10-11H,5H2,(H,12,13)
InChI KeyKHTAGVZHYUZYMF-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylpropanoic acids. Phenylpropanoic acids are compounds with a structure containing a benzene ring conjugated to a propanoic acid.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassPhenylpropanoids and polyketides
ClassPhenylpropanoic acids
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentPhenylpropanoic acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 3-phenylpropanoic-acid
  • 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Beta-hydroxy acid
  • Phenol
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Hydroxy acid
  • Benzenoid
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Alcohol
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic alcohol
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Biological location:

Source:

Role

Indirect biological role:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility6.31 g/LALOGPS
logP0.68ALOGPS
logP0.68ChemAxon
logS-1.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.94ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area77.76 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity45.31 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability17.31 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00di-6900000000-1c85dbbfd5980c188548Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (3 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-014i-3094000000-b60bebf30bd58b1783a1Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0159-0900000000-db4168cb272b787d7521Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-01ba-1900000000-bf141ae9daa7c4c192b4Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-01b9-6900000000-6baa657777aef17afbb5Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-001i-1900000000-9e5b5607972b5e60f0ecSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-07ci-3900000000-d464d54fbcadeb4e4444Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-052f-9400000000-4de7b48574933f1a2830Spectrum
1D NMR1H NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
2D NMR[1H,13C] 2D NMR SpectrumNot AvailableSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot Available
Normal
      Not Available
details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.9 (1.4-22.1) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified69.556 +/- 56.735 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified5.121 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.55-54.93 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal
    • David F. Putnam C...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified16 (0.8-83) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.01-3.37 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • López Hernández Y...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.20(0.05-1.57) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)FemaleNormal
    • López Hernández Y...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.18(0.01-3.37) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)MaleNormal
    • López Hernández Y...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified91.5 +/- 90.4 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)MaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified85.5 +/- 55.9 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)FemaleNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified39.8 +/- 50.2 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.3-12.7 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified4.2 (0.9-15.3) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
UrineDetected and Quantified57.84 +/- 80.919 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified16.197 +/- 9.854 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Gastroesophageal reflux disease
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected and Quantified3.326 +/- 2.352 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1 - 13 years old)Not Specified
Eosinophilic esophagitis
    • Mordechai, Hien, ...
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Hypertension (mild)
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Hypertension (mild)
details
UrineDetected and Quantified192.4 +/- 90.4 umol/mmol creatinineChildren (1-13 years old)MaleAutism details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothBladder cancer details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Autism
  1. Shaw W: Increased urinary excretion of a 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropionic acid (HPHPA), an abnormal phenylalanine metabolite of Clostridia spp. in the gastrointestinal tract, in urine samples from patients with autism and schizophrenia. Nutr Neurosci. 2010 Jun;13(3):135-43. doi: 10.1179/147683010X12611460763968. [PubMed:20423563 ]
Eosinophilic esophagitis
  1. (). Mordechai, Hien, and David S. Wishart. .
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB023037
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID93013
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN ID6729
PubChem Compound102959
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID86369
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDMDB00000394
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Kumps A, Duez P, Mardens Y: Metabolic, nutritional, iatrogenic, and artifactual sources of urinary organic acids: a comprehensive table. Clin Chem. 2002 May;48(5):708-17. [PubMed:11978597 ]
  2. Shaw W: Increased urinary excretion of a 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropionic acid (HPHPA), an abnormal phenylalanine metabolite of Clostridia spp. in the gastrointestinal tract, in urine samples from patients with autism and schizophrenia. Nutr Neurosci. 2010 Jun;13(3):135-43. doi: 10.1179/147683010X12611460763968. [PubMed:20423563 ]
  3. Kesli R, Gokcen C, Bulug U, Terzi Y: Investigation of the relation between anaerobic bacteria genus clostridium and late-onset autism etiology in children. J Immunoassay Immunochem. 2014;35(1):101-9. doi: 10.1080/15321819.2013.792834. [PubMed:24063620 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in sulfotransferase activity
Specific function:
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfate conjugation of many hormones, neurotransmitters, drugs and xenobiotic compounds. Sulfonation increases the water solubility of most compounds, and therefore their renal excretion, but it can also result in bioactivation to form active metabolites. Sulfates hydroxysteroids like DHEA. Isoform 1 preferentially sulfonates cholesterol, and isoform 2 avidly sulfonates pregnenolone but not cholesterol.
Gene Name:
SULT2B1
Uniprot ID:
O00204
Molecular weight:
39598.595
Reactions
3-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropanoic acid → 3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)-3-(sulfooxy)propanoic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone.
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular weight:
59590.91
Reactions
3-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropanoic acid → 6-[3-(2-carboxy-1-hydroxyethyl)phenoxy]-3,4,5-trihydroxyoxane-2-carboxylic aciddetails
3-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropanoic acid → 3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-{[3-hydroxy-3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)propanoyl]oxy}oxane-2-carboxylic aciddetails
General function:
sulfotransferase activity
Specific function:
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfate conjugation of phenolic monoamines (neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin) and phenolic and catechol drugs.
Gene Name:
SULT1A3
Uniprot ID:
P0DMM9
Molecular weight:
34195.96
Reactions
3-(3-Hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxypropanoic acid → 3-hydroxy-3-[3-(sulfooxy)phenyl]propanoic aciddetails