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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:49 UTC
Update Date2020-02-26 21:40:00 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0014626
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB14626
Metabolite Identification
Common NameGallamine Triethiodide
DescriptionA synthetic nondepolarizing blocking drug. The actions of gallamine triethiodide are similar to those of tubocurarine, but this agent blocks the cardiac vagus and may cause sinus tachycardia and, occasionally, hypertension and increased cardiac output. It should be used cautiously in patients at risk from increased heart rate but may be preferred for patients with bradycardia. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p198)
Structure
Data?1582753200
Synonyms
ValueSource
Gallamine triethochlorideHMDB
Gallamonium iodideHMDB
Iodide, gallamine triethylHMDB
Triethochloride, gallamineHMDB
Iodide, gallamoniumHMDB
Triethiodide, gallamineHMDB
Triethyl iodide, gallamineHMDB
FlaxedilHMDB
Gallamine triethyl iodideHMDB
Gallamine triethiodideMeSH
GallamineMeSH
Chemical FormulaC30H60N3O3
Average Molecular Weight510.8157
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight510.463467801
IUPAC Name(2-{2,3-bis[2-(triethylazaniumyl)ethoxy]phenoxy}ethyl)triethylazanium
Traditional Name(2-{2,3-bis[2-(triethylammonio)ethoxy]phenoxy}ethyl)triethylazanium
CAS Registry Number65-29-2
SMILES
CC[N+](CC)(CC)CCOC1=CC=CC(OCC[N+](CC)(CC)CC)=C1OCC[N+](CC)(CC)CC
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C30H60N3O3/c1-10-31(11-2,12-3)22-25-34-28-20-19-21-29(35-26-23-32(13-4,14-5)15-6)30(28)36-27-24-33(16-7,17-8)18-9/h19-21H,10-18,22-27H2,1-9H3/q+3
InChI KeyOZLPUNFFCJDMJD-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenol ethers. These are aromatic compounds containing an ether group substituted with a benzene ring.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassPhenol ethers
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentPhenol ethers
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenoxy compound
  • Phenol ether
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Quaternary ammonium salt
  • Tetraalkylammonium salt
  • Ether
  • Organic salt
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Amine
  • Organic cation
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
Disposition

Biological location:

