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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-05-22 15:12:11 UTC
Update Date2021-09-14 15:40:03 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0002802
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB02802
Metabolite Identification
Common NameCortisone
DescriptionCortisone is a naturally occurring glucocorticoid. It has been used in replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency and as an anti-inflammatory agent. Cortisone itself is inactive. It is converted in the liver into the active metabolite cortisol. Cortisone is a corticosteroid hormone released by the adrenal gland in response to stress. One of cortisone's effects on the body, and a potentially harmful side effect when administered clinically, is the suppression of the immune system. This is an explanation for the apparent correlation between high stress and sickness.
Structure
Data?1582752256
Synonyms
ValueSource
11-Dehydro-17-hydroxycorticosteroneChEBI
17-Hydroxy-11-dehydrocorticosteroneChEBI
17alpha,21-Dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3,11,20-trioneChEBI
4-Pregnene-17alpha,21-diol-3,11,20-trioneChEBI
CortisonChEBI
Delta(4)-Pregnene-17alpha,21-diol-3,11,20-trioneChEBI
Kendall's compound eChEBI
KortisonChEBI
Pregn-4-en-17alpha,21-diol-3,11,20-trioneChEBI
Reichstein's substance faChEBI
Wintersteiner's compound FChEBI
17a,21-Dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3,11,20-trioneGenerator
17Α,21-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3,11,20-trioneGenerator
4-Pregnene-17a,21-diol-3,11,20-trioneGenerator
4-Pregnene-17α,21-diol-3,11,20-trioneGenerator
delta(4)-Pregnene-17a,21-diol-3,11,20-trioneGenerator
Δ(4)-pregnene-17α,21-diol-3,11,20-trioneGenerator
Pregn-4-en-17a,21-diol-3,11,20-trioneGenerator
Pregn-4-en-17α,21-diol-3,11,20-trioneGenerator
Δ(4)-pregnene-17a,21-diol-3,11,20-trioneHMDB
AndresonHMDB
Anusol HCHMDB
Balneol-HCHMDB
beta-HCHMDB
ColocortHMDB
Compound eHMDB
CorlinHMDB
CortadrenHMDB
CortandrenHMDB
CortefHMDB
Cortef acetateHMDB
CortisalHMDB
CortisateHMDB
Cortisone acetateHMDB
CortistalHMDB
CortiviteHMDB
CortogenHMDB
CortoneHMDB
CortrilHMDB
DermacortHMDB
DricortHMDB
FlexicortHMDB
FlorinefHMDB
Fludrocortisone acetateHMDB
GlycortHMDB
Hemsol-HCHMDB
Hi-corHMDB
IncortinHMDB
Kendall'S compoundHMDB
LocoidHMDB
Locoid lipocreamHMDB
Micort-HCHMDB
Nogenic HCHMDB
Orabase hcaHMDB
PandelHMDB
Prestwick_132HMDB
Reichstein faHMDB
ScherosonHMDB
Solu-cortefHMDB
Stie-cortHMDB
TexacortHMDB
WestcortHMDB
AdresonHMDB
Cortone acetateHMDB
17-Hydroxy-3,11,20-trioxopregn-4-en-21-yl acetateHMDB
Chemical FormulaC21H28O5
Average Molecular Weight360.444
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight360.193674006
IUPAC Name(1S,2R,10S,11S,14R,15S)-14-hydroxy-14-(2-hydroxyacetyl)-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0^{2,7}.0^{11,15}]heptadec-6-ene-5,17-dione
Traditional Name(1S,2R,10S,11S,14R,15S)-14-hydroxy-14-(2-hydroxyacetyl)-2,15-dimethyltetracyclo[8.7.0.0^{2,7}.0^{11,15}]heptadec-6-ene-5,17-dione
CAS Registry Number53-06-5
SMILES
[H][C@@]12CC[C@](O)(C(=O)CO)[C@@]1(C)CC(=O)[C@@]1([H])[C@@]2([H])CCC2=CC(=O)CC[C@]12C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C21H28O5/c1-19-7-5-13(23)9-12(19)3-4-14-15-6-8-21(26,17(25)11-22)20(15,2)10-16(24)18(14)19/h9,14-15,18,22,26H,3-8,10-11H2,1-2H3/t14-,15-,18+,19-,20-,21-/m0/s1
InChI KeyMFYSYFVPBJMHGN-ZPOLXVRWSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 21-hydroxysteroids. These are steroids carrying a hydroxyl group at the 21-position of the steroid backbone.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSteroids and steroid derivatives
Sub ClassHydroxysteroids
Direct Parent21-hydroxysteroids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Progestogin-skeleton
  • 21-hydroxysteroid
  • Pregnane-skeleton
  • 20-oxosteroid
  • 3-oxo-delta-4-steroid
  • 3-oxosteroid
  • 17-hydroxysteroid
  • Oxosteroid
  • 11-oxosteroid
  • Delta-4-steroid
  • Cyclohexenone
  • Alpha-hydroxy ketone
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • Cyclic ketone
  • Ketone
  • Alcohol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Primary alcohol
  • Aliphatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Route of exposure:

