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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2006-05-22 15:12:20 UTC
Update Date2022-09-22 18:34:17 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0002931
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB02931
Metabolite Identification
Common NameN-Acetylserine
DescriptionN-Acetyl-L-serine or N-Acetylserine, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as N-acyl-alpha amino acids. N-acyl-alpha amino acids are compounds containing an alpha amino acid which bears an acyl group at its terminal nitrogen atom. N-Acetylserine can also be classified as an alpha amino acid or a derivatized alpha amino acid. Technically, N-Acetylserine is a biologically available N-terminal capped form of the proteinogenic alpha amino acid L-serine. N-acetyl amino acids can be produced either via direct synthesis of specific N-acetyltransferases or via the proteolytic degradation of N-acetylated proteins by specific hydrolases. N-terminal acetylation of proteins is a widespread and highly conserved process in eukaryotes that is involved in protection and stability of proteins (PMID: 16465618 ). About 85% of all human proteins and 68% of all yeast proteins are acetylated at their N-terminus (PMID: 21750686 ). Several proteins from prokaryotes and archaea are also modified by N-terminal acetylation. The majority of eukaryotic N-terminal-acetylation reactions occur through N-acetyltransferase enzymes or NAT’s (PMID: 30054468 ). These enzymes consist of three main oligomeric complexes NatA, NatB, and NatC, which are composed of at least a unique catalytic subunit and one unique ribosomal anchor. The substrate specificities of different NAT enzymes are mainly determined by the identities of the first two N-terminal residues of the target protein. The human NatA complex co-translationally acetylates N-termini that bear a small amino acid (A, S, T, C, and occasionally V and G) (PMID: 30054468 ). NatA also exists in a monomeric state and can post-translationally acetylate acidic N-termini residues (D-, E-). NatB and NatC acetylate N-terminal methionine with further specificity determined by the identity of the second amino acid. N-acetylated amino acids, such as N-acetylserine can be released by an N-acylpeptide hydrolase from peptides generated by proteolytic degradation (PMID: 16465618 ). In addition to the NAT enzymes and protein-based acetylation, N-acetylation of free serine can also occur. Excessive amounts N-acetyl amino acids including N-acetylserine (as well as N-acetylglycine, N-acetylglutamine, N-acetylmethionine, N-acetylglutamate, N-acetylalanine, N-acetylleucine and smaller amounts of N-acetylthreonine, N-acetylisoleucine, and N-acetylvaline) can be detected in the urine with individuals with acylase I deficiency, a genetic disorder (PMID: 16465618 ). Aminoacylase I is a soluble homodimeric zinc binding enzyme that catalyzes the formation of free aliphatic amino acids from N-acetylated precursors. In humans, Aminoacylase I is encoded by the aminoacylase 1 gene (ACY1) on chromosome 3p21 that consists of 15 exons (OMIM 609924 ). Individuals with aminoacylase I deficiency will experience convulsions, hearing loss and difficulty feeding (PMID: 16465618 ). ACY1 can also catalyze the reverse reaction, the synthesis of acetylated amino acids. Many N-acetylamino acids, including N-acetylserine are classified as uremic toxins if present in high abundance in the serum or plasma (PMID: 26317986 ; PMID: 20613759 ). Uremic toxins are a diverse group of endogenously produced molecules that, if not properly cleared or eliminated by the kidneys, can cause kidney damage, cardiovascular disease and neurological deficits (PMID: 18287557 ).
Structure
Data?1582752259
Synonyms
ValueSource
AcetylserineHMDB
N-Acetyl-L-serineHMDB
(2S)-2-Acetamido-3-hydroxypropanoic acidHMDB
(2S)-2-Acetamido-3-hydroxypropionic acidHMDB
(S)-2-Acetamido-3-hydroxypropanoic acidHMDB
(S)-2-Acetamido-3-hydroxypropionic acidHMDB
N-AcetylserineMeSH
Chemical FormulaC5H9NO4
Average Molecular Weight147.1293
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight147.053157781
IUPAC Name(2S)-2-acetamido-3-hydroxypropanoic acid
Traditional Nameacetylserine
CAS Registry Number16354-58-8
SMILES
CC(=O)N[C@@H](CO)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H9NO4/c1-3(8)6-4(2-7)5(9)10/h4,7H,2H2,1H3,(H,6,8)(H,9,10)/t4-/m0/s1
InChI KeyJJIHLJJYMXLCOY-BYPYZUCNSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as n-acyl-l-alpha-amino acids. These are n-acylated alpha amino acids which have the L-configuration of the alpha-carbon atom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentN-acyl-L-alpha-amino acids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • N-acyl-l-alpha-amino acid
  • Serine or derivatives
  • Beta-hydroxy acid
  • Hydroxy acid
  • Acetamide
  • Carboxamide group
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Primary alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological location

