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Record Information
Version4.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-06 15:16:52 UTC
Update Date2020-02-26 21:41:48 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0015539
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB15539
Metabolite Identification
Common NameLopinavir
DescriptionLopinavir, also known as kaletra or ABT-378, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as valine and derivatives. Valine and derivatives are compounds containing valine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of valine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom. Lopinavir is only found in individuals that have used or taken this drug. Lopinavir is an extremely weak basic (essentially neutral) compound (based on its pKa). This drug is a protease inhibitor. Inhibiting HIV-1 protease (responsible for protein cleavage), results in selectively inhibiting the cleavage of HIV gag and gag-pol polyproteins, thereby preventing viral maturation. It is marketed by Abbott as Kaletra, a co-formulation with a sub-therapeutic dose of ritonavir, as a component of combination therapy to treat HIV/AIDS. Although human experience of acute overdosage with lopinavir is limited, accidental ingestion of the product by a young child could result in significant alcohol-related toxicity and could approach the potential lethal dose of alcohol.
Structure
Data?1582753307
Synonyms
ValueSource
KaletraHMDB
ABT-378a-157378-0a-157378.0HMDB
ABT-378HMDB
LPVHMDB
378, ABTHMDB
N-(4-(((2,6-Dimethylphenoxy)acetyl)amino)-3-hydroxy-5-phenyl-1-(phenylmethyl)pentyl)tetrahydro-alpha-(1-methylethyl)-2-oxo-1(2H)-pydrimidineacetamideHMDB
ABT 378HMDB
Chemical FormulaC37H48N4O5
Average Molecular Weight628.8008
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight628.362470666
IUPAC Name(2S)-N-[(2S,4S,5S)-5-[2-(2,6-dimethylphenoxy)acetamido]-4-hydroxy-1,6-diphenylhexan-2-yl]-3-methyl-2-(2-oxo-1,3-diazinan-1-yl)butanamide
Traditional Namelopinavir
CAS Registry Number192725-17-0
SMILES
CC(C)[C@H](N1CCCNC1=O)C(=O)N[C@H](C[C@H](O)[C@H](CC1=CC=CC=C1)NC(=O)COC1=C(C)C=CC=C1C)CC1=CC=CC=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C37H48N4O5/c1-25(2)34(41-20-12-19-38-37(41)45)36(44)39-30(21-28-15-7-5-8-16-28)23-32(42)31(22-29-17-9-6-10-18-29)40-33(43)24-46-35-26(3)13-11-14-27(35)4/h5-11,13-18,25,30-32,34,42H,12,19-24H2,1-4H3,(H,38,45)(H,39,44)(H,40,43)/t30-,31-,32-,34-/m0/s1
InChI KeyKJHKTHWMRKYKJE-SUGCFTRWSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as valine and derivatives. Valine and derivatives are compounds containing valine or a derivative thereof resulting from reaction of valine at the amino group or the carboxy group, or from the replacement of any hydrogen of glycine by a heteroatom.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassCarboxylic acids and derivatives
Sub ClassAmino acids, peptides, and analogues
Direct ParentValine and derivatives
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Valine or derivatives
  • Amphetamine or derivatives
  • Phenoxy compound
  • Phenol ether
  • M-xylene
  • Xylene
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Pyrimidone
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • 1,3-diazinane
  • Fatty amide
  • Fatty acyl
  • N-acyl-amine
  • Benzenoid
  • Pyrimidine
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Secondary carboxylic acid amide
  • Urea
  • Carboxamide group
  • Carbonic acid derivative
  • Ether
  • Azacycle
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Aromatic heteromonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteromonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Disposition

Biological location:

Role

Industrial application:

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water Solubility0.0019 g/LNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.0019 g/LALOGPS
logP3.91ALOGPS
logP4.69ChemAxon
logS-5.5ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)13.39ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-1.5ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area120 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count15ChemAxon
Refractivity179.36 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability69.2 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings4ChemAxon
BioavailabilityNoChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Spectra
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0feu-6925370000-713b224b442e85bb346bSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-0fb9-0119005000-e99616dc321beea979aeSpectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - , positivesplash10-0532-1900601000-f85a252f1640f27563a8Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-03fs-0210908000-054ffc2d70c7a928ed3eSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-0bwa-0711911000-c9c5439ab7698ec8fd81Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-05ai-3940000000-e1de250134ecffc3ae81Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-004i-1600309000-a5fe821e3d663cb11961Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-00dl-4900101000-49d4f32903902eae73e3Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-0006-9400000000-2399e0947eb63c53c244Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Urine
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01601 details
UrineExpected but not Quantified Not AvailableNot AvailableTaking drug identified by DrugBank entry DB01601 details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDDB01601
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID83706
KEGG Compound IDC12871
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkLopinavir
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound92727
PDB IDAB1
ChEBI ID31781
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General ReferencesNot Available

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It performs a variety of oxidation reactions (e.g. caffeine 8-oxidation, omeprazole sulphoxidation, midazolam 1'-hydroxylation and midazolam 4-hydroxylation) of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,8-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase. The enzyme also hydroxylates etoposide.
Gene Name:
CYP3A4
Uniprot ID:
P08684
Molecular weight:
57255.585
References
  1. Zhou SF, Zhou ZW, Yang LP, Cai JP: Substrates, inducers, inhibitors and structure-activity relationships of human Cytochrome P450 2C9 and implications in drug development. Curr Med Chem. 2009;16(27):3480-675. Epub 2009 Sep 1. [PubMed:19515014 ]
  2. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. This enzyme contributes to the wide pharmacokinetics variability of the metabolism of drugs such as S-warfarin, diclofenac, phenytoin, tolbutamide and losartan.
Gene Name:
CYP2C9
Uniprot ID:
P11712
Molecular weight:
55627.365
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of a number of therapeutic agents such as the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin, omeprazole, proguanil, certain barbiturates, diazepam, propranolol, citalopram and imipramine.
Gene Name:
CYP2C19
Uniprot ID:
P33261
Molecular weight:
55944.565
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Responsible for the metabolism of many drugs and environmental chemicals that it oxidizes. It is involved in the metabolism of drugs such as antiarrhythmics, adrenoceptor antagonists, and tricyclic antidepressants.
Gene Name:
CYP2D6
Uniprot ID:
P10635
Molecular weight:
55768.94
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Acts as a 1,4-cineole 2-exo-monooxygenase.
Gene Name:
CYP2B6
Uniprot ID:
P20813
Molecular weight:
56277.81
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]
General function:
Involved in monooxygenase activity
Specific function:
Cytochromes P450 are a group of heme-thiolate monooxygenases. In liver microsomes, this enzyme is involved in an NADPH-dependent electron transport pathway. It oxidizes a variety of structurally unrelated compounds, including steroids, fatty acids, and xenobiotics. Most active in catalyzing 2-hydroxylation. Caffeine is metabolized primarily by cytochrome CYP1A2 in the liver through an initial N3-demethylation. Also acts in the metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and acetaminophen. Participates in the bioactivation of carcinogenic aromatic and heterocyclic amines. Catalizes the N-hydroxylation of heterocyclic amines and the O-deethylation of phenacetin.
Gene Name:
CYP1A2
Uniprot ID:
P05177
Molecular weight:
58406.915
References
  1. Preissner S, Kroll K, Dunkel M, Senger C, Goldsobel G, Kuzman D, Guenther S, Winnenburg R, Schroeder M, Preissner R: SuperCYP: a comprehensive database on Cytochrome P450 enzymes including a tool for analysis of CYP-drug interactions. