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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusDetected but not Quantified
Creation Date2006-08-13 13:15:59 UTC
Update Date2020-02-26 21:25:01 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0004157
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB04157
Metabolite Identification
Common NameStercobilinogen
DescriptionStercobilinogen is a tetrapyrrole chemical compound that is the parent compound of stercobilin, the pigment that is responsible for the brown color of feces. Stercobilinogen is formed through the reduction of its parent compound uroblinogen. Urobilinogen is actually generated through the degradation of heme, the red pigment in haemoglobin and red blood cells (RBCs). RBCs have a life span of about 120 days. When the RBCs have reached the end of their useful lifespan, the cells are engulfed by macrophages and their constituents recycled or disposed of. Heme is broken down when the heme ring is opened by the enzyme known as heme oxygenase, which is found in the endoplasmic reticulum of the macrophages. The oxidation process produces the linear tetrapyrrole known as biliverdin along with ferric iron (Fe3+), and carbon monoxide (CO). In the next reaction, a second methylene group (located between rings III and IV of the porphyrin ring) is reduced by the enzyme known as biliverdin reductase, producing bilirubin. Bilirubin is significantly less extensively conjugated than biliverdin. This reduction causes a change in the color of the biliverdin molecule from blue-green (vert or verd for green) to yellow-red, which is the color of bilirubin (ruby or rubi for red). In plasma virtually all the bilirubin is tightly bound to plasma proteins, largely albumin, because it is only sparingly soluble in aqueous solutions at physiological pH. In the sinusoids unconjugated bilirubin dissociates from albumin, enters the liver cells across the cell membrane through non-ionic diffusion to the smooth endoplasmatic reticulum. In hepatocytes, bilirubin-UDP-glucuronyltransferase (bilirubin-UGT) adds 2 additional glucuronic acid molecules to bilirubin to produce the more water-soluble version of the molecule known as bilirubin diglucuronide. The bilirubin diglucuronide is transferred rapidly across the canalicular membrane into the bile canaliculi where it is then excreted as bile into the large intestine. The bilirubin is further degraded (reduced) by microbes present in the large intestine to form a colorless product known as urobilinogen. Urobilinogen that remains in the colon can either be reduced to stercobilinogen and finally oxidized to stercobilin, or it can be directly reduced to stercobilin. Stercobilinogen (aso known as L-urobilinogen) is closely related to two other compounds: mesobilirubinogen (also known as I-urobilinogen) and urobilinogen (also known as D-urobilinogen). Specifically, urobilinogen can be reduced to form mesobilirubinogen, and mesobilirubinogen can be further reduced to form stercobilinogen. Confusingly, however, all three of these compounds are frequently collectively referred to as "urobilinogens".
Structure
Data?1582752301
Synonyms
ValueSource
(2R,3R,4S,16S,17R,18R)-2,17-Diethyl-1,2,3,4,5,10,15,16,17,18,19,22,23,24-tetradecahydro-3,7,13,18-tetramethyl-1,19-dioxo-21H-biline-8,12-dipropanoic acidChEBI
L-StercobilinogenChEBI
(2R,3R,4S,16S,17R,18R)-2,17-Diethyl-1,2,3,4,5,10,15,16,17,18,19,22,23,24-tetradecahydro-3,7,13,18-tetramethyl-1,19-dioxo-21H-biline-8,12-dipropanoateGenerator
Stercobilinogen ixαHMDB
(-)-2,17-Diethyl-1,2,3,4,5,10,15,16,17,18,19,22,23,24-tetradecahydro-3,7,13,18-tetramethyl-1,19-dioxo-biline-8,12-dipropionic acidHMDB
(-)-StercobilinogenHMDB
L-UrobilinogenHMDB
Stercobilinogen ixalphaHMDB
StercobilinogenChEBI
Chemical FormulaC33H48N4O6
Average Molecular Weight596.769
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight596.357385282
IUPAC Name3-(2-{[3-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-{[(2S,3R,4R)-4-ethyl-3-methyl-5-oxopyrrolidin-2-yl]methyl}-4-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl]methyl}-5-{[(2S,3R,4R)-3-ethyl-4-methyl-5-oxopyrrolidin-2-yl]methyl}-4-methyl-1H-pyrrol-3-yl)propanoic acid
Traditional Name(-)-stercobilinogen
CAS Registry Number17095-63-5
SMILES
[H][C@@]1(CC2=C(C)C(CCC(O)=O)=C(CC3=C(CCC(O)=O)C(C)=C(C[C@]4([H])NC(=O)[C@H](C)[C@H]4CC)N3)N2)NC(=O)[C@H](CC)[C@H]1C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C33H48N4O6/c1-7-20-19(6)32(42)37-27(20)14-25-18(5)23(10-12-31(40)41)29(35-25)15-28-22(9-11-30(38)39)17(4)24(34-28)13-26-16(3)21(8-2)33(43)36-26/h16,19-21,26-27,34-35H,7-15H2,1-6H3,(H,36,43)(H,37,42)(H,38,39)(H,40,41)/t16-,19-,20-,21-,26+,27+/m1/s1
InChI KeyVKGRRZVYCXLHII-OLFWPHQKSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as bilirubins. These are organic compounds containing a dicarboxylic acyclic tetrapyrrole derivative.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassTetrapyrroles and derivatives
Sub ClassBilirubins
Direct ParentBilirubins
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Bilirubin skeleton
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Substituted pyrrole
  • 2-pyrrolidone
  • Pyrrolidone
  • Pyrrole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Pyrrolidine
  • Carboxamide group
  • Lactam
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Azacycle
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Carbonyl group
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Source:

Biological location:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogP2.917Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.014 g/LALOGPS
logP2.96ALOGPS
logP4ChemAxon
logS-4.6ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.05ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.89ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area164.38 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count14ChemAxon
Refractivity164.98 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability68.4 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
BioavailabilityNoChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Not Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane (predicted from logP)
Biospecimen Locations
  • Feces
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Infant (0-1 year old)Not AvailableNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedLiver cirrhosis details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Not Specifiedhepatocellular carcinoma details
FecesDetected but not Quantified Adult (>18 years old)Bothliver cirrhosis details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Cirrhosis
  1. Cao H, Huang H, Xu W, Chen D, Yu J, Li J, Li L: Fecal metabolome profiling of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma patients by ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta. 2011 Apr 8;691(1-2):68-75. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2011.02.038. Epub 2011 Feb 23. [PubMed:21458633 ]
  2. Huang HJ, Zhang AY, Cao HC, Lu HF, Wang BH, Xie Q, Xu W, Li LJ: Metabolomic analyses of faeces reveals malabsorption in cirrhotic patients. Dig Liver Dis. 2013 Aug;45(8):677-82. doi: 10.1016/j.dld.2013.01.001. Epub 2013 Feb 4. [PubMed:23384618 ]
Hepatocellular carcinoma
  1. Cao H, Huang H, Xu W, Chen D, Yu J, Li J, Li L: Fecal metabolome profiling of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma patients by ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anal Chim Acta. 2011 Apr 8;691(1-2):68-75. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2011.02.038. Epub 2011 Feb 23. [PubMed:21458633 ]
Colorectal cancer
  1. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB023322
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID7827641
KEGG Compound IDC05789
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkStercobilinogen
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound9548718
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID6320
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceBirch, A. J. The structure of stercobilin. Chemistry & Industry (London, United Kingdom) (1955), 652. CODEN: CHINAG ISSN:0009-3068. CAN 50:36041 AN 1956:36041
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Vitek L, Majer F, Muchova L, Zelenka J, Jiraskova A, Branny P, Malina J, Ubik K: Identification of bilirubin reduction products formed by Clostridium perfringens isolated from human neonatal fecal flora. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 2006 Apr 3;833(2):149-57. Epub 2006 Feb 28. [PubMed:16504607 ]