Source:

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Biological role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point222 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.28 mg/mL at 25 °CNot Available
LogP1.47HANSCH,C ET AL. (1995)
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.14 g/LALOGPS
logP1.98ALOGPS
logP1.66ChemAxon
logS-3.4ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)12.58ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area91.67 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity96.47 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability38.95 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Spectral Properties

Collision Cross Sections

NameAdductTypeData SourceValueReference
DeepCCS[M+H]+ExperimentalMetCCS_train_pos188.60330932474
AllCCS[M-H]-ExperimentalNot Available191.4http://allccs.zhulab.cn/database/detail?ID=AllCCS00000266
AllCCS[M+H]+ExperimentalNot Available188.7http://allccs.zhulab.cn/database/detail?ID=AllCCS00000266
DarkChem[M+H]+PredictedNot Available186.41131661259
DarkChem[M-H]-PredictedNot Available181.44431661259

Retention Indices

Underivatized

Not Available

Derivatized

DerivativeValueReference
Cortisone,1TMS,#13372.4668https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,1TMS,#23351.181https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,1TMS,#33197.3552https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,1TMS,#43311.7703https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,1TMS,#53251.6511https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,1TMS,#63302.1929https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,2TMS,#13406.504https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,2TMS,#23183.712https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,2TMS,#33241.2412https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,2TMS,#43296.2874https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,2TMS,#53321.8499https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,2TMS,#63181.9219https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,2TMS,#73214.3682https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,2TMS,#83270.6243https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,2TMS,#93347.5327https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,2TMS,#103084.8193https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,2TMS,#113111.2034https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,2TMS,#123133.4346https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,2TMS,#133234.8318https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,2TMS,#143102.433https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,1TBDMS,#13617.2498https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,1TBDMS,#23631.1855https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,1TBDMS,#33437.4988https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,1TBDMS,#43558.2295https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,1TBDMS,#53483.4084https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,1TBDMS,#63555.9824https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,2TBDMS,#13900.8665https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,2TBDMS,#23629.204https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,2TBDMS,#33838.8179https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,2TBDMS,#43774.7322https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,2TBDMS,#53701.8https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,2TBDMS,#63653.1235https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,2TBDMS,#73824.8699https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,2TBDMS,#83767.1482https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,2TBDMS,#93689.0989https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,2TBDMS,#103542.8586https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,2TBDMS,#113566.4497https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,2TBDMS,#123704.1294https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,2TBDMS,#133589.3518https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Cortisone,2TBDMS,#143570.442https://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Spectra

GC-MS

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kf-2910000000-da435cee921dd7b9f8e62017-09-12View Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - GC-EI-TOF (Non-derivatized)splash10-00kf-2910000000-da435cee921dd7b9f8e62018-05-18View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-05ai-5879000000-d8ce750671bf51b487e22017-09-01View Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0f79-2918800000-ab308a6a5023c34bc22f2017-10-06View Spectrum

LC-MS/MS

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03di-0009000000-5d34de066e82cc9f0a412012-07-25View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-03di-0900000000-24ec04976da03c3f9c772012-07-25View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive (Annotated)splash10-0fdo-4900000000-d0880bfc6f3d80e4aa722012-07-25View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-qTof , Positivesplash10-03di-3940000000-16be8720b1c49cea9b062017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-004i-0009000000-6c22c083c2dfab97a2992017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-004i-0109000000-48c96b3d1471c5cd61712017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-002r-0914000000-2466a9146383b4265e422017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-000i-0900000000-214430a00501054cc7742017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-059j-1900000000-0e23516e07f0baf74c792017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-0abj-1900000000-ad0282ab7188d9ec3dc12017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-0aba-3900000000-e36e464b157b3e6159f12017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-0a4j-5900000000-fe9092d76099e1e70a4e2017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QFT , negativesplash10-0aou-6900000000-1b218b97a890ac7e8f452017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativesplash10-03fr-0049000000-3bd424d473bdadd2b9b42017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativesplash10-03di-0039000000-fd181dfb87e1cbb8ab6f2017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativesplash10-03di-0049000000-7633496a1a53bda217072017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativesplash10-004i-0009000000-59db5e627634e4be39072017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativesplash10-004i-0009000000-9781e204df305d722d2d2017-09-14View Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Linear Ion Trap , negativesplash10-004i-0009000000-0b5e40226163a1a334db2017-09-14View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03dl-0009000000-946472abc72d41b1633c2017-09-01View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-003u-0149000000-efb3f94efcbdfc4688592017-09-01View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0a5j-2392000000-d014016e46f2ae8b1bd12017-09-01View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0a4i-0009000000-1c4a8c3698ff1bfa2bd92017-09-01View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0pb9-2029000000-82b546174619108311f82017-09-01View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0ab9-8093000000-47f7996c84edb1324aad2017-09-01View Spectrum

