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Record Information
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2020-02-26 21:41:15 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB15245
Metabolite Identification
Common NamePapaverine
DescriptionPapaverine, also known as mesotina or cerespan, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzylisoquinolines. These are organic compounds containing an isoquinoline to which a benzyl group is attached. Papaverine has also been demonstrated to be a selective phosphodiesterase inhibitor for the PDE10A subtype found mainly in the striatum of the brain. Papaverine is a drug. Papaverine is a very strong basic compound (based on its pKa). Papaverine is a bitter tasting compound. Outside of the human body, papaverine has been detected, but not quantified in, opium poppies. This could make papaverine a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods. It is not a first line drug such as a few beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, tricyclic antidepressants, and some anticonvulsants such as divalproex, but rather when these first line drugs and secondary drugs such as SSRIs, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, etc. fail in the prophylaxis of migraines, have intolerable side effects or are contraindicated. It is used in the treatment of acute mesenteric ischemia. Frequent side effects of papaverine treatment include polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, constipation, interference with sulphobromophthalein retention test (used to determine hepatic function), increased transaminase levels, increased alkaline phosphatase levels, somnolence, and vertigo. It is also commonly used in cryopreservation of blood vessels along with the other glycosaminoglycans and protein suspensions. The hydrochloride salt is available for intramuscular, intravenous, rectal and oral administration.
Chlorhydrate de papaverineHMDB
Papavarine chlorhydrateHMDB
Papaverine chlorohydrateHMDB
Papaverine monohydrochlorideHMDB
Papaverinium chlorideHMDB
Hydrochloride, papaverineHMDB
Papaverine hydrochlorideHMDB
Chemical FormulaC20H21NO4
Average Molecular Weight339.385
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight339.147058165
IUPAC Name1-[(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)methyl]-6,7-dimethoxyisoquinoline
Traditional Namepapaverine
CAS Registry Number61-25-6
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzylisoquinolines. These are organic compounds containing an isoquinoline to which a benzyl group is attached.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassIsoquinolines and derivatives
Sub ClassBenzylisoquinolines
Direct ParentBenzylisoquinolines
Alternative Parents
  • Benzylisoquinoline
  • O-dimethoxybenzene
  • Dimethoxybenzene
  • Phenoxy compound
  • Anisole
  • Phenol ether
  • Methoxybenzene
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Pyridine
  • Benzenoid
  • Heteroaromatic compound
  • Ether
  • Azacycle
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Route of exposure:


Biological location:


Industrial application:

Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.013 g/LNot Available
LogP3Not Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.013 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Basic)6.03ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area49.81 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity95.52 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability36.57 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0079-4569000000-42d74df972bf1280fb29Spectrum
GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-0079-4569000000-42d74df972bf1280fb29Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-05fs-0279000000-6a8c8886127d693c8567Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-0006-0009000000-376bdab66f9ada8143f2Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-0f6x-0049000000-fbf8945b1b40a8e629ffSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF , positivesplash10-00di-0779000000-37837168aff5cb2db6dbSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-0006-0019000000-175d5d7601656bade9beSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-00dl-0569000000-1f7e7c97dcea64bf274aSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-0006-0009000000-5adf8eed4c99ef024ca8Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0006-0009000000-90f688022df6ca82e68dSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-0f6x-0092000000-d2012c62f8a18f28d8e0Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-0009000000-14a648b12b81f2d898dfSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-0019000000-3f207d6944b0d0c476adSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0gbc-0090000000-218cfc775f1db8beaf69Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01113 details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01113 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01113
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB000447
KNApSAcK IDC00027467
Chemspider ID4518
KEGG Compound IDC06533
BioCyc IDCPD-15742
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkPapaverine
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound4680
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID28241
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB ID
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Tang Y, Luan J, Zhang X: Accelerating tissue expansion by application of topical papaverine cream. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2004 Oct;114(5):1166-9. [PubMed:15457029 ]
  2. Takeuchi K, Sakamoto S, Nagayoshi Y, Nishizawa H, Matsubara J: Reactivity of the human internal thoracic artery to vasodilators in coronary artery bypass grafting. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2004 Nov;26(5):956-9. [PubMed:15519189 ]
  3. Liu JK, Couldwell WT: Intra-arterial papaverine infusions for the treatment of cerebral vasospasm induced by aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurocrit Care. 2005;2(2):124-32. [PubMed:16159054 ]


General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Plays a role in signal transduction by regulating the intracellular concentration of cyclic nucleotides. Can hydrolyze both cAMP and cGMP, but has higher affinity for cAMP and is more efficient with cAMP as substrate.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Weber M, Breier M, Ko D, Thangaraj N, Marzan DE, Swerdlow NR: Evaluating the antipsychotic profile of the preferential PDE10A inhibitor, papaverine. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2009 May;203(4):723-35. doi: 10.1007/s00213-008-1419-x. Epub 2008 Dec 9. [PubMed:19066855 ]
General function:
Involved in catalytic activity
Specific function:
Hydrolyzes the second messenger cAMP, which is a key regulator of many important physiological processes. May be involved in mediating central nervous system effects of therapeutic agents ranging from antidepressants to antiasthmatic and anti-inflammatory agents.
Gene Name:
Uniprot ID:
Molecular weight:
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Xin ZC, Kim EK, Lin CS, Liu WJ, Tian L, Yuan YM, Fu J: Effects of icariin on cGMP-specific PDE5 and cAMP-specific PDE4 activities. Asian J Androl. 2003 Mar;5(1):15-8. [PubMed:12646997 ]
  4. Zhu S, Gan Z, Li Z, Liu Y, Yang X, Deng P, Xie Y, Yu M, Liao H, Zhao Y, Zhao L, Liao F: The measurement of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 4 activities via the quantification of inorganic phosphate with malachite green. Anal Chim Acta. 2009 Mar 16;636(1):105-10. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2009.01.035. Epub 2009 Jan 22. [PubMed:19231363 ]