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Record Information
StatusDetected and Quantified
Creation Date2010-02-18 09:46:10 UTC
Update Date2021-04-12 19:30:14 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB13325
Metabolite Identification
Common Name2-trans,4-cis-Decadienoylcarnitine
Description2-trans,4-cis-Decadienoylcarnitine is an acylcarnitine. More specifically, it is an (2E,4Z)-deca-2,4-dienoic acid ester of carnitine. Acylcarnitines were first discovered more than 70 year ago (PMID: 13825279 ). It is believed that there are more than 1000 types of acylcarnitines in the human body. The general role of acylcarnitines is to transport acyl-groups (organic acids and fatty acids) from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria so that they can be broken down to produce energy.  This process is known as beta-oxidation. According to a recent review [Dambrova et al. 2021, Physiological Reviews], acylcarnitines (ACs) can be classified into 9 different categories depending on the type and size of their acyl-group: 1) short-chain ACs; 2) medium-chain ACs; 3) long-chain ACs; 4) very long-chain ACs; 5) hydroxy ACs; 6) branched chain ACs; 7) unsaturated ACs; 8) dicarboxylic ACs and 9) miscellaneous ACs. Short-chain ACs have acyl-groups with two to five carbons (C2-C5), medium-chain ACs have acyl-groups with six to thirteen carbons (C6-C13), long-chain ACs have acyl-groups with fourteen to twenty once carbons (C14-C21) and very long-chain ACs have acyl groups with more than 22 carbons. 2-trans,4-cis-Decadienoylcarnitine is therefore classified as a medium chain AC. As a medium-chain acylcarnitine 2-trans,4-cis-decadienoylcarnitine is somewhat less abundant than short-chain acylcarnitines. These are formed either through esterification with L-carnitine or through the peroxisomal metabolism of longer chain acylcarnitines (PMID: 30540494 ). Many medium-chain acylcarnitines can serve as useful markers for inherited disorders of fatty acid metabolism. In particular 2-trans,4-cis-decadienoylcarnitine is elevated in the blood or plasma of individuals with 2,4-dienoyl-coenzyme a reductase deficiency (PMID: 2332510 , PMID: 15344554 , PMID: 19578400 ). It is also decreased in the blood or plasma of individuals with familial mediterranean fever (PMID: 29900937 ) and schizophrenia (PMID: 31161852 ). Carnitine octanoyltransferase (CrOT, EC: is responsible for the synthesis of all medium-chain (MCAC, C5-C12) and medium-length branched-chain acylcarnitines in peroxisomes (PMID: 10486279 ). The study of acylcarnitines is an active area of research and it is likely that many novel acylcarnitines will be discovered in the coming years. It is also likely that many novel roles in health and disease will be uncovered. An excellent review of the current state of knowledge for acylcarnitines is available at [Dambrova et al. 2021, Physiological Reviews].
(3R)-3-[(2E,4Z)-Deca-2,4-dienoyloxy]-4-(trimethylazaniumyl)butanoic acidGenerator
Chemical FormulaC17H29NO4
Average Molecular Weight311.422
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight311.209658418
IUPAC Name(3R)-3-[(2E,4Z)-deca-2,4-dienoyloxy]-4-(trimethylazaniumyl)butanoate
Traditional Name(3R)-3-[(2E,4Z)-deca-2,4-dienoyloxy]-4-(trimethylammonio)butanoate
CAS Registry Number128305-29-3
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as acyl carnitines. These are organic compounds containing a fatty acid with the carboxylic acid attached to carnitine through an ester bond.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acid esters
Direct ParentAcyl carnitines
Alternative Parents
  • Acyl-carnitine
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Tetraalkylammonium salt
  • Alpha,beta-unsaturated carboxylic ester
  • Enoate ester
  • Quaternary ammonium salt
  • Carboxylic acid salt
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic salt
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available

Route of exposure:


Biological location:


Naturally occurring process:


Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.00021 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.13ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area66.43 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count12ChemAxon
Refractivity111.68 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability35.45 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03xu-2495000000-8ea8efea088360bb6b6fSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0gvo-2900000000-ba83aaee9dfa15af89b6Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-052f-9400000000-3af3463effa0acceaefaSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
UrineDetected and Quantified0.01-0.07 umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)BothNormal
    • López Hernández Y...
UrineDetected and Quantified0.03(0.01-0.05) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)FemaleNormal
    • López Hernández Y...
UrineDetected and Quantified0.03(0.02-0.07) umol/mmol creatinineNewborn (0-30 days old)MaleNormal
    • López Hernández Y...
Abnormal Concentrations
BloodDetected and Quantified0.125 uMNewborn (0-30 days old)Male2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase deficiency details
BloodDetected and Quantified0.200-1.300 uMInfant (0-1 year old)Male2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase deficiency details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase deficiency
  1. Houten SM, Denis S, Te Brinke H, Jongejan A, van Kampen AH, Bradley EJ, Baas F, Hennekam RC, Millington DS, Young SP, Frazier DM, Gucsavas-Calikoglu M, Wanders RJ: Mitochondrial NADP(H) deficiency due to a mutation in NADK2 causes dienoyl-CoA reductase deficiency with hyperlysinemia. Hum Mol Genet. 2014 Sep 15;23(18):5009-16. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddu218. Epub 2014 May 8. [PubMed:24847004 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
  • 616034 (2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase deficiency)
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB029385
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem CompoundNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
MarkerDB ID
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Simons K, Toomre D: Lipid rafts and signal transduction. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Oct;1(1):31-9. [PubMed:11413487 ]
  2. Watson AD: Thematic review series: systems biology approaches to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Lipidomics: a global approach to lipid analysis in biological systems. J Lipid Res. 2006 Oct;47(10):2101-11. Epub 2006 Aug 10. [PubMed:16902246 ]
  3. Sethi JK, Vidal-Puig AJ: Thematic review series: adipocyte biology. Adipose tissue function and plasticity orchestrate nutritional adaptation. J Lipid Res. 2007 Jun;48(6):1253-62. Epub 2007 Mar 20. [PubMed:17374880 ]
  4. Lingwood D, Simons K: Lipid rafts as a membrane-organizing principle. Science. 2010 Jan 1;327(5961):46-50. doi: 10.1126/science.1174621. [PubMed:20044567 ]
  5. FRITZ IB: Action of carnitine on long chain fatty acid oxidation by liver. Am J Physiol. 1959 Aug;197:297-304. doi: 10.1152/ajplegacy.1959.197.2.297. [PubMed:13825279 ]
  6. Violante S, Achetib N, van Roermund CWT, Hagen J, Dodatko T, Vaz FM, Waterham HR, Chen H, Baes M, Yu C, Argmann CA, Houten SM: Peroxisomes can oxidize medium- and long-chain fatty acids through a pathway involving ABCD3 and HSD17B4. FASEB J. 2019 Mar;33(3):4355-4364. doi: 10.1096/fj.201801498R. Epub 2018 Dec 12. [PubMed:30540494 ]
  7. Roe CR, Millington DS, Norwood DL, Kodo N, Sprecher H, Mohammed BS, Nada M, Schulz H, McVie R: 2,4-Dienoyl-coenzyme A reductase deficiency: a possible new disorder of fatty acid oxidation. J Clin Invest. 1990 May;85(5):1703-7. doi: 10.1172/JCI114624. [PubMed:2332510 ]
  8. Kimura C, Mizugaki M, Yamanaka H, Fujino M, Morishima T: [2,4-Dienoyl-CoA reductases: from discovery toward pathophysiological significance]. Nihon Rinsho. 2004 Aug;62(8):1577-83. [PubMed:15344554 ]
  9. Miinalainen IJ, Schmitz W, Huotari A, Autio KJ, Soininen R, Ver Loren van Themaat E, Baes M, Herzig KH, Conzelmann E, Hiltunen JK: Mitochondrial 2,4-dienoyl-CoA reductase deficiency in mice results in severe hypoglycemia with stress intolerance and unimpaired ketogenesis. PLoS Genet. 2009 Jul;5(7):e1000543. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000543. Epub 2009 Jul 3. [PubMed:19578400 ]
  10. Kiykim E, Aktuglu Zeybek AC, Barut K, Zubarioglu T, Cansever MS, Alsancak S, Kasapcopur O: Screening of Free Carnitine and Acylcarnitine Status in Children With Familial Mediterranean Fever. Arch Rheumatol. 2016 Mar 10;31(2):133-138. doi: 10.5606/ArchRheumatol.2016.5696. eCollection 2016 Jun. [PubMed:29900937 ]
  11. Cao B, Wang D, Pan Z, McIntyre RS, Brietzke E, Subramanieapillai M, Nozari Y, Wang J: Metabolic profiling for water-soluble metabolites in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls in a Chinese population: A case-control study. World J Biol Psychiatry. 2020 Jun;21(5):357-367. doi: 10.1080/15622975.2019.1615639. Epub 2019 Jun 4. [PubMed:31161852 ]
  12. Ferdinandusse S, Mulders J, IJlst L, Denis S, Dacremont G, Waterham HR, Wanders RJ: Molecular cloning and expression of human carnitine octanoyltransferase: evidence for its role in the peroxisomal beta-oxidation of branched-chain fatty acids. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1999 Sep 16;263(1):213-8. [PubMed:10486279 ]
  13. Gunstone, Frank D., John L. Harwood, and Albert J. Dijkstra (2007). The lipid handbook with CD-ROM. CRC Press.