NMR

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateView
1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, 100%_DMSO, experimental)2012-12-05View Spectrum
2D NMR[1H, 13C] NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, 100%_DMSO, predicted)2012-12-05View Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
  • Endoplasmic reticulum
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Adipose Tissue
  • Adrenal Cortex
  • Adrenal Gland
  • Epidermis
  • Fibroblasts
  • Intestine
  • Kidney
  • Neuron
  • Placenta
  • Skeletal Muscle
  • Testis
  • Thyroid Gland
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0411 (0.0222 - 0.0750) uMAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0380 (0.0222 - 0.0750) uMAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0624 +/- 0.009 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.011 +/- 0.001 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Femaleovarian cancer details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.0466 +/- 0.0071 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothDepersonalization syndrome details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)MaleTooth Decay details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0042 +/- 0.0011 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.014 +/- 0.0013 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0039 +/- 0.0012 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Rheumatoid arthritis
details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.0070 +/- 0.0014 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Both
Rheumatoid arthritis
details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Depersonalization disorder
  1. Nuller YL, Morozova MG, Kushnir ON, Hamper N: Effect of naloxone therapy on depersonalization: a pilot study. J Psychopharmacol. 2001 Jun;15(2):93-5. [PubMed:11448093 ]
Ovarian cancer
  1. Gaul DA, Mezencev R, Long TQ, Jones CM, Benigno BB, Gray A, Fernandez FM, McDonald JF: Highly-accurate metabolomic detection of early-stage ovarian cancer. Sci Rep. 2015 Nov 17;5:16351. doi: 10.1038/srep16351. [PubMed:26573008 ]
Tooth Decay
  1. Liebsch C, Pitchika V, Pink C, Samietz S, Kastenmuller G, Artati A, Suhre K, Adamski J, Nauck M, Volzke H, Friedrich N, Kocher T, Holtfreter B, Pietzner M: The Saliva Metabolome in Association to Oral Health Status. J Dent Res. 2019 Jun;98(6):642-651. doi: 10.1177/0022034519842853. Epub 2019 Apr 26. [PubMed:31026179 ]
Rheumatoid arthritis
  1. Straub RH, Weidler C, Demmel B, Herrmann M, Kees F, Schmidt M, Scholmerich J, Schedel J: Renal clearance and daily excretion of cortisol and adrenal androgens in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Ann Rheum Dis. 2004 Aug;63(8):961-8. [PubMed:15249323 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB023065
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID193441
KEGG Compound IDC00762
BioCyc IDCORTISONE
BiGG ID35911
Wikipedia LinkCortisone
METLIN ID271
PubChem Compound222786
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16962
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDCORTSN
MarkerDB IDMDB00030004
References
Synthesis ReferenceGanis, Frank M.; Axelrod, Leonard R.; Miller, Leon L. The metabolism of hydrocortisone by kidney tissue in vitro. Journal of Biological Chemistry (1956), 218 841-8.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Zuber M, Miesel R, Brandl B: A patient with a high titer of antinuclear antibody and a functioning adrenal tumour. Clin Rheumatol. 1995 Jan;14(1):100-3. [PubMed:7743733 ]
  2. Edwin B, Raeder I, Trondsen E, Kaaresen R, Buanes T: Outpatient laparoscopic adrenalectomy in patients with Conn's syndrome. Surg Endosc. 2001 Jun;15(6):589-91. Epub 2001 Mar 13. [PubMed:11591947 ]
  3. Onyimba CU, Vijapurapu N, Curnow SJ, Khosla P, Stewart PM, Murray PI, Walker EA, Rauz S: Characterisation of the prereceptor regulation of glucocorticoids in the anterior segment of the rabbit eye. J Endocrinol. 2006 Aug;190(2):483-93. [PubMed:16899581 ]
  4. Weigand A, Hinzpeter B, Schicha H: [Deterioration of endocrine ophthalmology after radioiodine therapy in Graves' disease?]. Nuklearmedizin. 1998;37(7):234-8. [PubMed:9830613 ]
  5. Mark PJ, Waddell BJ: P-glycoprotein restricts access of cortisol and dexamethasone to the glucocorticoid receptor in placental BeWo cells. Endocrinology. 2006 Nov;147(11):5147-52. Epub 2006 Jul 27. [PubMed:16873536 ]
