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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2021-09-14 15:45:41 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0015007
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB15007
Metabolite Identification
Common NameDorzolamide
DescriptionDorzolamide is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitor. It is used in ophthalmic solutions (Trusopt) to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) in open-angle glaucoma and ocular hypertension.Dorzolamide is a sulfonamide and a highly specific carbonic anhydrase II (CA-II) inhibitor, which is the main CA isoenzyme involved in aqueous humor secretion. Inhibition of CA-II in the ciliary processes of the eye decreases aqueous humor secretion, presumably by slowing the formation of bicarbonate ions with subsequent reduction in sodium and fluid transport. Dorzolamide also accumulates in red blood cells as a result of CA-II binding, as CA-II is found predominantly in erythrocytes. However, sufficient CA-II activity remains so that adverse effects due to systemic CA inhibition are not observed.
Structure
Data?1582753247
Synonyms
ValueSource
(4S,6S)-4-Ethylamino-6-methyl-7,7-dioxo-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-7lambda*6*-thieno[2,3-b]thiopyran-2-sulfonic acid amideChEBI
(4S,trans)-4-(Ethylamino)-6-methyl-5,6-dihydro-4H-thieno[2,3-b]thiopyran-2-sulfonamide 7,7-dioxideChEBI
(4S-trans)-4-(ETHYLAMINO)-5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-4H-thieno(2,3-b)thiopyran-2-sulfonamide-7,7-dioxideChEBI
4-Ethylamino-6-methyl-7,7-dioxo-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-7lambda*6*-thieno[2,3-b]thiopyran-2-sulfonic acid amideChEBI
4-Ethylamino-6-methyl-7,7-dioxo-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-7lambda6-thieno[2,3-b]thiopyran-2-sulfonic acid amideChEBI
4S,6S-DorzolamideChEBI
TrusoptKegg
(4S,6S)-4-Ethylamino-6-methyl-7,7-dioxo-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-7lambda*6*-thieno[2,3-b]thiopyran-2-sulfonate amideGenerator
(4S,6S)-4-Ethylamino-6-methyl-7,7-dioxo-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-7lambda*6*-thieno[2,3-b]thiopyran-2-sulphonate amideGenerator
(4S,6S)-4-Ethylamino-6-methyl-7,7-dioxo-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-7lambda*6*-thieno[2,3-b]thiopyran-2-sulphonic acid amideGenerator
(4S,trans)-4-(Ethylamino)-6-methyl-5,6-dihydro-4H-thieno[2,3-b]thiopyran-2-sulphonamide 7,7-dioxideGenerator
(4S-trans)-4-(ETHYLAMINO)-5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-4H-thieno(2,3-b)thiopyran-2-sulphonamide-7,7-dioxideGenerator
4-Ethylamino-6-methyl-7,7-dioxo-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-7lambda*6*-thieno[2,3-b]thiopyran-2-sulfonate amideGenerator
4-Ethylamino-6-methyl-7,7-dioxo-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-7lambda*6*-thieno[2,3-b]thiopyran-2-sulphonate amideGenerator
4-Ethylamino-6-methyl-7,7-dioxo-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-7lambda*6*-thieno[2,3-b]thiopyran-2-sulphonic acid amideGenerator
4-Ethylamino-6-methyl-7,7-dioxo-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-7lambda6-thieno[2,3-b]thiopyran-2-sulfonate amideGenerator
4-Ethylamino-6-methyl-7,7-dioxo-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-7lambda6-thieno[2,3-b]thiopyran-2-sulphonate amideGenerator
4-Ethylamino-6-methyl-7,7-dioxo-4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-7lambda6-thieno[2,3-b]thiopyran-2-sulphonic acid amideGenerator
5,6-Dihydro-4-ethylamino-6-methyl-4H-thieno(2,3-b)thiopyran-2-sulfonamide-7,7-dioxideHMDB
Dorzolamide hydrochlorideHMDB
Dorzolamide chibretHMDB
Dorzolamide, (trans)-isomerHMDB
4-Ethylamino-5,6-dihydro-6-methyl-7,7-dioxide-4H-thieno(2,3-b)thiopyran-2-sulfonamideHMDB
Chemical FormulaC10H16N2O4S3
Average Molecular Weight324.44
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight324.02721908
IUPAC Name(2S,4S)-4-(ethylamino)-2-methyl-1,1-dioxo-2H,3H,4H-1λ⁶-thieno[2,3-b]thiopyran-6-sulfonamide
Traditional Namedorzolamide
CAS Registry Number120279-96-1
SMILES
CCN[C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S2)S(N)(=O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C10H16N2O4S3/c1-3-12-8-4-6(2)18(13,14)10-7(8)5-9(17-10)19(11,15)16/h5-6,8,12H,3-4H2,1-2H3,(H2,11,15,16)/t6-,8-/m0/s1
InChI KeyIAVUPMFITXYVAF-XPUUQOCRSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 2,3,5-trisubstituted thiophenes. These are organic compounds containing a thiophene that is trisubstituted at the C-2, C3- and C5-positions.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassThiophenes
Sub Class2,3,5-trisubstituted thiophenes
Direct Parent2,3,5-trisubstituted thiophenes
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 2,3,5-trisubstituted thiophene
  • Aralkylamine
  • Organosulfonic acid amide
  • Thiopyran
  • Sulfone
  • Organic sulfonic acid or derivatives
  • Organosulfonic acid or derivatives
  • Sulfonyl
  • Aminosulfonyl compound
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Secondary aliphatic amine
  • Secondary amine
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organosulfur compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological location

