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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:50 UTC
Update Date2020-02-26 21:40:26 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0014842
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB14842
Metabolite Identification
Common NameNaltrexone
DescriptionNaltrexone, also known as vivitrol or PTI-555, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenanthrenes and derivatives. These are polycyclic compounds containing a phenanthrene moiety, which is a tricyclic aromatic compound with three non-linearly fused benzene. Naltrexone is a drug which is used as an adjunct to a medically supervised behaviour modification program in the maintenance of opiate cessation in individuals who were formerly physically dependent on opiates and who have successfully undergone detoxification. also used for the management of alcohol dependence in conjunction with a behavioural modification program. Naltrexone is a very strong basic compound (based on its pKa). In humans, naltrexone is involved in naltrexone action pathway. Naltrexone is a potentially toxic compound.
Structure
Data?1582753226
Synonyms
ValueSource
17-(Cyclopropylmethyl)-4,5-epoxy-3,14-dihydroxymorphinan-6-oneChEBI
17-(Cyclopropylmethyl)-4,5alpha-epoxy-3,14-dihydroxymorphinan-6-oneChEBI
N-Cyclopropylmethyl-14-hydroxydihydromorphinoneChEBI
N-CyclopropylmethylnoroxymorphoneChEBI
VivitrolKegg
17-(Cyclopropylmethyl)-4,5a-epoxy-3,14-dihydroxymorphinan-6-oneGenerator
17-(Cyclopropylmethyl)-4,5α-epoxy-3,14-dihydroxymorphinan-6-oneGenerator
PTI-555HMDB
Du pont brand OF naltrexone hydrochlorideHMDB
ReViaHMDB
Schering plough brand OF naltrexone hydrochlorideHMDB
AntaxoneHMDB
Bristol-myers squibb brand OF naltrexone hydrochlorideHMDB
Lacer brand OF naltrexone hydrochlorideHMDB
Lamepro brand OF naltrexone hydrochlorideHMDB
Naltrexone hydrochlorideHMDB
Pharmazam brand OF naltrexone hydrochlorideHMDB
United drug brand OF naltrexone hydrochlorideHMDB
CelupanHMDB
NemexinHMDB
Orphan brand OF naltrexone hydrochlorideHMDB
Schering-plough brand OF naltrexone hydrochlorideHMDB
TrexanHMDB
Bristol myers squibb brand OF naltrexone hydrochlorideHMDB
Hydrochloride, naltrexoneHMDB
NalorexHMDB
Chemical FormulaC20H23NO4
Average Molecular Weight341.4009
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight341.162708229
IUPAC Name(1S,5R,13R,17S)-4-(cyclopropylmethyl)-10,17-dihydroxy-12-oxa-4-azapentacyclo[9.6.1.0¹,¹³.0⁵,¹⁷.0⁷,¹⁸]octadeca-7(18),8,10-trien-14-one
Traditional Namenaltrexone
CAS Registry Number16590-41-3
SMILES
[H][C@@]12OC3=C(O)C=CC4=C3[C@@]11CCN(CC3CC3)[C@]([H])(C4)[C@]1(O)CCC2=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C20H23NO4/c22-13-4-3-12-9-15-20(24)6-5-14(23)18-19(20,16(12)17(13)25-18)7-8-21(15)10-11-1-2-11/h3-4,11,15,18,22,24H,1-2,5-10H2/t15-,18+,19+,20-/m1/s1
InChI KeyDQCKKXVULJGBQN-XFWGSAIBSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenanthrenes and derivatives. These are polycyclic compounds containing a phenanthrene moiety, which is a tricyclic aromatic compound with three non-linearly fused benzene.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassBenzenoids
ClassPhenanthrenes and derivatives
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentPhenanthrenes and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenanthrene
  • Isoquinolone
  • Tetralin
  • Coumaran
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Aralkylamine
  • Piperidine
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • 1,2-aminoalcohol
  • Ketone
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Ether
  • Oxacycle
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological location

Source

Route of exposure

Process

Naturally occurring process

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point169 - 170 °C; 274 - 276 °C (hydrochloride salt)Not Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility3.07 g/LNot Available
LogP0.7Not Available
Experimental Spectral Properties

Experimental Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeData SourceCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DeepCCS[M+H]+CBM176.530932474
AllCCS[M+H]+Not Available175.973http://allccs.zhulab.cn/database/detail?ID=AllCCS00000841
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.07 g/LALOGPS
logP10(2.07) g/LALOGPS
logP10(1.36) g/LChemAxon
logS10(-2) g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)7.39ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)11.54ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area70 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity91.5 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability35.97 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings6ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Spectral Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DarkChem[M+H]+178.22531661259
DarkChem[M-H]-171.23531661259

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Derivatized

Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
Naltrexone,1TMS,#1C[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=C2C[C@H]3N(CC4CC4)CC[C@]45C2=C1O[C@H]4C(=O)CC[C@@]35O2877.8Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Naltrexone,1TMS,#2C[Si](C)(C)O[C@@]12CCC(=O)[C@@H]3OC4=C(O)C=CC5=C4[C@@]31CCN(CC1CC1)[C@@H]2C52826.2Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Naltrexone,1TMS,#3C[Si](C)(C)OC1=C2OC3=C(O)C=CC4=C3[C@@]23CCN(CC2CC2)[C@H](C4)[C@]3(O)CC12857.4Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Naltrexone,1TMS,#4C[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC[C@@]2(O)[C@H]3CC4=CC=C(O)C5=C4[C@@]2(CCN3CC2CC2)[C@H]1O52837.9Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Naltrexone,2TMS,#2C[Si](C)(C)OC1=C2OC3=C(O[Si](C)(C)C)C=CC4=C3[C@@]23CCN(CC2CC2)[C@H](C4)[C@]3(O)CC12828.6Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Naltrexone,2TMS,#3C[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC[C@@]2(O)[C@H]3CC4=CC=C(O[Si](C)(C)C)C5=C4[C@@]2(CCN3CC2CC2)[C@H]1O52817.6Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Naltrexone,2TMS,#4C[Si](C)(C)OC1=C2OC3=C(O)C=CC4=C3[C@@]23CCN(CC2CC2)[C@H](C4)[C@]3(O[Si](C)(C)C)CC12774.8Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Naltrexone,2TMS,#5C[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC[C@@]2(O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@H]3CC4=CC=C(O)C5=C4[C@@]2(CCN3CC2CC2)[C@H]1O52755.9Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Naltrexone,1TBDMS,#1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=C2C[C@H]3N(CC4CC4)CC[C@]45C2=C1O[C@H]4C(=O)CC[C@@]35O3129.2Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Naltrexone,1TBDMS,#2CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@@]12CCC(=O)[C@@H]3OC4=C(O)C=CC5=C4[C@@]31CCN(CC1CC1)[C@@H]2C53066.2Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Naltrexone,1TBDMS,#3CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC1=C2OC3=C(O)C=CC4=C3[C@@]23CCN(CC2CC2)[C@H](C4)[C@]3(O)CC13090.4Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Naltrexone,1TBDMS,#4CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC[C@@]2(O)[C@H]3CC4=CC=C(O)C5=C4[C@@]2(CCN3CC2CC2)[C@H]1O53062.8Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Naltrexone,2TBDMS,#2CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC1=C2OC3=C(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C=CC4=C3[C@@]23CCN(CC2CC2)[C@H](C4)[C@]3(O)CC13304.0Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Naltrexone,2TBDMS,#3CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC[C@@]2(O)[C@H]3CC4=CC=C(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C5=C4[C@@]2(CCN3CC2CC2)[C@H]1O53284.0Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Naltrexone,2TBDMS,#4CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC1=C2OC3=C(O)C=CC4=C3[C@@]23CCN(CC2CC2)[C@H](C4)[C@]3(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)CC13240.0Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Naltrexone,2TBDMS,#5CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC[C@@]2(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@H]3CC4=CC=C(O)C5=C4[C@@]2(CCN3CC2CC2)[C@H]1O53221.9Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Naltrexone,2TMS,#1C[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=C2C[C@H]3N(CC4CC4)CC[C@]45C2=C1O[C@H]4C(=O)CC[C@@]35O[Si](C)(C)C2812.0Semi standard non polarLange, M. and Fedorova, M. (2020) Evaluation of lipid quantification accuracy using HILIC and RPLC MS on the example of NIST SRM 1950 metabolites in human plasma. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 412(15), 3573-3584.
Naltrexone,2TBDMS,#1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=C2C[C@H]3N(CC4CC4)CC[C@]45C2=C1O[C@H]4C(=O)CC[C@@]35O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C3284.9Semi standard non polarLange, M. and Fedorova, M. (2020) Evaluation of lipid quantification accuracy using HILIC and RPLC MS on the example of NIST SRM 1950 metabolites in human plasma. Anal. Bioanal. Chem. 412(15), 3573-3584.
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Naltrexone GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a4l-9032000000-f869731a6a6d2ba21fc92017-09-01Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Naltrexone GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00bc-9601600000-928a74224d18c2ec3c942017-10-06Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Naltrexone GC-MS (TBDMS_2_1) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Naltrexone GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Naltrexone GC-MS ("Naltrexone,2TMS,#1" TMS) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-14Wishart LabView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Naltrexone LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-00di-0009000000-e30316dd5784a7100d382017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Naltrexone LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-0009000000-2218214724e56047d52b2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Naltrexone LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-0009000000-bb047c719f3429eb44102017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Naltrexone LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-00di-0049000000-de9a717563978f22f02f2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Naltrexone LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-00xr-0191000000-d2f2ff1e4eb93db46b5e2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Naltrexone LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-03di-1390000000-091705f6f42bc0f1c2092017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Naltrexone LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-03di-1890000000-148c5608ef92c1dcaac42017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Naltrexone LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-0009000000-6df03abdbdb7461f29452017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Naltrexone LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-0009000000-059b1dffee7ef15b9e952017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Naltrexone LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-00di-0049000000-a20ede951b350fa97a312017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Naltrexone LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-00xr-0191000000-8a66ac92b4a1eadcc4052017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Naltrexone LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-03di-1490000000-0cfb621f77295ff438f22017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Naltrexone LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-03di-1980000000-63edda852273619df16c2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Naltrexone LC-ESI-ITFT , positive-QTOFsplash10-00di-0009000000-59ab0ef68d6e13a7d0852017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Naltrexone 60V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-00xr-0191000000-8a66ac92b4a1eadcc4052021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Naltrexone 45V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-00di-0049000000-02654ed4a592aa3f1d772021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Naltrexone 35V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-00di-0009000000-5c4b68f88d13143d13c82021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Naltrexone 75V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-03di-1490000000-0cfb621f77295ff438f22021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Naltrexone 75V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-03di-1390000000-091705f6f42bc0f1c2092021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Naltrexone 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-05fu-2009000000-0922bce7a8eb5f33ce532016-08-01Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Naltrexone 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0a4i-9016000000-2d32afb0b23d74c8267b2016-08-01Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Naltrexone 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0a4i-9000000000-2fb0ae567a7b9fc291d72016-08-01Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Naltrexone 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0006-0019000000-fa732c8c50c28496a9832016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Naltrexone 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-006x-1049000000-ad083164dfddedbd64d32016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Naltrexone 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000f-4090000000-a84ca353819c1033f1e62016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00704 details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00704 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiospecimenValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0.000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0.000 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00704
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID4514524
KEGG Compound IDC07253
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNaltrexone
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound5360515
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID7465
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Schmitz JM, Stotts AL, Rhoades HM, Grabowski J: Naltrexone and relapse prevention treatment for cocaine-dependent patients. Addict Behav. 2001 Mar-Apr;26(2):167-80. [PubMed:11316375 ]
  2. Krystal JH, Gueorguieva R, Cramer J, Collins J, Rosenheck R: Naltrexone is associated with reduced drinking by alcohol dependent patients receiving antidepressants for mood and anxiety symptoms: results from VA Cooperative Study No. 425, "Naltrexone in the treatment of alcoholism". Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2008 Jan;32(1):85-91. Epub 2007 Dec 7. [PubMed:18070245 ]
  3. Ray LA, Chin PF, Miotto K: Naltrexone for the treatment of alcoholism: clinical findings, mechanisms of action, and pharmacogenetics. CNS Neurol Disord Drug Targets. 2010 Mar;9(1):13-22. [PubMed:20201811 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in transferase activity, transferring hexosyl groups
Specific function:
UDPGT is of major importance in the conjugation and subsequent elimination of potentially toxic xenobiotics and endogenous compounds. This isoform glucuronidates bilirubin IX-alpha to form both the IX-alpha-C8 and IX-alpha-C12 monoconjugates and diconjugate. Is also able to catalyze the glucuronidation of 17beta-estradiol, 17alpha-ethinylestradiol, 1-hydroxypyrene, 4-methylumbelliferone, 1-naphthol, paranitrophenol, scopoletin, and umbelliferone.
Gene Name:
UGT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P22309
Molecular weight:
59590.91
References
  1. Antonilli L, Brusadin V, Milella MS, Sobrero F, Badiani A, Nencini P: In vivo chronic exposure to heroin or naltrexone selectively inhibits liver microsome formation of estradiol-3-glucuronide in the rat. Biochem Pharmacol. 2008 Sep 1;76(5):672-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bcp.2008.06.011. Epub 2008 Jul 1. [PubMed:18639530 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Inhibits neurotransmitter release by reducing calcium ion currents and increasing potassium ion conductance. Highly stereoselective. receptor for enkephalins
Gene Name:
OPRD1
Uniprot ID:
P41143
Molecular weight:
40412.3
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  2. Roy S, Guo X, Kelschenbach J, Liu Y, Loh HH: In vivo activation of a mutant mu-opioid receptor by naltrexone produces a potent analgesic effect but no tolerance: role of mu-receptor activation and delta-receptor blockade in morphine tolerance. J Neurosci. 2005 Mar 23;25(12):3229-33. [PubMed:15788780 ]
  3. Barrios de Tomasi E, Juarez-Gonzalez J: [Opioid antagonists and alcohol consumption]. Rev Neurol. 2007 Aug 1-15;45(3):155-62. [PubMed:17661275 ]
  4. Weerts EM, Kim YK, Wand GS, Dannals RF, Lee JS, Frost JJ, McCaul ME: Differences in delta- and mu-opioid receptor blockade measured by positron emission tomography in naltrexone-treated recently abstinent alcohol-dependent subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008 Feb;33(3):653-65. Epub 2007 May 9. [PubMed:17487229 ]
  5. Herz A: Opioid reward mechanisms: a key role in drug abuse? Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1998 Mar;76(3):252-8. [PubMed:9673788 ]
  6. Herz A: Endogenous opioid systems and alcohol addiction. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1997 Jan;129(2):99-111. [PubMed:9040115 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Inhibits neurotransmitter release by reducing calcium ion currents and increasing potassium ion conductance. Receptor for beta-endorphin
Gene Name:
OPRM1
Uniprot ID:
P35372
Molecular weight:
44778.9
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  2. Kato H: [Pharmacological effects of a mu-opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone on alcohol dependence]. Nihon Arukoru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi. 2008 Oct;43(5):697-704. [PubMed:19068776 ]
  3. Helm S, Trescot AM, Colson J, Sehgal N, Silverman S: Opioid antagonists, partial agonists, and agonists/antagonists: the role of office-based detoxification. Pain Physician. 2008 Mar-Apr;11(2):225-35. [PubMed:18354714 ]
  4. Goodman AJ, Le Bourdonnec B, Dolle RE: Mu opioid receptor antagonists: recent developments. ChemMedChem. 2007 Nov;2(11):1552-70. [PubMed:17918759 ]
  5. Barrios de Tomasi E, Juarez-Gonzalez J: [Opioid antagonists and alcohol consumption]. Rev Neurol. 2007 Aug 1-15;45(3):155-62. [PubMed:17661275 ]
  6. Weerts EM, Kim YK, Wand GS, Dannals RF, Lee JS, Frost JJ, McCaul ME: Differences in delta- and mu-opioid receptor blockade measured by positron emission tomography in naltrexone-treated recently abstinent alcohol-dependent subjects. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2008 Feb;33(3):653-65. Epub 2007 May 9. [PubMed:17487229 ]
  7. Herz A: Opioid reward mechanisms: a key role in drug abuse? Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1998 Mar;76(3):252-8. [PubMed:9673788 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Inhibits neurotransmitter release by reducing calcium ion currents and increasing potassium ion conductance. Receptor for dynorphins. May play a role in arousal and regulation of autonomic and neuroendocrine functions
Gene Name:
OPRK1
Uniprot ID:
P41145
Molecular weight:
42644.7
References
  1. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
  2. Helm S, Trescot AM, Colson J, Sehgal N, Silverman S: Opioid antagonists, partial agonists, and agonists/antagonists: the role of office-based detoxification. Pain Physician. 2008 Mar-Apr;11(2):225-35. [PubMed:18354714 ]
  3. Herz A: Endogenous opioid systems and alcohol addiction. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 1997 Jan;129(2):99-111. [PubMed:9040115 ]
  4. Barrios de Tomasi E, Juarez-Gonzalez J: [Opioid antagonists and alcohol consumption]. Rev Neurol. 2007 Aug 1-15;45(3):155-62. [PubMed:17661275 ]
  5. Wee S, Orio L, Ghirmai S, Cashman JR, Koob GF: Inhibition of kappa opioid receptors attenuated increased cocaine intake in rats with extended access to cocaine. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009 Sep;205(4):565-75. doi: 10.1007/s00213-009-1563-y. Epub 2009 May 30. [PubMed:19484223 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular weight:
141477.3
References
  1. Mahar Doan KM, Humphreys JE, Webster LO, Wring SA, Shampine LJ, Serabjit-Singh CJ, Adkison KK, Polli JW: Passive permeability and P-glycoprotein-mediated efflux differentiate central nervous system (CNS) and non-CNS marketed drugs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2002 Dec;303(3):1029-37. [PubMed:12438524 ]