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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2007-05-23 10:00:05 UTC
Update Date2022-03-07 02:49:31 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0006459
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB06459
Metabolite Identification
Common NameHexacosanoyl-CoA
DescriptionHexacosanoyl-coa, also known as C26:0-CoA, C26:0-coenzyme A, or cerotoyl-CoA is an acyl-CoA or acyl-coenzyme A. More specifically, it is a hexacosanoic acid thioester of coenzyme A. Hexacosanoyl-coa is an acyl-CoA with 26 fatty acid group as the acyl moiety attached to coenzyme A. Coenzyme A was discovered in 1946 by Fritz Lipmann (Journal of Biological Chemistry (1946) 162 (3): 743–744) and its structure was determined in the early 1950s at the Lister Institute in London. Coenzyme A is a complex, thiol-containing molecule that is naturally synthesized from pantothenate (vitamin B5), which is found in various foods such as meat, vegetables, cereal grains, legumes, eggs, and milk. More specifically, coenzyme A (CoASH or CoA) consists of a beta-mercaptoethylamine group linked to the vitamin pantothenic acid (B5) through an amide linkage and 3'-phosphorylated ADP. Coenzyme A is synthesized in a five-step process that requires four molecules of ATP, pantothenate and cysteine. It is believed that there are more than 1100 types of acyl-CoA’s in the human body, which also corresponds to the number of acylcarnitines in the human body. Acyl-CoAs exists in all living species, ranging from bacteria to plants to humans. The general role of acyl-CoA’s is to assist in transferring fatty acids from the cytoplasm to mitochondria. This process facilitates the production of fatty acids in cells, which are essential in cell membrane structure. Acyl-CoA's are also susceptible to beta oxidation, forming, ultimately, acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA can enter the citric acid cycle, eventually forming several equivalents of ATP. In this way, fats are converted to ATP -- or biochemical energy. Acyl-CoAs can be classified into 9 different categories depending on the size of their acyl-group: 1) short-chain acyl-CoAs; 2) medium-chain acyl-CoAs; 3) long-chain acyl-CoAs; and 4) very long-chain acyl-CoAs; 5) hydroxy acyl-CoAs; 6) branched chain acyl-CoAs; 7) unsaturated acyl-CoAs; 8) dicarboxylic acyl-CoAs and 9) miscellaneous acyl-CoAs. Short-chain acyl-CoAs have acyl-groups with two to four carbons (C2-C4), medium-chain acyl-CoAs have acyl-groups with five to eleven carbons (C5-C11), long-chain acyl-CoAs have acyl-groups with twelve to twenty carbons (C12-C20) while very long-chain acyl-CoAs have acyl groups with more than 20 carbons. Hexacosanoyl-coa is therefore classified as a very long chain acyl-CoA. The oxidative degradation of fatty acids is a two-step process, catalyzed by acyl-CoA synthetase/synthase. Fatty acids are first converted to their acyl phosphate, the precursor to acyl-CoA. The latter conversion is mediated by acyl-CoA synthase. Three types of acyl-CoA synthases are employed, depending on the chain length of the fatty acid. Hexacosanoyl-coa, being a very long chain acyl-CoA is a substrate for very long chain acyl-CoA synthase. The second step of fatty acid degradation is beta oxidation. Beta oxidation occurs in mitochondria and, in the case of very long chain acyl-CoAs, the peroxisome. After its formation in the cytosol, Hexacosanoyl-CoA is transported into the mitochondria, the locus of beta oxidation. Transport of Hexacosanoyl-CoA into the mitochondria requires carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1), which converts Hexacosanoyl-CoA into Hexacosanoylcarnitine, which gets transported into the mitochondrial matrix. Once in the matrix, Hexacosanoylcarnitine is converted back to Hexacosanoyl-CoA by CPT2, whereupon beta-oxidation can begin. Beta oxidation of Hexacosanoyl-CoA occurs in four steps. First, since Hexacosanoyl-CoA is a very long chain acyl-CoA it is the substrate for a very long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, which catalyzes dehydrogenation of Hexacosanoyl-CoA, creating a double bond between the alpha and beta carbons. FAD is the hydrogen acceptor, yielding FADH2. Second, Enoyl-CoA hydrase catalyzes the addition of water across the newly formed double bond to make an alcohol. Third, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase oxidizes the alcohol group to a ketone and NADH is produced from NAD+. Finally, Thiolase cleaves between the alpha carbon and ketone to release one molecule of acetyl-CoA and a new acyl-CoA which is now 2 carbons shorter. This four-step process repeats until Hexacosanoyl-CoA has had all its carbons removed from the chain, leaving only acetyl-CoA. Beta oxidation, as well as alpha-oxidation, also occurs in the peroxisome. The peroxisome handles beta oxidation of fatty acids that have more than 20 carbons in their chain because the peroxisome contains very-long-chain Acyl-CoA synthetases and dehydrogenases. The heart primarily metabolizes fat for energy and Acyl-CoA metabolism has been identified as a critical molecule in early-stage heart muscle pump failure. Cellular acyl-CoA content also correlates with insulin resistance, suggesting that it can mediate lipotoxicity in non-adipose tissues. Acyl-CoA: diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) plays an important role in energy metabolism on account of key enzyme in triglyceride biosynthesis. The study of acyl-CoAs is an active area of research and it is likely that many novel acyl-CoAs will be discovered in the coming years. It is also likely that many novel roles in health and disease will be uncovered for these molecules.
Structure
Data?1583431266
Synonyms
ValueSource
C26:0-CoAChEBI
C26:0-coenzyme AChEBI
Cerotoyl-CoAChEBI
Cerotoyl-coenzyme AChEBI
Hexacosanoyl-CoA (N-C26:0CoA)ChEBI
Hexacosanoyl-coenzyme AChEBI
CoA(26:0)HMDB
Hexacosanoyl-CoAHMDB
Chemical FormulaC47H86N7O17P3S
Average Molecular Weight1146.209
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight1145.501374587
IUPAC Name{[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-(6-amino-9H-purin-9-yl)-2-({[({[(3R)-3-[(2-{[2-(hexacosanoylsulfanyl)ethyl]carbamoyl}ethyl)carbamoyl]-3-hydroxy-2,2-dimethylpropoxy](hydroxy)phosphoryl}oxy)(hydroxy)phosphoryl]oxy}methyl)-4-hydroxyoxolan-3-yl]oxy}phosphonic acid
Traditional Namecerotoyl-coa
CAS Registry Number99313-57-2
SMILES
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(=O)SCCNC(=O)CCNC(=O)[C@H](O)C(C)(C)COP(O)(=O)OP(O)(=O)OC[C@H]1O[C@H]([C@H](O)[C@@H]1OP(O)(O)=O)N1C=NC2=C1N=CN=C2N
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C47H86N7O17P3S/c1-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17-18-19-20-21-22-23-24-25-26-27-38(56)75-31-30-49-37(55)28-29-50-45(59)42(58)47(2,3)33-68-74(65,66)71-73(63,64)67-32-36-41(70-72(60,61)62)40(57)46(69-36)54-35-53-39-43(48)51-34-52-44(39)54/h34-36,40-42,46,57-58H,4-33H2,1-3H3,(H,49,55)(H,50,59)(H,63,64)(H,65,66)(H2,48,51,52)(H2,60,61,62)/t36-,40-,41-,42+,46-/m1/s1
InChI KeyFHLYYFPJDVYWQH-CPIGOPAHSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as very long-chain fatty acyl coas. These are acyl CoAs where the group acylated to the coenzyme A moiety is a very long aliphatic chain of 22 carbon atoms or more.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acyl thioesters
Direct ParentVery long-chain fatty acyl CoAs
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Coenzyme a or derivatives
  • Purine ribonucleoside 3',5'-bisphosphate
  • Purine ribonucleoside bisphosphate
  • Purine ribonucleoside diphosphate
  • Ribonucleoside 3'-phosphate
  • Pentose phosphate
  • Pentose-5-phosphate
  • Beta amino acid or derivatives
  • Glycosyl compound
  • N-glycosyl compound
  • 6-aminopurine
  • Monosaccharide phosphate
  • Organic pyrophosphate
  • Pentose monosaccharide
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Purine
  • Monoalkyl phosphate
  • Aminopyrimidine
  • Imidolactam
  • N-acyl-amine
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • Monosaccharide
  • Pyrimidine
  • Alkyl phosphate
  • Fatty amide
  • Phosphoric acid ester
  • Tetrahydrofuran
  • Imidazole
  • Azole
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Carbothioic s-ester
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Thiocarboxylic acid ester
  • Carboxamide group
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Amino acid or derivatives
  • Sulfenyl compound
  • Thiocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Azacycle
  • Oxacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Primary amine
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Adverse health effect

Disposition

Biological location

Source

Process

Naturally occurring process

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Experimental Chromatographic PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.014 g/LALOGPS
logP4.87ALOGPS
logP5.04ChemAxon
logS-4.7ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)0.82ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)4.01ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count17ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count9ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area363.63 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count44ChemAxon
Refractivity282.66 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability123.71 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
BioavailabilityNoChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DeepCCS[M+H]+301.22130932474
DeepCCS[M-H]-299.49730932474
DeepCCS[M-2H]-334.09530932474
DeepCCS[M+Na]+308.230932474

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Not Available
Spectra

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Hexacosanoyl-CoA 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-002r-1901440100-be2cb6c2191090fe572c2016-09-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Hexacosanoyl-CoA 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0f79-1901622000-b08e5e670a96cf61ebb92016-09-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Hexacosanoyl-CoA 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0f79-2900310000-1d404b474b20b8fee7692016-09-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Hexacosanoyl-CoA 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0059-2902131300-bde43e887248b77390ea2016-09-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Hexacosanoyl-CoA 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-003r-2901110100-45ca204dcebfff70c1b52016-09-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Hexacosanoyl-CoA 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-056r-7900000000-2c0e52b0c82b1e8166852016-09-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Hexacosanoyl-CoA 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0002-0900000000-1085fa2af20a0dfa06442021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Hexacosanoyl-CoA 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-3900000202-40c01c9de3627834fbae2021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Hexacosanoyl-CoA 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-0000149000-6d6f39c024375a1b351f2021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Hexacosanoyl-CoA 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0006-0900000000-a9918ff61f2464cb8d152021-09-23Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Hexacosanoyl-CoA 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-002f-4901402400-a3ab78dd365d8bf194d52021-09-23Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Hexacosanoyl-CoA 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-004i-6903400300-a03f951b6d8319e16c972021-09-23Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
  • Mitochondria
  • Peroxisome
Biospecimen LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB023919
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID23107092
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDCPD1G-277
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound25246198
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID52966
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Activation of long-chain fatty acids for both synthesis of cellular lipids, and degradation via beta-oxidation. Preferentially uses palmitoleate, oleate and linoleate.
Gene Name:
ACSL1
Uniprot ID:
P33121
Molecular weight:
77942.685