Role

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point147.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility4.6e-06 g/LNot Available
LogP3.5Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility4.6e-06 g/LALOGPS
logP2.01ALOGPS
logP-7.7ChemAxon
logS-9ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area27.69 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count21ChemAxon
Refractivity189.98 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability63.18 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityNoChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Not Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00483 details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00483 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound3450
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB ID
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in carboxylesterase activity
Specific function:
Terminates signal transduction at the neuromuscular junction by rapid hydrolysis of the acetylcholine released into the synaptic cleft. Role in neuronal apoptosis.
Gene Name:
ACHE
Uniprot ID:
P22303
Molecular weight:
67795.525
References
  1. Radic Z, Taylor P: The influence of peripheral site ligands on the reaction of symmetric and chiral organophosphates with wildtype and mutant acetylcholinesterases. Chem Biol Interact. 1999 May 14;119-120:111-7. [PubMed:10421444 ]
  2. Radic Z, Taylor P: Peripheral site ligands accelerate inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by neutral organophosphates. J Appl Toxicol. 2001 Dec;21 Suppl 1:S13-4. [PubMed:11920914 ]
  3. Robaire B, Kato G: Effects of edrophonium, eserine, decamethonium, d-tubocurarine, and gallamine on the kinetics of membrane-bound and solubilized eel acetylcholinesterase. Mol Pharmacol. 1975 Nov;11(6):722-34. [PubMed:1207670 ]
  4. Seto Y, Shinohara T: Structure-activity relationship of reversible cholinesterase inhibitors including paraquat. Arch Toxicol. 1988 Aug;62(1):37-40. [PubMed:3190453 ]
  5. Bourgeois JP, Betz H, Changuex JP: [Effects of chronic paralysis of chick embryo by flaxedil on the development of the neuromuscular junction]. C R Acad Sci Hebd Seances Acad Sci D. 1978 Mar 13;286(10):773-6. [PubMed:417864 ]
  6. Elsinghorst PW, Cieslik JS, Mohr K, Trankle C, Gutschow M: First gallamine-tacrine hybrid: design and characterization at cholinesterases and the M2 muscarinic receptor. J Med Chem. 2007 Nov 15;50(23):5685-95. Epub 2007 Oct 18. [PubMed:17944454 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is adenylate cyclase inhibition
Gene Name:
CHRM2
Uniprot ID:
P08172
Molecular weight:
51714.6
References
  1. Huang XP, Prilla S, Mohr K, Ellis J: Critical amino acid residues of the common allosteric site on the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor: more similarities than differences between the structurally divergent agents gallamine and bis(ammonio)alkane-type hexamethylene-bis-[dimethyl-(3-phthalimidopropyl)ammonium]dibromide. Mol Pharmacol. 2005 Sep;68(3):769-78. Epub 2005 Jun 3. [PubMed:15937215 ]
  2. De Vries B, Roffel AF, Kooistra JM, Meurs H, Zaagsma J: Effects of fenoterol on beta-adrenoceptor and muscarinic M2 receptor function in bovine tracheal smooth muscle. Eur J Pharmacol. 2001 May 11;419(2-3):253-9. [PubMed:11426849 ]
  3. Cembala TM, Forde SC, Appadu BL, Lambert DG: Allosteric interaction of the neuromuscular blockers vecuronium and pancuronium with recombinant human muscarinic M2 receptors. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Aug 13;569(1-2):37-40. Epub 2007 May 22. [PubMed:17588565 ]
  4. Ten Berge RE, Krikke M, Teisman AC, Roffel AF, Zaagsma J: Dysfunctional muscarinic M2 autoreceptors in vagally induced bronchoconstriction of conscious guinea pigs after the early allergic reaction. Eur J Pharmacol. 1996 Dec 27;318(1):131-9. [PubMed:9007524 ]
  5. Spina D, Minshall E, Goldie RG, Page CP: The effect of allosteric antagonists in modulating muscarinic M2-receptor function in guinea-pig isolated trachea. Br J Pharmacol. 1994 Jul;112(3):901-5. [PubMed:7522861 ]
  6. Redka DS, Pisterzi LF, Wells JW: Binding of orthosteric ligands to the allosteric site of the M(2) muscarinic cholinergic receptor. Mol Pharmacol. 2008 Sep;74(3):834-43. doi: 10.1124/mol.108.048074. Epub 2008 Jun 13. [PubMed:18552124 ]
  7. Maier-Peuschel M, Frolich N, Dees C, Hommers LG, Hoffmann C, Nikolaev VO, Lohse MJ: A fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based M2 muscarinic receptor sensor reveals rapid kinetics of allosteric modulation. J Biol Chem. 2010 Mar 19;285(12):8793-800. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M109.098517. Epub 2010 Jan 18. [PubMed:20083608 ]
  8. Ehlert FJ, Griffin MT: Two-state models and the analysis of the allosteric effect of gallamine at the M2 muscarinic receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008 Jun;325(3):1039-60. doi: 10.1124/jpet.108.136960. Epub 2008 Feb 27. [PubMed:18305010 ]
  9. Elsinghorst PW, Cieslik JS, Mohr K, Trankle C, Gutschow M: First gallamine-tacrine hybrid: design and characterization at cholinesterases and the M2 muscarinic receptor. J Med Chem. 2007 Nov 15;50(23):5685-95. Epub 2007 Oct 18. [PubMed:17944454 ]
  10. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
General function:
Involved in extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane
Gene Name:
CHRNA2
Uniprot ID:
Q15822
Molecular weight:
59764.8
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Aoshima H, Inoue Y, Hori K: Inhibition of ionotropic neurotransmitter receptors by antagonists: strategy to estimate the association and the dissociation rate constant of antagonists with very strong affinity to the receptors. J Biochem. 1992 Oct;112(4):495-502. [PubMed:1337082 ]