  6. Sandeep TC, Andrew R, Homer NZ, Andrews RC, Smith K, Walker BR: Increased in vivo regeneration of cortisol in adipose tissue in human obesity and effects of the 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 inhibitor carbenoxolone. Diabetes. 2005 Mar;54(3):872-9. [PubMed:15734867 ]
  7. Pepe GJ, Albrecht ED: Regulation of the primate fetal adrenal cortex. Endocr Rev. 1990 Feb;11(1):151-76. [PubMed:2180686 ]
  8. Boman HG: Innate immunity and the normal microflora. Immunol Rev. 2000 Feb;173:5-16. [PubMed:10719663 ]
  9. Andrew R, Westerbacka J, Wahren J, Yki-Jarvinen H, Walker BR: The contribution of visceral adipose tissue to splanchnic cortisol production in healthy humans. Diabetes. 2005 May;54(5):1364-70. [PubMed:15855321 ]
  10. Sharma KK, Lindqvist A, Zhou XJ, Auchus RJ, Penning TM, Andersson S: Deoxycorticosterone inactivation by AKR1C3 in human mineralocorticoid target tissues. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2006 Mar 27;248(1-2):79-86. Epub 2005 Dec 5. [PubMed:16337083 ]
  11. Draper N, Stewart PM: 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase and the pre-receptor regulation of corticosteroid hormone action. J Endocrinol. 2005 Aug;186(2):251-71. [PubMed:16079253 ]
  12. AvRuskin TW, Krishnan N, Juan CS: Congenital adrenal hypoplasia and male pseudohermaphroditism due to DAX1 mutation, SF1 mutation or neither: a patient report. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2004 Aug;17(8):1125-32. [PubMed:15379426 ]
  13. Ferrari P, Bianchetti M, Frey FJ: Juvenile hypertension, the role of genetically altered steroid metabolism. Horm Res. 2001;55(5):213-23. [PubMed:11740142 ]
  14. Stormer FC, Reistad R, Alexander J: Glycyrrhizic acid in liquorice--evaluation of health hazard. Food Chem Toxicol. 1993 Apr;31(4):303-12. [PubMed:8386690 ]
  15. Bolt RJ, Van Weissenbruch MM, Popp-Snijders C, Sweep FG, Lafeber HN, Delemarre-van de Waal HA: Maturity of the adrenal cortex in very preterm infants is related to gestational age. Pediatr Res. 2002 Sep;52(3):405-10. [PubMed:12193676 ]
  16. Jiang JQ, Wang DS, Senthilkumaran B, Kobayashi T, Kobayashi HK, Yamaguchi A, Ge W, Young G, Nagahama Y: Isolation, characterization and expression of 11beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 cDNAs from the testes of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) and Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). J Mol Endocrinol. 2003 Oct;31(2):305-15. [PubMed:14519098 ]
  17. Elshenawy S, Pinney SE, Stuart T, Doulias PT, Zura G, Parry S, Elovitz MA, Bennett MJ, Bansal A, Strauss JF 3rd, Ischiropoulos H, Simmons RA: The Metabolomic Signature of the Placenta in Spontaneous Preterm Birth. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Feb 4;21(3). pii: ijms21031043. doi: 10.3390/ijms21031043. [PubMed:32033212 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Efficiently catalyzes the reduction of progesterone, androstenedione, 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone and testosterone to 5-beta-reduced metabolites. The bile acid intermediates 7-alpha,12-alpha-dihydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one and 7-alpha-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one can also act as substrates.
Gene Name:
AKR1D1
Uniprot ID:
P51857
Molecular weight:
32889.38
Reactions
17a,21-Dihydroxy-5b-pregnane-3,11,20-trione + NADP → Cortisonedetails
17a,21-Dihydroxy-5b-pregnane-3,11,20-trione + NADP → Cortisone + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes the conversion of cortisol to the inactive metabolite cortisone. Modulates intracellular glucocorticoid levels, thus protecting the nonselective mineralocorticoid receptor from occupation by glucocorticoids.
Gene Name:
HSD11B2
Uniprot ID:
P80365
Molecular weight:
44126.06
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Catalyzes reversibly the conversion of cortisol to the inactive metabolite cortisone. Catalyzes reversibly the conversion of 7-ketocholesterol to 7-beta-hydroxycholesterol. In intact cells, the reaction runs only in one direction, from 7-ketocholesterol to 7-beta-hydroxycholesterol (By similarity).
Gene Name:
HSD11B1
Uniprot ID:
P28845
Molecular weight:
32400.665
Reactions
Cortisol + NADP → Cortisone + NADPH + Hydrogen Iondetails
General function:
Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific function:
Displays NADPH-dependent dicarbonyl reductase activity in vitro with 3,4-Hexanedione, 2,3-Heptanedione and 1-Phenyl-1,2- propanedione as substrates. No reductase activity is displayed in vitro with steroids, retinoids and sugars as substrates. May inhibit cell replication
Gene Name:
DHRS2
Uniprot ID:
Q13268
Molecular weight:
27438.4