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Record Information
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:51 UTC
Update Date2020-02-26 21:41:24 UTC
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB15327
Metabolite Identification
Common NameEstramustine
DescriptionEstramustine is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. It is a nitrogen mustard linked to estradiol, usually as phosphate; used to treat prostatic neoplasms; also has radiation protective properties. [PubChem]Estramustine is a derivative of estradiol with a nitrogen mustard moiety. This gives it alkylating properties. In vivo, the nitrogen mustard component is active and can alklyate DNA and other cellular components (such as tubulin components) of rapidly dividing cells. This causes DNA strandbreaks or misscoding events. This leads to apoptosis and cell death. Also, due to the drugs estrogen component, it can bind more selectively to active estrogen receptors.
17beta-Estradiol 3-(bis(2-chloroethyl)carbamate)ChEBI
Estradiol 3-(N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)carbamate)ChEBI
17b-Estradiol 3-(bis(2-chloroethyl)carbamate)Generator
17b-Estradiol 3-(bis(2-chloroethyl)carbamic acid)Generator
17beta-Estradiol 3-(bis(2-chloroethyl)carbamic acid)Generator
17Β-estradiol 3-(bis(2-chloroethyl)carbamate)Generator
17Β-estradiol 3-(bis(2-chloroethyl)carbamic acid)Generator
Estradiol 3-(N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)carbamic acid)Generator
Estramustin sodium phosphateHMDB
Estramustine sodium phosphateHMDB
Estramustine phosphate sodiumHMDB
Phosphate, estramustinHMDB
Leo 275HMDB
Estramustin phosphateHMDB
Phosphate sodium, estramustineHMDB
Chemical FormulaC23H31Cl2NO3
Average Molecular Weight440.403
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight439.168099277
IUPAC Name(1S,10R,11S,14S,15S)-14-hydroxy-15-methyltetracyclo[²,⁷.0¹¹,¹⁵]heptadeca-2,4,6-trien-5-yl N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)carbamate
Traditional Nameestramustine
CAS Registry Number2998-57-4
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as estrane steroids. These are steroids with a structure based on the estrane skeleton.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassSteroids and steroid derivatives
Sub ClassEstrane steroids
Direct ParentEstrane steroids
Alternative Parents
  • Estrane-skeleton
  • Hydroxysteroid
  • 17-hydroxysteroid
  • Phenanthrene
  • Tetralin
  • Nitrogen mustard
  • Benzenoid
  • Cyclic alcohol
  • Carbamic acid ester
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carbonic acid derivative
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organochloride
  • Organohalogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Alkyl chloride
  • Alcohol
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Alkyl halide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Aromatic homopolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homopolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Route of exposure:


Biological location:


Naturally occurring process:


Biological role:

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
Experimental Properties
Melting Point104.5 °CNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.00038 g/LNot Available
LogP5.7Not Available
Predicted Properties
Water Solubility0.00038 g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)19.38ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-0.88ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count2ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area49.77 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count6ChemAxon
Refractivity116.21 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability48.06 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-7427900000-b87366cc1573c4f6c93aSpectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (1 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0006-8704900000-9a612e46f22fe81c874cSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-006x-0720900000-7d95b1bd74a3e1ae6ae2Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0a4l-2971100000-a6f224fc389435653942Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-03fu-9510000000-032d08f0be5c8b065fa7Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-0522900000-a880e700fad8ec3373b9Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-0v4i-0962500000-ffc041fb7d64ff64e5e8Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0h4o-7980000000-eef6a5c5a61126ea9699Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01196 details
UrineExpected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01196 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01196
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID227635
KEGG Compound IDC11228
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkEstramustine
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound259331
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID4868
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB ID
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Simons K, Toomre D: Lipid rafts and signal transduction. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Oct;1(1):31-9. [PubMed:11413487 ]
  2. Watson AD: Thematic review series: systems biology approaches to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Lipidomics: a global approach to lipid analysis in biological systems. J Lipid Res. 2006 Oct;47(10):2101-11. Epub 2006 Aug 10. [PubMed:16902246 ]
  3. Sethi JK, Vidal-Puig AJ: Thematic review series: adipocyte biology. Adipose tissue function and plasticity orchestrate nutritional adaptation. J Lipid Res. 2007 Jun;48(6):1253-62. Epub 2007 Mar 20. [PubMed:17374880 ]
  4. Lingwood D, Simons K: Lipid rafts as a membrane-organizing principle. Science. 2010 Jan 1;327(5961):46-50. doi: 10.1126/science.1174621. [PubMed:20044567 ]
  5. Gunstone, Frank D., John L. Harwood, and Albert J. Dijkstra (2007). The lipid handbook with CD-ROM. CRC Press.


