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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2020-02-26 21:41:17 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0015266
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB15266
Metabolite Identification
Common NameDoxacurium chloride
DescriptionDoxacurium chloride, also known as BW-a938u or nuromax, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzylisoquinolines. These are organic compounds containing an isoquinoline to which a benzyl group is attached. Doxacurium chloride is an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa). By definition, therefore, there has never been, in the history of clinical anesthetic practice, the use of a benzylisoquinoline neuromuscular blocking agent. The pharmaceutical preparation comprises the three trans-trans isomers (a meso structure R,S-S,R-doxacurium and an enantiomeric pair R,S-R,S-doxacurium and S,R-S,R-doxacurium)Doxacurium is available worldwide although, for a number of years, its use has not been popular because of considerably long duration of action. Ironically, laudexium itself was invented by a cross-combination between the prototypical non-depolarizing agent, d-tubocurarine and the depolarizing agent, decamethonium. Specifically, doxacurium was first synthesized in 1980. Doxacurium chloride (formerly recognized as BW938U80 or BW A938U) is a neuromuscular-blocking drug or skeletal muscle relaxant in the category of non-depolarizing neuromuscular-blocking drugs, used adjunctively in anesthesia to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation. The only perceived advantange of doxacurium over that of mivacurium is its superior cardiovascular profile, with particular reference to the lack of histamine release when administered as a rapid bolus dose. The heritages of doxacurium and mivacurium hark back to the synthesis of numerous compounds following structure-activity relationships that drove researchers to find the ideal replacement for succinylcholine (suxamethonium). Early structure-activity studies had confirmed that the bulky nature of the "benzylisoquinolinium" entity provided a non-depolarizing mechanism of action.
Structure
Data?1582753277
Synonyms
ValueSource
BW-a938UHMDB
BW-a-938UHMDB
NuromaxHMDB
BW a938UHMDB
BW-a 938UHMDB
Doxacurium chlorideMeSH
2,2'-((1,4-Dioxobutane-1,4-diyl)bis(oxypropane-3,1-diyl))bis(6,7,8-trimethoxy-2-methyl-1-(3,4,5-trimethoxybenzyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolinium) dichlorideMeSH
Chemical FormulaC56H78N2O16
Average Molecular Weight1035.2223
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight1034.535134458
IUPAC Name6,7,8-trimethoxy-2-methyl-2-(3-{[4-oxo-4-(3-{6,7,8-trimethoxy-2-methyl-1-[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-2-ium-2-yl}propoxy)butanoyl]oxy}propyl)-1-[(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)methyl]-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolin-2-ium
Traditional Namenuromax
CAS Registry Number106819-53-8
SMILES
COC1=CC(CC2C3=C(CC[N+]2(C)CCCOC(=O)CCC(=O)OCCC[N+]2(C)CCC4=C(C2CC2=CC(OC)=C(OC)C(OC)=C2)C(OC)=C(OC)C(OC)=C4)C=C(OC)C(OC)=C3OC)=CC(OC)=C1OC
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C56H78N2O16/c1-57(23-19-37-33-45(65-7)53(69-11)55(71-13)49(37)39(57)27-35-29-41(61-3)51(67-9)42(30-35)62-4)21-15-25-73-47(59)17-18-48(60)74-26-16-22-58(2)24-20-38-34-46(66-8)54(70-12)56(72-14)50(38)40(58)28-36-31-43(63-5)52(68-10)44(32-36)64-6/h29-34,39-40H,15-28H2,1-14H3/q+2
InChI KeyGBLRQXKSCRCLBZ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as benzylisoquinolines. These are organic compounds containing an isoquinoline to which a benzyl group is attached.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganoheterocyclic compounds
ClassIsoquinolines and derivatives
Sub ClassBenzylisoquinolines
Direct ParentBenzylisoquinolines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Benzylisoquinoline
  • Tetrahydroisoquinoline
  • Phenoxy compound
  • Anisole
  • Phenol ether
  • Methoxybenzene
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Fatty acid ester
  • Aralkylamine
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Fatty acyl
  • Benzenoid
  • Tetraalkylammonium salt
  • Quaternary ammonium salt
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Azacycle
  • Ether
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic oxide
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic salt
  • Organic cation
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological location:

Role

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility9.0e-05 g/LNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility9.0e-05 g/LALOGPS
logP3.44ALOGPS
logP-2.5ChemAxon
logS-7.1ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)18.41ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-4.1ChemAxon
Physiological Charge2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count14ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area163.36 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count29ChemAxon
Refractivity302.15 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability113.06 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings6ChemAxon
BioavailabilityNoChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Not Available
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01135 details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01135 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID54249
KEGG Compound IDC07549
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkDoxacurium chloride
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound60169
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID4707
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB ID
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Martinez EA, Wooldridge AA, Hartsfield SM, Mealey KL: Neuromuscular effects of doxacurium chloride in isoflurane-anesthetized dogs. Vet Surg. 1998 May-Jun;27(3):279-83. [PubMed:9605239 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in carboxylesterase activity
Specific function:
Esterase with broad substrate specificity. Contributes to the inactivation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Can degrade neurotoxic organophosphate esters.
Gene Name:
BCHE
Uniprot ID:
P06276
Molecular weight:
68417.575
References
  1. Basta SJ, Savarese JJ, Ali HH, Embree PB, Schwartz AF, Rudd GD, Wastila WB: Clinical pharmacology of doxacurium chloride. A new long-acting nondepolarizing muscle relaxant. Anesthesiology. 1988 Oct;69(4):478-86. [PubMed:2972233 ]
  2. Dresner DL, Basta SJ, Ali HH, Schwartz AF, Embree PB, Wargin WA, Lai AA, Brady KA, Savarese JJ: Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of doxacurium in young and elderly patients during isoflurane anesthesia. Anesth Analg. 1990 Nov;71(5):498-502. [PubMed:2145783 ]
General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
The muscarinic acetylcholine receptor mediates various cellular responses, including inhibition of adenylate cyclase, breakdown of phosphoinositides and modulation of potassium channels through the action of G proteins. Primary transducing effect is adenylate cyclase inhibition
Gene Name:
CHRM2
Uniprot ID:
P08172
Molecular weight:
51714.6
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Hou VY, Hirshman CA, Emala CW: Neuromuscular relaxants as antagonists for M2 and M3 muscarinic receptors. Anesthesiology. 1998 Mar;88(3):744-50. [PubMed:9523819 ]
General function:
Involved in extracellular ligand-gated ion channel activity
Specific function:
After binding acetylcholine, the AChR responds by an extensive change in conformation that affects all subunits and leads to opening of an ion-conducting channel across the plasma membrane
Gene Name:
CHRNA2
Uniprot ID:
Q15822
Molecular weight:
59764.8
References
  1. Overington JP, Al-Lazikani B, Hopkins AL: How many drug targets are there? Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Dec;5(12):993-6. [PubMed:17139284 ]
  2. Imming P, Sinning C, Meyer A: Drugs, their targets and the nature and number of drug targets. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2006 Oct;5(10):821-34. [PubMed:17016423 ]
  3. Liu M, Dilger JP: Synergy between pairs of competitive antagonists at adult human muscle acetylcholine receptors. Anesth Analg. 2008 Aug;107(2):525-33. doi: 10.1213/ane.0b013e31817b4469. [PubMed:18633030 ]
  4. Chen X, Ji ZL, Chen YZ: TTD: Therapeutic Target Database. Nucleic Acids Res. 2002 Jan 1;30(1):412-5. [PubMed:11752352 ]