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Record Information
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2010-05-13 16:18:27 UTC
Update Date2020-02-26 21:38:57 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB13617
Metabolite Identification
Common NameLipoyl-GMP
DescriptionLipoyl-GMP is an intermediate in lipoic acid metabolism.In mammals, the posttranslational modification of unlipoylated apoproteins by addition of lipoic acid is done in a two-step enzymatic reaction using free lipoic acid. The free lipoic acid in the cell is first activated by reacting it. with adenosine triphosphate, using up two high energy phosphate bonds to form lipoyl-AMP (GMP), a process catalyzed by lipoate activating enzyme (LAE).41 The activated lipoyl moiety is subsequently used to form an amide bond with lysine residues of the unlipoylated apoprotein, which is catalyzed by lipoyl-AMP(GMP):N-lysine lipoyl transferase Interestingly, purified LAE from bovine liver mitochondria preferentially utilizes guanosine triphosphate, instead of adenosine triphosphate, for the activation of lipoic acid to form lipoyl-GMP.44 Furthermore, genetic analysis of LAE reveals that the enzyme is identical to. xenobiotic-metabolizing/medium-chain fatty acid:CoA ligase-III (XL-III) (also from bovine liver mitochondria). 44 Hence, there appear to be two pathways in which LAE is capable of activating carboxylic acids: one that uses guanosine triphosphate to form acyl-GMP; the other is dependent on adenosine triphosphate for the activation of carboxylic acids to the CoA thioester (acyl-CoA) via an. acyl-AMP intermediate.
SynonymsNot Available
Chemical FormulaC18H26N5O9PS2
Average Molecular Weight551.531
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight551.090955347
IUPAC Name{[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-{2-[5-(1,2-dithiolan-3-yl)pentanamido]-6-oxo-6,9-dihydro-1H-purin-9-yl}-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxy}phosphonic acid
Traditional Name[(2R,3S,4R,5R)-5-{2-[5-(1,2-dithiolan-3-yl)pentanamido]-6-oxo-1H-purin-9-yl}-3,4-dihydroxyoxolan-2-yl]methoxyphosphonic acid
CAS Registry NumberNot Available
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as purine ribonucleoside monophosphates. These are nucleotides consisting of a purine base linked to a ribose to which one monophosphate group is attached.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassNucleosides, nucleotides, and analogues
ClassPurine nucleotides
Sub ClassPurine ribonucleotides
Direct ParentPurine ribonucleoside monophosphates
Alternative Parents
  • Purine ribonucleoside monophosphate
  • Pentose phosphate
  • Pentose-5-phosphate
  • Lipoamide
  • Glycosyl compound
  • N-glycosyl compound
  • 6-oxopurine
  • Hypoxanthine
  • Monosaccharide phosphate
  • Pentose monosaccharide
  • Imidazopyrimidine
  • Purine
  • N-arylamide
  • Monoalkyl phosphate
  • Pyrimidone
  • Fatty acyl
  • Fatty amide
  • Monosaccharide
  • N-substituted imidazole
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • Phosphoric acid ester
  • Alkyl phosphate
  • Pyrimidine
  • Tetrahydrofuran
  • 1,2-dithiolane
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Dithiolane
  • Imidazole
  • Vinylogous amide
  • Azole
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Organic disulfide
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • 1,2-diol
  • Carboxamide group
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Alcohol
  • Carbonyl group
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available



Naturally occurring process:

Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility1.12 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.29ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)0.37ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count10ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count6ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area204.83 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count10ChemAxon
Refractivity126.67 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability52.23 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-000t-9604120000-de816c9fb2bd0d3c1b46Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-000t-9500043000-a30932f85928bf71d92eSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0udl-0519030000-754089a9fa43bda9e003Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0udl-1945000000-e75c3e62d91aded13ca1Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0udi-0935000000-a51ba7fe44663f6e05a0Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-0ug0-5115390000-8320344335a6fea019d3Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-004i-9225000000-3cfe2164ffad44730975Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-004i-9000000000-bbfe4770f80179106df6Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biospecimen LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB029596
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound53481910
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB ID
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available


General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Has medium-chain fatty acid:CoA ligase activity with broad substrate specificity (in vitro). Acts on acids from C(4) to C(11) and on the corresponding 3-hydroxy- and 2,3- or 3,4-unsaturated acids (in vitro). Functions as GTP-dependent lipoate-activating enzyme that generates the substrate for lipoyltransferase (By similarity).
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Not Available
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight: