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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2020-02-26 21:41:02 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0015137
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB15137
Metabolite Identification
Common NameLevobupivacaine
DescriptionLevobupivacaine is an amino-amide local anaesthetic drug belonging to the family of n-alkylsubstituted. pipecoloxylidide. It is the S-enantiomer of bupivacaine. Levobupivacaine hydrochloride is commonly marketed by AstraZeneca under the trade name Chirocaine. Compared to bupivacaine, levobupivacaine is associated with less vasodilation and has a longer duration of action. It is approximately 13 per cent less potent (by molarity) than racemic bupivacaine.Levobupivacaine is indicated for local anaesthesia including infiltration, nerve block, ophthalmic, epidural and intrathecal anaesthesia in adults; and infiltration analgesia in children. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are rare when it is administered correctly. Most ADRs relate to administration technique (resulting in systemic exposure) or pharmacological effects of anesthesia, however allergic reactions can rarely occur. [Wikipedia ]
Structure
Data?1582753262
Synonyms
ValueSource
(-)-BupivacaineChEBI
(S)-1-Butyl-2',6'-pipecoloxylidideChEBI
(S)-BupivacaineChEBI
L-(-)-BupivacaineChEBI
L-(-)-1-Butyl-2',6'-pipecoloxylidideChEBI
NovabupiKegg
Levobupivacaine hydrochlorideHMDB
ChirocaineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC18H28N2O
Average Molecular Weight288.4277
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight288.220163528
IUPAC Name(2S)-1-butyl-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)piperidine-2-carboxamide
Traditional Name(-)-bupivacaine
CAS Registry Number27262-47-1
SMILES
CCCCN1CCCC[C@H]1C(=O)NC1=C(C)C=CC=C1C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C18H28N2O/c1-4-5-12-20-13-7-6-11-16(20)18(21)19-17-14(2)9-8-10-15(17)3/h8-10,16H,4-7,11-13H2,1-3H3,(H,19,21)/t16-/m0/s1
InChI KeyLEBVLXFERQHONN-INIZCTEOSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as piperidinecarboxamides. Piperidinecarboxamides are compounds containing a piperidine ring substituted with a carboxamide functional group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassPiperidines
Sub ClassPiperidinecarboxylic acids and derivatives
Direct ParentPiperidinecarboxamides
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 2-piperidinecarboxamide
  • Piperidinecarboxamide
  • M-xylene
  • Xylene
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Benzenoid
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Carboximidic acid
  • Carboximidic acid derivative
  • Azacycle
  • Organic 1,3-dipolar compound
  • Propargyl-type 1,3-dipolar organic compound
  • Amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
  • 1-butyl-N-(2,6-dimethylphenyl)piperidine-2-carboxamide (CHEBI:6149 )
Ontology
Physiological effect

Health effect:

Disposition

Biological location:

Process

Naturally occurring process:

Role

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.098 g/LNot Available
LogP3.6Not Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.098 g/LALOGPS
logP3.31ALOGPS
logP4.52ChemAxon
logS-3.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.62ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area32.34 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count5ChemAxon
Refractivity90.19 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability34.45 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings2ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-006t-6920000000-20e4e8d5c09a52a31c75Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0079-0970000000-e665f05dc8da9fafd8f0Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-00dl-2900000000-6396ddc6fc9d5e9b6c64Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0ac0-9200000000-befeaee90e72918d68b3Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-0290000000-e01610a30f93d9c5ec2aSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00ri-0970000000-e26949f880557c6da815Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-00xr-3900000000-56dfe5d9cd7f629f17e3Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01002 details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01002 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Predicted Concentrations
BiospecimenValueOriginal ageOriginal sexOriginal conditionComments
Blood0.000 uMAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Blood0.000 umol/mmol creatinineAdult (>18 years old)BothNormalPredicted based on drug qualities
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01002
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID83289
KEGG Compound IDC07887
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkLevobupivacaine
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound92253
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID6149
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB ID
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Burlacu CL, Buggy DJ: Update on local anesthetics: focus on levobupivacaine. Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008 Apr;4(2):381-92. [PubMed:18728849 ]
  2. Leone S, Di Cianni S, Casati A, Fanelli G: Pharmacology, toxicology, and clinical use of new long acting local anesthetics, ropivacaine and levobupivacaine. Acta Biomed. 2008 Aug;79(2):92-105. [PubMed:18788503 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular weight:
58406.915
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in ion channel activity
Specific function:
This protein mediates the voltage-dependent sodium ion permeability of excitable membranes. Assuming opened or closed conformations in response to the voltage difference across the membrane, the protein forms a sodium-selective channel through which sodium ions may pass in accordance with their electrochemical gradient. It is a tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium channel isoform. Its electrophysiological properties vary depending on the type of the associated beta subunits (in vitro). Plays a role in neuropathic pain mechanisms
Gene Name:
SCN10A
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y5Y9
Molecular weight:
220623.6
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Ueta K, Sugimoto M, Suzuki T, Uchida I, Mashimo T: In vitro antagonism of recombinant ligand-gated ion-channel receptors by stereospecific enantiomers of bupivacaine. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2006 Jan-Feb;31(1):19-25. [PubMed:16418020 ]
  4. Vladimirov M, Nau C, Mok WM, Strichartz G: Potency of bupivacaine stereoisomers tested in vitro and in vivo: biochemical, electrophysiological, and neurobehavioral studies. Anesthesiology. 2000 Sep;93(3):744-55. [PubMed:10969308 ]
  5. Brau ME, Branitzki P, Olschewski A, Vogel W, Hempelmann G: Block of neuronal tetrodotoxin-resistant Na+ currents by stereoisomers of piperidine local anesthetics. Anesth Analg. 2000 Dec;91(6):1499-505. [PubMed:11094008 ]