Source

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point207.6 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Experimental Chromatographic Properties

Experimental Collision Cross Sections

Adduct TypeData SourceCCS Value (Å2)Reference
[M-H]-Not Available127.8http://allccs.zhulab.cn/database/detail?ID=AllCCS00002074
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility84.6 g/LALOGPS
logP-1.4ALOGPS
logP-1.8ChemAxon
logS-0.24ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.61ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count3ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area86.63 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity31.48 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability13.43 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DarkChem[M+H]+132.28531661259
DarkChem[M-H]-127.92831661259
DeepCCS[M+H]+124.99930932474
DeepCCS[M-H]-121.13330932474
DeepCCS[M-2H]-158.45630932474
DeepCCS[M+Na]+133.90830932474
AllCCS[M+H]+134.732859911
AllCCS[M+H-H2O]+130.832859911
AllCCS[M+NH4]+138.432859911
AllCCS[M+Na]+139.532859911
AllCCS[M-H]-127.232859911
AllCCS[M+Na-2H]-129.532859911
AllCCS[M+HCOO]-132.132859911

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Underivatized

MetaboliteSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
N-AcetylserineCC(=O)N[C@@H](CO)C(O)=O2402.6Standard polar33892256
N-AcetylserineCC(=O)N[C@@H](CO)C(O)=O1336.1Standard non polar33892256
N-AcetylserineCC(=O)N[C@@H](CO)C(O)=O1586.0Semi standard non polar33892256

Derivatized

Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
N-Acetylserine,1TMS,isomer #1CC(=O)N[C@@H](CO[Si](C)(C)C)C(=O)O1391.3Semi standard non polar33892256
N-Acetylserine,1TMS,isomer #2CC(=O)N[C@@H](CO)C(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C1415.4Semi standard non polar33892256
N-Acetylserine,1TMS,isomer #3CC(=O)N([C@@H](CO)C(=O)O)[Si](C)(C)C1436.9Semi standard non polar33892256
N-Acetylserine,2TMS,isomer #1CC(=O)N[C@@H](CO[Si](C)(C)C)C(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C1479.7Semi standard non polar33892256
N-Acetylserine,2TMS,isomer #2CC(=O)N([C@@H](CO[Si](C)(C)C)C(=O)O)[Si](C)(C)C1506.9Semi standard non polar33892256
N-Acetylserine,2TMS,isomer #3CC(=O)N([C@@H](CO)C(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C1437.0Semi standard non polar33892256
N-Acetylserine,3TMS,isomer #1CC(=O)N([C@@H](CO[Si](C)(C)C)C(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C1539.0Semi standard non polar33892256
N-Acetylserine,3TMS,isomer #1CC(=O)N([C@@H](CO[Si](C)(C)C)C(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C1558.9Standard non polar33892256
N-Acetylserine,3TMS,isomer #1CC(=O)N([C@@H](CO[Si](C)(C)C)C(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C1643.3Standard polar33892256
N-Acetylserine,1TBDMS,isomer #1CC(=O)N[C@@H](CO[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C(=O)O1636.0Semi standard non polar33892256
N-Acetylserine,1TBDMS,isomer #2CC(=O)N[C@@H](CO)C(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1653.4Semi standard non polar33892256
N-Acetylserine,1TBDMS,isomer #3CC(=O)N([C@@H](CO)C(=O)O)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1696.8Semi standard non polar33892256
N-Acetylserine,2TBDMS,isomer #1CC(=O)N[C@@H](CO[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1909.6Semi standard non polar33892256
N-Acetylserine,2TBDMS,isomer #2CC(=O)N([C@@H](CO[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C(=O)O)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1958.5Semi standard non polar33892256
N-Acetylserine,2TBDMS,isomer #3CC(=O)N([C@@H](CO)C(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1923.2Semi standard non polar33892256
N-Acetylserine,3TBDMS,isomer #1CC(=O)N([C@@H](CO[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2190.2Semi standard non polar33892256
N-Acetylserine,3TBDMS,isomer #1CC(=O)N([C@@H](CO[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2202.8Standard non polar33892256
N-Acetylserine,3TBDMS,isomer #1CC(=O)N([C@@H](CO[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C2089.7Standard polar33892256
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - N-Acetylserine GC-MS (2 TMS)splash10-0v4r-1910000000-55bfa57992b993e5736a2014-06-16HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - N-Acetylserine GC-MS (Non-derivatized)splash10-0v4r-1910000000-55bfa57992b993e5736a2017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - N-Acetylserine GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9300000000-6b0aa9c8cd5d65af598e2017-09-01Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - N-Acetylserine GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00dl-9640000000-e19818dfd1f671358afc2017-10-06Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - N-Acetylserine GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - N-Acetylserine 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-00ec-9000000000-ea3c1cb050105f5513c02021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - N-Acetylserine 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-00ea-9300000000-ecc32dc021c318a085a12021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - N-Acetylserine 30V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-006x-9000000000-ec47f807a87862b615602021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - N-Acetylserine 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-6b0d326c6e06fd4000da2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - N-Acetylserine 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-001j-2900000000-cbbd7e861694a1b35ef02015-09-15Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - N-Acetylserine 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0il9-9500000000-450a2fd0cc806534a0012015-09-15Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - N-Acetylserine 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-001c-9000000000-92b250da801d4279b0ce2015-09-15Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - N-Acetylserine 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0f6t-2900000000-4a518dea349294701f1d2015-09-15Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - N-Acetylserine 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0ugs-9800000000-1fd980296f0d35c624aa2015-09-15Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - N-Acetylserine 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0a4l-9100000000-b2ff3e9d761c45d69c152015-09-15Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - N-Acetylserine 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0bt9-7900000000-2b2025d17af2e7713b6d2021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - N-Acetylserine 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-03dr-9200000000-168efcb7664c27577d542021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - N-Acetylserine 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-03dl-9000000000-5f40a5d675fc086438642021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - N-Acetylserine 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-00di-9300000000-9296333e726065a0a2972021-09-23Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - N-Acetylserine 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-05fr-9100000000-04b2db5af6f8b258f2712021-09-23Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - N-Acetylserine 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-e1a13303be43e1757dfa2021-09-23Wishart LabView Spectrum

NMR Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)2012-12-05Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Experimental 2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 500 MHz, H2O, experimental)2012-12-05Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm (predicted from logP)
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Placenta
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Male
Normal
details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedCancer patients undergoing total body irradiation details
UrineDetected and Quantified104 (99-111) umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedAminoacylase I deficiency details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Aminoacylase I deficiency
  1. Sass JO, Mohr V, Olbrich H, Engelke U, Horvath J, Fliegauf M, Loges NT, Schweitzer-Krantz S, Moebus R, Weiler P, Kispert A, Superti-Furga A, Wevers RA, Omran H: Mutations in ACY1, the gene encoding aminoacylase 1, cause a novel inborn error of metabolism. Am J Hum Genet. 2006 Mar;78(3):401-9. Epub 2006 Jan 18. [PubMed:16465618 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDB02340
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB000970
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID58744
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkO-Acetylserine
METLIN ID308
PubChem Compound65249
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID45441
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceTsurumi, Kohti; Yamada, Sakae. L-Serine from D-glucosamine. Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine (1955), 62 329-31.
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Van Coster RN, Gerlo EA, Giardina TG, Engelke UF, Smet JE, De Praeter CM, Meersschaut VA, De Meirleir LJ, Seneca SH, Devreese B, Leroy JG, Herga S, Perrier JP, Wevers RA, Lissens W: Aminoacylase I deficiency: a novel inborn error of metabolism. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2005 Dec 23;338(3):1322-6. Epub 2005 Nov 2. [PubMed:16274666 ]
  2. Sass JO, Mohr V, Olbrich H, Engelke U, Horvath J, Fliegauf M, Loges NT, Schweitzer-Krantz S, Moebus R, Weiler P, Kispert A, Superti-Furga A, Wevers RA, Omran H: Mutations in ACY1, the gene encoding aminoacylase 1, cause a novel inborn error of metabolism. Am J Hum Genet. 2006 Mar;78(3):401-9. Epub 2006 Jan 18. [PubMed:16465618 ]
  3. Sugahara K, Zhang J, Kodama H: Liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of N-acetylamino acids in human urine. J Chromatogr B Biomed Appl. 1994 Jul 1;657(1):15-21. [PubMed:7952062 ]
  4. Boesgaard S, Aldershvile J, Poulsen HE, Christensen S, Dige-Petersen H, Giese J: N-acetylcysteine inhibits angiotensin converting enzyme in vivo. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993 Jun;265(3):1239-44. [PubMed:8389858 ]
  5. Lynch AS, Tyrrell R, Smerdon SJ, Briggs GS, Wilkinson AJ: Characterization of the CysB protein of Klebsiella aerogenes: direct evidence that N-acetylserine rather than O-acetylserine serves as the inducer of the cysteine regulon. Biochem J. 1994 Apr 1;299 ( Pt 1):129-36. [PubMed:8166630 ]
  6. Gerlo E, Van Coster R, Lissens W, Winckelmans G, De Meirleir L, Wevers R: Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of N-acetylated amino acids: the first case of aminoacylase I deficiency. Anal Chim Acta. 2006 Jul 7;571(2):191-9. Epub 2006 May 5. [PubMed:17723438 ]
  7. Elshenawy S, Pinney SE, Stuart T, Doulias PT, Zura G, Parry S, Elovitz MA, Bennett MJ, Bansal A, Strauss JF 3rd, Ischiropoulos H, Simmons RA: The Metabolomic Signature of the Placenta in Spontaneous Preterm Birth. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Feb 4;21(3). pii: ijms21031043. doi: 10.3390/ijms21031043. [PubMed:32033212 ]
  8. Tanaka H, Sirich TL, Plummer NS, Weaver DS, Meyer TW: An Enlarged Profile of Uremic Solutes. PLoS One. 2015 Aug 28;10(8):e0135657. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0135657. eCollection 2015. [PubMed:26317986 ]
  9. Van Damme P, Hole K, Pimenta-Marques A, Helsens K, Vandekerckhove J, Martinho RG, Gevaert K, Arnesen T: NatF contributes to an evolutionary shift in protein N-terminal acetylation and is important for normal chromosome segregation. PLoS Genet. 2011 Jul;7(7):e1002169. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002169. Epub 2011 Jul 7. [PubMed:21750686 ]
  10. Ree R, Varland S, Arnesen T: Spotlight on protein N-terminal acetylation. Exp Mol Med. 2018 Jul 27;50(7):1-13. doi: 10.1038/s12276-018-0116-z. [PubMed:30054468 ]
  11. Toyohara T, Akiyama Y, Suzuki T, Takeuchi Y, Mishima E, Tanemoto M, Momose A, Toki N, Sato H, Nakayama M, Hozawa A, Tsuji I, Ito S, Soga T, Abe T: Metabolomic profiling of uremic solutes in CKD patients. Hypertens Res. 2010 Sep;33(9):944-52. doi: 10.1038/hr.2010.113. Epub 2010 Jul 8. [PubMed:20613759 ]
  12. Vanholder R, Baurmeister U, Brunet P, Cohen G, Glorieux G, Jankowski J: A bench to bedside view of uremic toxins. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2008 May;19(5):863-70. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2007121377. Epub 2008 Feb 20. [PubMed:18287557 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in protein-glutamine gamma-glutamyltransferase activity
Specific function:
Factor XIII is activated by thrombin and calcium ion to a transglutaminase that catalyzes the formation of gamma-glutamyl-epsilon-lysine cross-links between fibrin chains, thus stabilizing the fibrin clot. Also cross-link alpha-2-plasmin inhibitor, or fibronectin, to the alpha chains of fibrin.
Gene Name:
F13A1
Uniprot ID:
P00488
Molecular weight:
83267.785
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]