You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Record Information
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:49 UTC
Update Date2020-02-26 21:39:36 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB14411
Metabolite Identification
Common NameDicumarol
DescriptionDicumarol is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is an oral anticoagulant that interferes with the metabolism of vitamin K. It is also used in biochemical experiments as an inhibitor of reductases. [PubChem]Dicumarol inhibits vitamin K reductase, resulting in depletion of the reduced form of vitamin K (vitamin KH2). As vitamin K is a cofactor for the carboxylation of glutamate residues on the N-terminal regions of vitamin K-dependent proteins, this limits the gamma-carboxylation and subsequent activation of the vitamin K-dependent coagulant proteins. The synthesis of vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors II, VII, IX, and X and anticoagulant proteins C and S is inhibited. Depression of three of the four vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors (factors II, VII, and X) results in decresed prothrombin levels and a decrease in the amount of thrombin generated and bound to fibrin. This reduces the thrombogenicity of clots.
Chemical FormulaC19H12O6
Average Molecular Weight336.295
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight336.063388116
IUPAC Name4-hydroxy-3-[(4-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)methyl]-2H-chromen-2-one
Traditional Namedicoumarol
CAS Registry Number66-76-2
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 4-hydroxycoumarins. These are coumarins that contain one or more hydroxyl groups attached to C4-position the coumarin skeleton.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassPhenylpropanoids and polyketides
ClassCoumarins and derivatives
Sub ClassHydroxycoumarins
Direct Parent4-hydroxycoumarins
Alternative Parents
  • 4-hydroxycoumarin
  • Benzopyran
  • 1-benzopyran
  • Pyranone
  • Pyran
  • Benzenoid
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Vinylogous acid
  • Lactone
  • Oxacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Physiological effect

Health effect:



Route of exposure:

Biological location:


Naturally occurring process:


Industrial application:

Biological role:

Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point290 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.066 g/LNot Available
LogP3.1Not Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.066 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-12ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area93.06 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity89.19 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability32.32 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0079-6914000000-95659ff5087535a07662Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0079-6914000000-95659ff5087535a07662Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0abi-1429000000-b3b5b41c6d8058aa0750Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00di-6111900000-373caca34eb4c76ecec6Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000i-0109000000-3c885b6fd0411c0ff106Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-002r-0719000000-9268ef0a7aa4edc0f242Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00di-2911000000-04685f91d611459131c1Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-0129000000-e46a63fb14d246913958Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-03di-0924000000-3d4892a9013fb818db2cSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-052f-8941000000-5d292f12289cd60d251eSpectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00266 details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00266 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiospecimenValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0.000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0.000 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00266
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FoodDB IDFDB012523
KNApSAcK IDC00002467
Chemspider ID10183330
KEGG Compound IDC00796
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkDicumarol
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound54676038
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID4513
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Thanos CG, Liu Z, Reineke J, Edwards E, Mathiowitz E: Improving relative bioavailability of dicumarol by reducing particle size and adding the adhesive poly(fumaric-co-sebacic) anhydride. Pharm Res. 2003 Jul;20(7):1093-100. [PubMed:12880296 ]
  2. Cullen JJ, Hinkhouse MM, Grady M, Gaut AW, Liu J, Zhang YP, Weydert CJ, Domann FE, Oberley LW: Dicumarol inhibition of NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase induces growth inhibition of pancreatic cancer via a superoxide-mediated mechanism. Cancer Res. 2003 Sep 1;63(17):5513-20. [PubMed:14500388 ]
  3. Mironov AA, Colanzi A, Polishchuk RS, Beznoussenko GV, Mironov AA Jr, Fusella A, Di Tullio G, Silletta MG, Corda D, De Matteis MA, Luini A: Dicumarol, an inhibitor of ADP-ribosylation of CtBP3/BARS, fragments golgi non-compact tubular zones and inhibits intra-golgi transport. Eur J Cell Biol. 2004 Jul;83(6):263-79. [PubMed:15511084 ]
  4. Abdelmohsen K, Stuhlmann D, Daubrawa F, Klotz LO: Dicumarol is a potent reversible inhibitor of gap junctional intercellular communication. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2005 Feb 15;434(2):241-7. [PubMed:15639223 ]