General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
Specific function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. Binds estrogens with an affinity similar to that of ESR1, and activates expression of reporter genes containing estrogen response elements (ERE) in an estrogen-dependent manner. Isoform beta-cx lacks ligand binding ability and has no or only very low ere binding activity resulting in the loss of ligand-dependent transactivation ability. DNA- binding by ESR1 and ESR2 is rapidly lost at 37 degrees Celsius in the absence of ligand while in the presence of 17 beta-estradiol and 4-hydroxy-tamoxifen loss in DNA-binding at elevated temperature is more gradual
Gene Name:
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  1. Ho SM: Estrogens and anti-estrogens: key mediators of prostate carcinogenesis and new therapeutic candidates. J Cell Biochem. 2004 Feb 15;91(3):491-503. [PubMed:14755680 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
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  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in negative regulation of microtubule depolymerization
Specific function:
The exact function of MAP2 is unknown but MAPs may stabilize the microtubules against depolymerization. They also seem to have a stiffening effect on microtubules
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  1. Moraga D, Rivas-Berrios A, Farias G, Wallin M, Maccioni RB: Estramustine-phosphate binds to a tubulin binding domain on microtubule-associated proteins MAP-2 and tau. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1992 May 22;1121(1-2):97-103. [PubMed:1599956 ]
  2. Stearns ME, Wang M, Sousa O: Evidence that estramustine binds MAP-1A to inhibit type IV collagenase secretion. J Cell Sci. 1991 Jan;98 ( Pt 1):55-63. [PubMed:1647395 ]
  3. Friden B, Rutberg M, Deinum J, Wallin M: The effect of estramustine derivatives on microtubule assembly in vitro depends on the charge of the substituent. Biochem Pharmacol. 1991 Aug 8;42(5):997-1006. [PubMed:1908244 ]
  4. Burns RG: Stoichiometry of estramustine phosphate binding to MAP2 measured by the disassembly of chick brain MAP2:tubulin microtubules. Cell Motil Cytoskeleton. 1990;17(3):167-73. [PubMed:2125244 ]
  5. Falconer MM, Vielkind U, Brown DL: Association of acetylated microtubules, vimentin intermediate filaments, and MAP 2 during early neural differentiation in EC cell culture. Biochem Cell Biol. 1989 Sep;67(9):537-44. [PubMed:2679799 ]
  6. Tew KD: The mechanism of action of estramustine. Semin Oncol. 1983 Sep;10(3 Suppl 3):21-6. [PubMed:6364362 ]
General function:
Involved in sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity
Specific function:
Nuclear hormone receptor. The steroid hormones and their receptors are involved in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression and affect cellular proliferation and differentiation in target tissues. Can activate the transcriptional activity of TFF1
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  1. Ferno M, Borg A, Ingvar C, Jonsson PE: Estrogen receptor and binding site for estramustine in metastatic malignant melanoma. Anticancer Res. 1987 Jul-Aug;7(4B):741-3. [PubMed:3314674 ]
  2. Yoshizumi N: [The effects of site-directed chemotherapy due to E2 as a drug carrier to the human endometrial adenocarcinoma cells in vitro]. Nihon Sanka Fujinka Gakkai Zasshi. 1985 Apr;37(4):637-45. [PubMed:3989343 ]
  3. von Schoultz E, Carlstrom K, Henriksson R, Lagerlof B, Hansson J: Estramustine binding protein in primary tumours and metastases of malignant melanoma. Melanoma Res. 1994 Dec;4(6):401-5. [PubMed:7703721 ]
  4. Tew KD: The mechanism of action of estramustine. Semin Oncol. 1983 Sep;10(3 Suppl 3):21-6. [PubMed:6364362 ]


General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
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  1. Yang CP, Shen HJ, Horwitz SB: Modulation of the function of P-glycoprotein by estramustine. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1994 May 4;86(9):723-5. [PubMed:7908991 ]
  2. Tiersten AD, Nelsen C, Talbot S, Vahdat L, Fine R, Troxel A, Brafman L, Shriberg L, Antman K, Petrylak DP: A phase II trial of docetaxel and estramustine in patients with refractory metastatic breast carcinoma. Cancer. 2003 Feb 1;97(3):537-44. [PubMed:12548594 ]
  3. Smith CD, Zilfou JT, Zhang X, Hudes GR, Tew KD: Modulation of P-glycoprotein activity by estramustine is limited by binding to plasma proteins. Cancer. 1995 May 15;75(10):2597-604. [PubMed:7736407 ]
  4. Speicher LA, Barone LR, Chapman AE, Hudes GR, Laing N, Smith CD, Tew KD: P-glycoprotein binding and modulation of the multidrug-resistant phenotype by estramustine. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1994 May 4;86(9):688-94. [PubMed:7908988 ]