Source

Route of exposure

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point283 - 285 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.7 g/LNot Available
LogP-1Not Available
Experimental Chromatographic PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.7 g/LALOGPS
logP10(-0.5) g/LALOGPS
logP10(-0.15) g/LChemAxon
logS10(-2.7) g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)8.18ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)7.14ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area106.33 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity72.46 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability31.55 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DarkChem[M+H]+173.10731661259
DarkChem[M-H]-168.72131661259

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Underivatized

MetaboliteSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
DorzolamideCCN[C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S2)S(N)(=O)=O4238.3Standard polar33892256
DorzolamideCCN[C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S2)S(N)(=O)=O3204.1Standard non polar33892256
DorzolamideCCN[C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S2)S(N)(=O)=O2920.5Semi standard non polar33892256

Derivatized

Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
Dorzolamide,1TMS,isomer #1CCN[C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S(=O)(=O)N[Si](C)(C)C)S22800.1Semi standard non polar33892256
Dorzolamide,1TMS,isomer #1CCN[C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S(=O)(=O)N[Si](C)(C)C)S22788.2Standard non polar33892256
Dorzolamide,1TMS,isomer #1CCN[C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S(=O)(=O)N[Si](C)(C)C)S23771.2Standard polar33892256
Dorzolamide,1TMS,isomer #2CCN([C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S(N)(=O)=O)S2)[Si](C)(C)C2839.5Semi standard non polar33892256
Dorzolamide,1TMS,isomer #2CCN([C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S(N)(=O)=O)S2)[Si](C)(C)C2882.7Standard non polar33892256
Dorzolamide,1TMS,isomer #2CCN([C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S(N)(=O)=O)S2)[Si](C)(C)C4592.2Standard polar33892256
Dorzolamide,2TMS,isomer #1CCN([C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S(=O)(=O)N[Si](C)(C)C)S2)[Si](C)(C)C2802.5Semi standard non polar33892256
Dorzolamide,2TMS,isomer #1CCN([C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S(=O)(=O)N[Si](C)(C)C)S2)[Si](C)(C)C3011.7Standard non polar33892256
Dorzolamide,2TMS,isomer #1CCN([C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S(=O)(=O)N[Si](C)(C)C)S2)[Si](C)(C)C3650.3Standard polar33892256
Dorzolamide,2TMS,isomer #2CCN[C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S(=O)(=O)N([Si](C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C)S22819.1Semi standard non polar33892256
Dorzolamide,2TMS,isomer #2CCN[C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S(=O)(=O)N([Si](C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C)S22982.7Standard non polar33892256
Dorzolamide,2TMS,isomer #2CCN[C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S(=O)(=O)N([Si](C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C)S23670.7Standard polar33892256
Dorzolamide,3TMS,isomer #1CCN([C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S(=O)(=O)N([Si](C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C)S2)[Si](C)(C)C2860.2Semi standard non polar33892256
Dorzolamide,3TMS,isomer #1CCN([C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S(=O)(=O)N([Si](C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C)S2)[Si](C)(C)C3209.7Standard non polar33892256
Dorzolamide,3TMS,isomer #1CCN([C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S(=O)(=O)N([Si](C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C)S2)[Si](C)(C)C3543.7Standard polar33892256
Dorzolamide,1TBDMS,isomer #1CCN[C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S(=O)(=O)N[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)S23032.7Semi standard non polar33892256
Dorzolamide,1TBDMS,isomer #1CCN[C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S(=O)(=O)N[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)S23049.4Standard non polar33892256
Dorzolamide,1TBDMS,isomer #1CCN[C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S(=O)(=O)N[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)S23819.2Standard polar33892256
Dorzolamide,1TBDMS,isomer #2CCN([C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S(N)(=O)=O)S2)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C3064.2Semi standard non polar33892256
Dorzolamide,1TBDMS,isomer #2CCN([C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S(N)(=O)=O)S2)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C3126.0Standard non polar33892256
Dorzolamide,1TBDMS,isomer #2CCN([C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S(N)(=O)=O)S2)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C4640.5Standard polar33892256
Dorzolamide,2TBDMS,isomer #1CCN([C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S(=O)(=O)N[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)S2)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C3218.1Semi standard non polar33892256
Dorzolamide,2TBDMS,isomer #1CCN([C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S(=O)(=O)N[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)S2)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C3529.1Standard non polar33892256
Dorzolamide,2TBDMS,isomer #1CCN([C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S(=O)(=O)N[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)S2)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C3708.8Standard polar33892256
Dorzolamide,2TBDMS,isomer #2CCN[C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S(=O)(=O)N([Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)S23272.6Semi standard non polar33892256
Dorzolamide,2TBDMS,isomer #2CCN[C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S(=O)(=O)N([Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)S23496.4Standard non polar33892256
Dorzolamide,2TBDMS,isomer #2CCN[C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S(=O)(=O)N([Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)S23711.3Standard polar33892256
Dorzolamide,3TBDMS,isomer #1CCN([C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S(=O)(=O)N([Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)S2)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C3456.7Semi standard non polar33892256
Dorzolamide,3TBDMS,isomer #1CCN([C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S(=O)(=O)N([Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)S2)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C3981.5Standard non polar33892256
Dorzolamide,3TBDMS,isomer #1CCN([C@H]1C[C@H](C)S(=O)(=O)C2=C1C=C(S(=O)(=O)N([Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)S2)[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C3656.8Standard polar33892256
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Dorzolamide GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0ar3-2393000000-5fee748c257c96fe4cc62017-09-01Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Dorzolamide GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Dorzolamide GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dorzolamide 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-004i-1039000000-bc26f50a987e66b2d85f2016-06-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dorzolamide 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0udi-1940000000-b593686cdeed391e62522016-06-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dorzolamide 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0006-9200000000-37bcca2a8a93f29e705e2016-06-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dorzolamide 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-00b9-7495000000-d579bf9a53d7355310be2016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dorzolamide 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0fa9-5960000000-4180bf8ab95c96f57f152016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dorzolamide 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-004i-9010000000-0ef2ea7db65e541aecef2016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dorzolamide 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-004i-0009000000-2467b7c2962f7a83efdc2021-10-11Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dorzolamide 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-004i-0097000000-a04c8c4869eb06d722602021-10-11Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dorzolamide 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-016r-0390000000-5e9ea339d753845f7c982021-10-11Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dorzolamide 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-00di-0009000000-77ced8018945af0b87372021-10-11Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dorzolamide 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-00dr-4439000000-3349264d7067d02efbca2021-10-11Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Dorzolamide 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-004i-9740000000-a0afe72c11e381401a2f2021-10-11Wishart LabView Spectrum

