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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2021-09-14 15:44:52 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0015164
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB15164
Metabolite Identification
Common NameTopotecan
DescriptionTopotecan is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is an antineoplastic agent used to treat ovarian cancer. It works by inhibiting DNA topoisomerases, type I. [PubChem]Topotecan has the same mechanism of action as irinotecan and is believed to exert its cytotoxic effects during the S-phase of DNA synthesis. Topoisomerase I relieves torsional strain in DNA by inducing reversible single strand breaks. Topotecan binds to the topoisomerase I-DNA complex and prevents religation of these single strand breaks. This ternary complex interferes with the moving replication fork, which leads to the induction of replication arrest and lethal double-stranded breaks in DNA. As mammalian cells cannot efficiently repair these double strand breaks, the formation of this ternary complex eventually leads to apoptosis (programmed cell death).Topotecan mimics a DNA base pair and binds at the site of DNA cleavage by intercalating between the upstream (−1) and downstream (+1) base pairs. Intercalation displaces the downstream DNA, thus preventing religation of the cleaved strand. By specifically binding to the enzyme–substrate complex, Topotecan acts as an uncompetitive inhibitor.
Structure
Data?1582753265
Synonyms
ValueSource
9-[(Dimethylamino)methyl]-10-hydroxy-(4S)-camptothecinChEBI
TopotecaneChEBI
TopotecanumChEBI
HycamtinKegg
Topotecan lactoneHMDB
SK And F 104864 aHMDB
SK And F-104864-aHMDB
SK And F104864aHMDB
Topotecan hydrochlorideHMDB
9-Dimethylaminomethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecinHMDB
Nogitecan hydrochlorideHMDB
SmithKline beecham brand OF topotecan hydrochlorideHMDB
HycamtamineHMDB
Hydrochloride, nogitecanHMDB
Topotecan monohydrochloride, (S)-isomerHMDB
9 Dimethylaminomethyl 10 hydroxycamptothecinHMDB
Hydrochloride, topotecanHMDB
Chemical FormulaC23H23N3O5
Average Molecular Weight421.4458
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight421.163770861
IUPAC Name(19S)-8-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-19-ethyl-7,19-dihydroxy-17-oxa-3,13-diazapentacyclo[11.8.0.0²,¹¹.0⁴,⁹.0¹⁵,²⁰]henicosa-1(21),2,4(9),5,7,10,15(20)-heptaene-14,18-dione
Traditional Nametopotecan
CAS Registry Number119413-54-6
SMILES
CC[C@@]1(O)C(=O)OCC2=C1C=C1N(CC3=CC4=C(C=CC(O)=C4CN(C)C)N=C13)C2=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C23H23N3O5/c1-4-23(30)16-8-18-20-12(9-26(18)21(28)15(16)11-31-22(23)29)7-13-14(10-25(2)3)19(27)6-5-17(13)24-20/h5-8,27,30H,4,9-11H2,1-3H3/t23-/m0/s1
InChI KeyUCFGDBYHRUNTLO-QHCPKHFHSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as camptothecins. These are heterocyclic compounds comprising a planar pentacyclic ring structure, that includes a pyrrolo[3,4-beta]-quinoline moiety (rings A, B and C), conjugated pyridone moiety (ring D) and one chiral center at position 20 within the alpha-hydroxy lactone ring with (S) configuration (the E-ring).
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassAlkaloids and derivatives
ClassCamptothecins
Sub ClassNot Available
Direct ParentCamptothecins
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Camptothecin
  • Hydroxyquinoline
  • Pyranopyridine
  • Quinoline
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Pyridinone
  • Aralkylamine
  • Benzenoid
  • Pyridine
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Tertiary alcohol
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Amino acid or derivatives
  • Lactam
  • Tertiary aliphatic amine
  • Tertiary amine
  • Lactone
  • Oxacycle
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Amine
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological location:

Role

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point213 - 218 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.86 g/LNot Available
LogP0.8Not Available
Experimental Chromatographic PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.86 g/LALOGPS
logP10(1.84) g/LALOGPS
logP10(-0.36) g/LChemAxon
logS10(-2.7) g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)8ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)9.83ChemAxon
Physiological Charge1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area103.2 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count3ChemAxon
Refractivity115.02 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability44.86 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings5ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DarkChem[M+H]+196.0631661259
DarkChem[M-H]-196.79631661259

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Underivatized

MetaboliteSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
TopotecanCC[C@@]1(O)C(=O)OCC2=C1C=C1N(CC3=CC4=C(C=CC(O)=C4CN(C)C)N=C13)C2=O4501.8Standard polar33892256
TopotecanCC[C@@]1(O)C(=O)OCC2=C1C=C1N(CC3=CC4=C(C=CC(O)=C4CN(C)C)N=C13)C2=O3281.2Standard non polar33892256
TopotecanCC[C@@]1(O)C(=O)OCC2=C1C=C1N(CC3=CC4=C(C=CC(O)=C4CN(C)C)N=C13)C2=O4161.2Semi standard non polar33892256

Derivatized

Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
Topotecan,1TMS,isomer #1CC[C@@]1(O[Si](C)(C)C)C(=O)OCC2=C1C=C1C3=NC4=CC=C(O)C(CN(C)C)=C4C=C3CN1C2=O3617.4Semi standard non polar33892256
Topotecan,1TMS,isomer #2CC[C@@]1(O)C(=O)OCC2=C1C=C1C3=NC4=CC=C(O[Si](C)(C)C)C(CN(C)C)=C4C=C3CN1C2=O3622.2Semi standard non polar33892256
Topotecan,2TMS,isomer #1CC[C@@]1(O[Si](C)(C)C)C(=O)OCC2=C1C=C1C3=NC4=CC=C(O[Si](C)(C)C)C(CN(C)C)=C4C=C3CN1C2=O3605.3Semi standard non polar33892256
Topotecan,1TBDMS,isomer #1CC[C@@]1(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C(=O)OCC2=C1C=C1C3=NC4=CC=C(O)C(CN(C)C)=C4C=C3CN1C2=O3810.2Semi standard non polar33892256
Topotecan,1TBDMS,isomer #2CC[C@@]1(O)C(=O)OCC2=C1C=C1C3=NC4=CC=C(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C(CN(C)C)=C4C=C3CN1C2=O3831.6Semi standard non polar33892256
Topotecan,2TBDMS,isomer #1CC[C@@]1(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C(=O)OCC2=C1C=C1C3=NC4=CC=C(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C(CN(C)C)=C4C=C3CN1C2=O3972.3Semi standard non polar33892256
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Topotecan GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-01rw-0019000000-dd5f6ac57d59511056842017-09-01Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Topotecan GC-MS (2 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0kmi-3001490000-ae90c2325c77269d874b2017-10-06Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Topotecan GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Topotecan GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Topotecan , positive-QTOFsplash10-00b9-0019400000-11f24a2a9b88f6c675142017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Topotecan 35V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-004i-1009000000-b9244ee1f6cd61fee4f22021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Topotecan 35V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-004i-0009000000-d66ee57d6e010d309c662021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Topotecan 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-00di-0006900000-89514722d3cccd3d44962017-07-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Topotecan 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-00b9-0019300000-58bcf8842222fe631eca2017-07-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Topotecan 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-004i-1097000000-5b71ebf26d18a059bf0c2017-07-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Topotecan 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-00di-0004900000-c6c85b983396e61991962017-07-26Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Topotecan 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-00fr-1009500000-740f8b3ec7e0bca5f75f2017-07-26Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Topotecan 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0pwc-3029000000-65747933e72b20c9b71f2017-07-26Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Topotecan 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-00b9-0009500000-6c4802693f32d6eec7442021-10-11Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Topotecan 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-004i-0009000000-258882d388fa7db50bff2021-10-11Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Topotecan 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-05i3-4039100000-203d71abf98396934b862021-10-11Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Topotecan 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-004i-0009100000-c19a7f2e40a8ab89986a2021-10-11Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Topotecan 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-004i-0009000000-a6970c65760ce14af4722021-10-11Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Topotecan 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-01di-1029000000-30fc22abe375909eff462021-10-11Wishart LabView Spectrum

NMR Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-29Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01030 details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01030 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01030
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID54705
KEGG Compound IDC11158
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkTopotecan
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound60700
PDB IDTTC
ChEBI ID63632
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Herben VM, ten Bokkel Huinink WW, Beijnen JH: Clinical pharmacokinetics of topotecan. Clin Pharmacokinet. 1996 Aug;31(2):85-102. [PubMed:8853931 ]
  2. Dennis MJ, Beijnen JH, Grochow LB, van Warmerdam LJ: An overview of the clinical pharmacology of topotecan. Semin Oncol. 1997 Feb;24(1 Suppl 5):S5-12-S5-18. [PubMed:9122737 ]
  3. Kollmannsberger C, Mross K, Jakob A, Kanz L, Bokemeyer C: Topotecan - A novel topoisomerase I inhibitor: pharmacology and clinical experience. Oncology. 1999;56(1):1-12. [PubMed:9885371 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in DNA binding
Specific function:
Relieves DNA strain that arise during duplication of mitochondrial DNA
Gene Name:
TOP1MT
Uniprot ID:
Q969P6
Molecular weight:
69871.4
References
  1. Kosovsky MJ, Soslau G: Immunological identification of human platelet mitochondrial DNA topoisomerase I. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1993 Jun 24;1164(1):101-7. [PubMed:8390858 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular weight:
141477.3
References
  1. Collett A, Tanianis-Hughes J, Hallifax D, Warhurst G: Predicting P-glycoprotein effects on oral absorption: correlation of transport in Caco-2 with drug pharmacokinetics in wild-type and mdr1a(-/-) mice in vivo. Pharm Res. 2004 May;21(5):819-26. [PubMed:15180340 ]
  2. Carcaboso AM, Elmeliegy MA, Shen J, Juel SJ, Zhang ZM, Calabrese C, Tracey L, Waters CM, Stewart CF: Tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib enhances topotecan penetration of gliomas. Cancer Res. 2010 Jun 1;70(11):4499-508. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-4264. Epub 2010 May 11. [PubMed:20460504 ]
  3. Shen J, Carcaboso AM, Hubbard KE, Tagen M, Wynn HG, Panetta JC, Waters CM, Elmeliegy MA, Stewart CF: Compartment-specific roles of ATP-binding cassette transporters define differential topotecan distribution in brain parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid. Cancer Res. 2009 Jul 15;69(14):5885-92. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-0700. Epub 2009 Jun 30. [PubMed:19567673 ]
General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Xenobiotic transporter that may play an important role in the exclusion of xenobiotics from the brain. May be involved in brain-to-blood efflux. Appears to play a major role in the multidrug resistance phenotype of several cancer cell lines. When overexpressed, the transfected cells become resistant to mitoxantrone, daunorubicin and doxorubicin, display diminished intracellular accumulation of daunorubicin, and manifest an ATP- dependent increase in the efflux of rhodamine 123
Gene Name:
ABCG2
Uniprot ID:
Q9UNQ0
Molecular weight:
72313.5
References
  1. Houghton PJ, Germain GS, Harwood FC, Schuetz JD, Stewart CF, Buchdunger E, Traxler P: Imatinib mesylate is a potent inhibitor of the ABCG2 (BCRP) transporter and reverses resistance to topotecan and SN-38 in vitro. Cancer Res. 2004 Apr 1;64(7):2333-7. [PubMed:15059881 ]
