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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2007-05-23 11:08:59 UTC
Update Date2021-10-13 04:48:58 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0006478
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0240630
  • HMDB06478
Metabolite Identification
Common NameIsovaleraldehyde
DescriptionIso-Valeraldehyde, also known as isoamyl aldehyde or 3-methyl-butanal, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha-hydrogen aldehydes. These are aldehydes with the general formula HC(H)(R)C(=O)H, where R is an organyl group. Iso-Valeraldehyde exists in all eukaryotes, ranging from yeast to humans. Iso-Valeraldehyde is an aldehydic, chocolate, and ethereal tasting compound. Iso-Valeraldehyde is found, on average, in the highest concentration within a few different foods, such as milk (cow), beers, and taco and in a lower concentration in kohlrabis, corns, and tortilla. Iso-Valeraldehyde has also been detected, but not quantified, in several different foods, such as muskmelons, highbush blueberries, fenugreeks, hazelnuts, and dills. This could make iso-valeraldehyde a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods. A methylbutanal that is butanal substituted by a methyl group at position 3. Iso-Valeraldehyde, with regard to humans, has been found to be associated with several diseases such as ulcerative colitis, crohn's disease, perillyl alcohol administration for cancer treatment, and hepatic encephalopathy; iso-valeraldehyde has also been linked to the inborn metabolic disorder celiac disease.
Structure
Data?1601235886
Synonyms
ValueSource
3-MethylbutyraldehydeChEBI
beta-MethylbutanalChEBI
Iso-C4H9CHOChEBI
Isoamyl aldehydeChEBI
IsopentaldehydeChEBI
IsovaleralChEBI
IsovalerylaldehydeChEBI
b-MethylbutanalGenerator
Β-methylbutanalGenerator
IsovaleraldehydeChEBI
2-Methylbutanal-4HMDB
3-Methyl-1-butanalHMDB
3-Methyl-butanalHMDB
3-Methyl-butyraldehydeHMDB
3-Methylbutan-1-alHMDB
3-MethylbutanalHMDB
IsoamylaldehydeHMDB
IsopentanalHMDB
Isovaleric aldehydeHMDB
Methyl butanalHMDB
iso-ValeraldehydeHMDB
Chemical FormulaC5H10O
Average Molecular Weight86.1323
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight86.073164942
IUPAC Name3-methylbutanal
Traditional Nameisovaleraldehyde
CAS Registry Number590-86-3
SMILES
CC(C)CC=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C5H10O/c1-5(2)3-4-6/h4-5H,3H2,1-2H3
InChI KeyYGHRJJRRZDOVPD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as alpha-hydrogen aldehydes. These are aldehydes with the general formula HC(H)(R)C(=O)H, where R is an organyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic oxygen compounds
ClassOrganooxygen compounds
Sub ClassCarbonyl compounds
Direct ParentAlpha-hydrogen aldehydes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Alpha-hydrogen aldehyde
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Short-chain aldehyde
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological location

Source

Route of exposure

Physical Properties
StateLiquid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point-51 °CNot Available
Boiling Point90.00 to 93.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm HgThe Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility14 mg/mL at 20 °CNot Available
LogP1.267 (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Experimental Spectral PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility17 g/LALOGPS
logP10(1.29) g/LALOGPS
logP10(1.05) g/LChemAxon
logS10(-0.71) g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)18.56ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-7ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area17.07 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity25.49 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability10.12 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Spectral Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DarkChem[M+H]+116.66231661259
DarkChem[M-H]-110.84631661259

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Not Available
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Isovaleraldehyde EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-3a38c8f6150bf1f43e742017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Isovaleraldehyde EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-5a3fd4f38dc36ebe58a12017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Isovaleraldehyde EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-3a38c8f6150bf1f43e742018-05-18HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Isovaleraldehyde EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9000000000-5a3fd4f38dc36ebe58a12018-05-18HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Isovaleraldehyde GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-9000000000-4b322dc8237378d930572016-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Isovaleraldehyde GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0006-9000000000-881fcc89b0f579b407932015-03-01Not AvailableView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Isovaleraldehyde Quattro_QQQ 10V, Positive-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-000i-9000000000-7f4ac528265c8b3bf3ab2012-07-25HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Isovaleraldehyde Quattro_QQQ 25V, Positive-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-000i-9000000000-6e4f25dc68765a0e52ca2012-07-25HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Isovaleraldehyde Quattro_QQQ 40V, Positive-QTOF (Annotated)splash10-000i-9000000000-809684cd2152204e911f2012-07-25HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Isovaleraldehyde EI-B (HITACHI RMU-6M) , Positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-3a38c8f6150bf1f43e742012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Isovaleraldehyde EI-B (HITACHI RMU-6M) , Positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-5a3fd4f38dc36ebe58a12012-08-31HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Isovaleraldehyde 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-9000000000-a8ed71d6e7d567b598b42015-04-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Isovaleraldehyde 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-00kp-9000000000-043451832d2f37b1c7e12015-04-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Isovaleraldehyde 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-3c57d920ca714b174bb32015-04-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Isovaleraldehyde 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000i-9000000000-030536579800c9e499402015-04-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Isovaleraldehyde 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000i-9000000000-be1f1229d7e13994d1502015-04-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Isovaleraldehyde 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-00kf-9000000000-13768c049fd8e5c234642015-04-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Isovaleraldehyde 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-9000000000-a8ed71d6e7d567b598b42015-05-26Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Isovaleraldehyde 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-00kp-9000000000-043451832d2f37b1c7e12015-05-26Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Isovaleraldehyde 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-3c57d920ca714b174bb32015-05-26Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Isovaleraldehyde 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000i-9000000000-030536579800c9e499402015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Isovaleraldehyde 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000i-9000000000-be1f1229d7e13994d1502015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Isovaleraldehyde 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-00kf-9000000000-13768c049fd8e5c234642015-05-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Isovaleraldehyde 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000i-9000000000-2091e44a102d8284a8132021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Isovaleraldehyde 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000i-9000000000-199420ebca1b5eda63692021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Isovaleraldehyde 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-0f801351f709d0e5abf62021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Isovaleraldehyde 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-fead34b12404197f107d2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Isovaleraldehyde 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-cf72963a4f1f9f7f2df02021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Isovaleraldehyde 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-cd0a0aa8e74bbc2b63442021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum

NMR Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Experimental 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)2021-10-10Wishart LabView Spectrum
Experimental 2D NMR[1H, 13C]-HSQC NMR Spectrum (2D, 600 MHz, H2O, experimental)2012-12-05Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
  • Feces
  • Saliva
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.11 (0.0-0.34) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified14.9 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNewborn (0-30 days old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected and Quantified0-18885.675 nmol/g wet fecesChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
SalivaDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Not SpecifiedNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected and Quantified0.24 (0.0-1.3) uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHepatic encephalopathy details
Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)Detected and Quantified290.0 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothHepatic encephalopathy details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot Specified
Clostridium difficile infection
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative colitis
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Crohn's disease
details
FecesDetected and Quantified0-378681.0136 nmol/g wet fecesChildren (1-13 years old)Not Specified
Treated celiac disease
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Campylobacter jejuni infection
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Clostridium difficile infection
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Ulcerative Colitis
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothBreast cancer details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Hepatic encephalopathy
  1. Goldberg EM, Blendis LM, Sandler S: A gas chromatographic--mass spectrometric study of profiles of volatile metabolites in hepatic encephalopathy. J Chromatogr. 1981 Dec 11;226(2):291-9. [PubMed:7320160 ]
  2. Marshall AW, DeSouza M, Morgan MY: Plasma 3-methylbutanal in man and its relationship to hepatic encephalopathy. Clin Physiol. 1985 Feb;5(1):53-62. [PubMed:4038637 ]
Ulcerative colitis
  1. Garner CE, Smith S, de Lacy Costello B, White P, Spencer R, Probert CS, Ratcliffe NM: Volatile organic compounds from feces and their potential for diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease. FASEB J. 2007 Jun;21(8):1675-88. Epub 2007 Feb 21. [PubMed:17314143 ]
  2. De Preter V, Machiels K, Joossens M, Arijs I, Matthys C, Vermeire S, Rutgeerts P, Verbeke K: Faecal metabolite profiling identifies medium-chain fatty acids as discriminating compounds in IBD. Gut. 2015 Mar;64(3):447-58. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2013-306423. Epub 2014 May 8. [PubMed:24811995 ]
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
  1. Raman M, Ahmed I, Gillevet PM, Probert CS, Ratcliffe NM, Smith S, Greenwood R, Sikaroodi M, Lam V, Crotty P, Bailey J, Myers RP, Rioux KP: Fecal microbiome and volatile organic compound metabolome in obese humans with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013 Jul;11(7):868-75.e1-3. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2013.02.015. Epub 2013 Feb 27. [PubMed:23454028 ]
Celiac disease
  1. Di Cagno R, De Angelis M, De Pasquale I, Ndagijimana M, Vernocchi P, Ricciuti P, Gagliardi F, Laghi L, Crecchio C, Guerzoni ME, Gobbetti M, Francavilla R: Duodenal and faecal microbiota of celiac children: molecular, phenotype and metabolome characterization. BMC Microbiol. 2011 Oct 4;11:219. doi: 10.1186/1471-2180-11-219. [PubMed:21970810 ]
Crohn's disease
  1. De Preter V, Machiels K, Joossens M, Arijs I, Matthys C, Vermeire S, Rutgeerts P, Verbeke K: Faecal metabolite profiling identifies medium-chain fatty acids as discriminating compounds in IBD. Gut. 2015 Mar;64(3):447-58. doi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2013-306423. Epub 2014 May 8. [PubMed:24811995 ]
Clostridium difficile infection
  1. Patel M, Fowler D, Sizer J, Walton C: Faecal volatile biomarkers of Clostridium difficile infection. PLoS One. 2019 Apr 15;14(4):e0215256. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0215256. eCollection 2019. [PubMed:30986230 ]
Perillyl alcohol administration for cancer treatment
  1. Silva CL, Passos M, Camara JS: Solid phase microextraction, mass spectrometry and metabolomic approaches for detection of potential urinary cancer biomarkers--a powerful strategy for breast cancer diagnosis. Talanta. 2012 Jan 30;89:360-8. doi: 10.1016/j.talanta.2011.12.041. Epub 2011 Dec 22. [PubMed:22284503 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB003285
KNApSAcK IDC00048949
Chemspider ID11065
KEGG Compound IDC07329
BioCyc IDCPD-7031
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkIsovaleraldehyde
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound11552
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID16638
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDMDB00000485
Good Scents IDrw1023131
References
Synthesis ReferenceRoelen, O. Synthesis of aldehydes and derivatives from olefins, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen. Angew. Chem. (1948), A60 62. CAN 44:46679 AN 1950:46679
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Download (PDF)
General References
  1. Garner CE, Smith S, de Lacy Costello B, White P, Spencer R, Probert CS, Ratcliffe NM: Volatile organic compounds from feces and their potential for diagnosis of gastrointestinal disease. FASEB J. 2007 Jun;21(8):1675-88. Epub 2007 Feb 21. [PubMed:17314143 ]
  2. Sampaio OM, Reche RV, Franco DW: Chemical profile of rums as a function of their origin. The use of chemometric techniques for their identification. J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Mar 12;56(5):1661-8. doi: 10.1021/jf0726841. Epub 2008 Feb 15. [PubMed:18275147 ]
  3. Tanimoto S, Matsumoto H, Fujii K, Ohdoi R, Sakamoto K, Yamane Y, Miyake M, Shimoda M, Osajima Y: Enzyme inactivation and quality preservation of sake by high-pressure carbonation at a moderate temperature. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2008 Jan;72(1):22-8. Epub 2008 Jan 7. [PubMed:18175918 ]
  4. Whetstine ME, Drake MA, Broadbent JR, McMahon D: Enhanced nutty flavor formation in cheddar cheese made with a malty Lactococcus lactis adjunct culture. J Dairy Sci. 2006 Sep;89(9):3277-84. [PubMed:16899660 ]
  5. Patel M, Fowler D, Sizer J, Walton C: Faecal volatile biomarkers of Clostridium difficile infection. PLoS One. 2019 Apr 15;14(4):e0215256. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0215256. eCollection 2019. [PubMed:30986230 ]