NMR Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00869 details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB00869 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB00869
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID4447604
KEGG Compound IDC06969
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkDorzolamide
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound5284549
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID4702
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Balfour JA, Wilde MI: Dorzolamide. A review of its pharmacology and therapeutic potential in the management of glaucoma and ocular hypertension. Drugs Aging. 1997 May;10(5):384-403. [PubMed:9143858 ]
  2. Ponticello GS, Sugrue MF, Plazonnet B, Durand-Cavagna G: Dorzolamide, a 40-year wait. From an oral to a topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor for the treatment of glaucoma. Pharm Biotechnol. 1998;11:555-74. [PubMed:9760696 ]
  3. Martens-Lobenhoffer J, Banditt P: Clinical pharmacokinetics of dorzolamide. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2002;41(3):197-205. [PubMed:11929320 ]
  4. Almeida GC Jr, Faria e Souza SJ: Effect of topical dorzolamide on rabbit central corneal thickness. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2006 Feb;39(2):277-81. Epub 2006 Feb 2. [PubMed:16470316 ]
  5. Grover S, Apushkin MA, Fishman GA: Topical dorzolamide for the treatment of cystoid macular edema in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Am J Ophthalmol. 2006 May;141(5):850-8. Epub 2006 Mar 20. [PubMed:16546110 ]
  6. Plummer CE, MacKay EO, Gelatt KN: Comparison of the effects of topical administration of a fixed combination of dorzolamide-timolol to monotherapy with timolol or dorzolamide on IOP, pupil size, and heart rate in glaucomatous dogs. Vet Ophthalmol. 2006 Jul-Aug;9(4):245-9. [PubMed:16771760 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrates cyanamide to urea.
Gene Name:
CA1
Uniprot ID:
P00915
Molecular weight:
28870.0
References
  1. Hasegawa T, Hara K, Hata S: Binding of dorzolamide and its metabolite, N-deethylated dorzolamide, to human erythrocytes in vitro. Drug Metab Dispos. 1994 May-Jun;22(3):377-82. [PubMed:8070313 ]
  2. Maren TH, Conroy CW, Wynns GC, Levy NS: Ocular absorption, blood levels, and excretion of dorzolamide, a topically active carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 1997 Feb;13(1):23-30. [PubMed:9029437 ]
  3. Sugrue MF: The preclinical pharmacology of dorzolamide hydrochloride, a topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 1996 Fall;12(3):363-76. [PubMed:8875343 ]
General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Essential for bone resorption and osteoclast differentiation (By similarity). Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. Can hydrate cyanamide to urea. Involved in the regulation of fluid secretion into the anterior chamber of the eye.
Gene Name:
CA2
Uniprot ID:
P00918
Molecular weight:
29245.895
References
  1. Lachmann C, Jorg KM, Trinkmann R: [Postoperative behavior of intraocular pressure after posterior Nd:YAG laser capsulotomy--critical evaluation in preventive administration of local carbonic anhydrase II inhibitor dorzolamide hydrochloride (Trusopt)]. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd. 1998 Dec;213(6):326-30. [PubMed:10048009 ]
  2. Wong BK, Bruhin PJ, Barrish A, Lin JH: Nonlinear dorzolamide pharmacokinetics in rats: concentration-dependent erythrocyte distribution and drug-metabolite displacement interaction. Drug Metab Dispos. 1996 Jun;24(6):659-63. [PubMed:8781782 ]
  3. Berg JT, Ramanathan S, Gabrielli MG, Swenson ER: Carbonic anhydrase in mammalian vascular smooth muscle. J Histochem Cytochem. 2004 Aug;52(8):1101-6. [PubMed:15258186 ]
  4. Hasegawa T, Hara K, Hata S: Binding of dorzolamide and its metabolite, N-deethylated dorzolamide, to human erythrocytes in vitro. Drug Metab Dispos. 1994 May-Jun;22(3):377-82. [PubMed:8070313 ]
  5. Maren TH, Conroy CW, Wynns GC, Levy NS: Ocular absorption, blood levels, and excretion of dorzolamide, a topically active carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 1997 Feb;13(1):23-30. [PubMed:9029437 ]
  6. Sugrue MF: Pharmacological and ocular hypotensive properties of topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Prog Retin Eye Res. 2000 Jan;19(1):87-112. [PubMed:10614682 ]
  7. Sugrue MF: The preclinical pharmacology of dorzolamide hydrochloride, a topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 1996 Fall;12(3):363-76. [PubMed:8875343 ]
  8. Srinivas SP, Ong A, Zhai CB, Bonanno JA: Inhibition of carbonic anhydrase activity in cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells by dorzolamide. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2002 Oct;43(10):3273-8. [PubMed:12356834 ]
  9. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]
General function:
Involved in carbonate dehydratase activity
Specific function:
Reversible hydration of carbon dioxide. May stimulate the sodium/bicarbonate transporter activity of SLC4A4 that acts in pH homeostasis. It is essential for acid overload removal from the retina and retina epithelium, and acid release in the choriocapillaris in the choroid.
Gene Name:
CA4
Uniprot ID:
P22748
Molecular weight:
35032.075
References
  1. Sugrue MF: The preclinical pharmacology of dorzolamide hydrochloride, a topical carbonic anhydrase inhibitor. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther. 1996 Fall;12(3):363-76. [PubMed:8875343 ]