General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
Dicumarol → 3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-({3-[(4-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-3-yl)methyl]-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl}oxy)oxane-2-carboxylic aciddetails
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in zinc ion binding
Specific function:
Does not have alcohol dehydrogenase activity. Binds NADP and acts through a one-electron transfer process. Orthoquinones, such as 1,2-naphthoquinone or 9,10-phenanthrenequinone, are the best substrates (in vitro). May act in the detoxification of xenobiotics. Interacts with (AU)-rich elements (ARE) in the 3'-UTR of target mRNA species. Enhances the stability of mRNA coding for BCL2. NADPH binding interferes with mRNA binding.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Evans PJ: Decreased intracellular proteolysis correlates with the maintenance of a specific isoenzyme of cytochrome P-450. Cell Biol Int. 1999;23(2):117-24. [PubMed:10561120 ]
  2. Audi SH, Bongard RD, Dawson CA, Siegel D, Roerig DL, Merker MP: Duroquinone reduction during passage through the pulmonary circulation. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2003 Nov;285(5):L1116-31. Epub 2003 Jul 25. [PubMed:12882764 ]
  3. Asher G, Dym O, Tsvetkov P, Adler J, Shaul Y: The crystal structure of NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 in complex with its potent inhibitor dicoumarol. Biochemistry. 2006 May 23;45(20):6372-8. [PubMed:16700548 ]
  4. Maser E, Gebel T, Netter KJ: Carbonyl reduction of metyrapone in human liver. Biochem Pharmacol. 1991 Dec 11;42 Suppl:S93-8. [PubMed:1722672 ]
  5. Hao H, Wang G, Cui N, Li J, Xie L, Ding Z: Identification of a novel intestinal first pass metabolic pathway: NQO1 mediated quinone reduction and subsequent glucuronidation. Curr Drug Metab. 2007 Feb;8(2):137-49. [PubMed:17305492 ]
General function:
Involved in electron carrier activity
Specific function:
The enzyme apparently serves as a quinone reductase in connection with conjugation reactions of hydroquinons involved in detoxification pathways as well as in biosynthetic processes such as the vitamin K-dependent gamma-carboxylation of glutamate residues in prothrombin synthesis.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Chen S, Wu K, Zhang D, Sherman M, Knox R, Yang CS: Molecular characterization of binding of substrates and inhibitors to DT-diaphorase: combined approach involving site-directed mutagenesis, inhibitor-binding analysis, and computer modeling. Mol Pharmacol. 1999 Aug;56(2):272-8. [PubMed:10419545 ]
  2. Jaiswal AK: Characterization and partial purification of microsomal NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductases. Arch Biochem Biophys. 2000 Mar 1;375(1):62-8. [PubMed:10683249 ]
  3. Joseph P, Jaiswal AK: A unique cytosolic activity related but distinct from NQO1 catalyses metabolic activation of mitomycin C. Br J Cancer. 2000 Apr;82(7):1305-11. [PubMed:10755406 ]
  4. Floreani M, Napoli E, Palatini P: Protective action of cardiac DT-diaphorase against menadione toxicity in guinea pig isolated atria. Biochem Pharmacol. 2000 Aug 15;60(4):601-5. [PubMed:10874136 ]
  5. Arriagada C, Dagnino-Subiabre A, Caviedes P, Armero JM, Caviedes R, Segura-Aguilar J: Studies of aminochrome toxicity in a mouse derived neuronal cell line: is this toxicity mediated via glutamate transmission? Amino Acids. 2000;18(4):363-73. [PubMed:10949919 ]
  6. Preusch PC, Smalley DM: Vitamin K1 2,3-epoxide and quinone reduction: mechanism and inhibition. Free Radic Res Commun. 1990;8(4-6):401-15. [PubMed:2113031 ]
General function:
Involved in vitamin-K-epoxide reductase (warfarin-sensi
Specific function:
Involved in vitamin K metabolism. Catalytic subunit of the vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) complex which reduces inactive vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to active vitamin K.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Wallin R, Patrick SD, Ballard JO: Vitamin K antagonism of coumarin intoxication in the rat. Thromb Haemost. 1986 Apr 30;55(2):235-9. [PubMed:2424118 ]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]