  2. Maliepaard M, van Gastelen MA, Tohgo A, Hausheer FH, van Waardenburg RC, de Jong LA, Pluim D, Beijnen JH, Schellens JH: Circumvention of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP)-mediated resistance to camptothecins in vitro using non-substrate drugs or the BCRP inhibitor GF120918. Clin Cancer Res. 2001 Apr;7(4):935-41. [PubMed:11309344 ]
  3. Sugimoto Y, Tsukahara S, Imai Y, Sugimoto Y, Ueda K, Tsuruo T: Reversal of breast cancer resistance protein-mediated drug resistance by estrogen antagonists and agonists. Mol Cancer Ther. 2003 Jan;2(1):105-12. [PubMed:12533678 ]
  4. Maliepaard M, van Gastelen MA, de Jong LA, Pluim D, van Waardenburg RC, Ruevekamp-Helmers MC, Floot BG, Schellens JH: Overexpression of the BCRP/MXR/ABCP gene in a topotecan-selected ovarian tumor cell line. Cancer Res. 1999 Sep 15;59(18):4559-63. [PubMed:10493507 ]
  5. Jonker JW, Smit JW, Brinkhuis RF, Maliepaard M, Beijnen JH, Schellens JH, Schinkel AH: Role of breast cancer resistance protein in the bioavailability and fetal penetration of topotecan. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000 Oct 18;92(20):1651-6. [PubMed:11036110 ]
  6. Allen JD, Van Dort SC, Buitelaar M, van Tellingen O, Schinkel AH: Mouse breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1/Abcg2) mediates etoposide resistance and transport, but etoposide oral availability is limited primarily by P-glycoprotein. Cancer Res. 2003 Mar 15;63(6):1339-44. [PubMed:12649196 ]
  7. Breedveld P, Zelcer N, Pluim D, Sonmezer O, Tibben MM, Beijnen JH, Schinkel AH, van Tellingen O, Borst P, Schellens JH: Mechanism of the pharmacokinetic interaction between methotrexate and benzimidazoles: potential role for breast cancer resistance protein in clinical drug-drug interactions. Cancer Res. 2004 Aug 15;64(16):5804-11. [PubMed:15313923 ]
  8. Carcaboso AM, Elmeliegy MA, Shen J, Juel SJ, Zhang ZM, Calabrese C, Tracey L, Waters CM, Stewart CF: Tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib enhances topotecan penetration of gliomas. Cancer Res. 2010 Jun 1;70(11):4499-508. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-4264. Epub 2010 May 11. [PubMed:20460504 ]
  9. Shen J, Carcaboso AM, Hubbard KE, Tagen M, Wynn HG, Panetta JC, Waters CM, Elmeliegy MA, Stewart CF: Compartment-specific roles of ATP-binding cassette transporters define differential topotecan distribution in brain parenchyma and cerebrospinal fluid. Cancer Res. 2009 Jul 15;69(14):5885-92. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-09-0700. Epub 2009 Jun 30. [PubMed:19567673 ]
  10. Rocchi E, Khodjakov A, Volk EL, Yang CH, Litman T, Bates SE, Schneider E: The product of the ABC half-transporter gene ABCG2 (BCRP/MXR/ABCP) is expressed in the plasma membrane. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2000 Apr 29;271(1):42-6. [PubMed:10777678 ]
  11. Ishii M, Iwahana M, Mitsui I, Minami M, Imagawa S, Tohgo A, Ejima A: Growth inhibitory effect of a new camptothecin analog, DX-8951f, on various drug-resistant sublines including BCRP-mediated camptothecin derivative-resistant variants derived from the human lung cancer cell line PC-6. Anticancer Drugs. 2000 Jun;11(5):353-62. [PubMed:10912951 ]
  12. Yang CH, Schneider E, Kuo ML, Volk EL, Rocchi E, Chen YC: BCRP/MXR/ABCP expression in topotecan-resistant human breast carcinoma cells. Biochem Pharmacol. 2000 Sep 15;60(6):831-7. [PubMed:10930538 ]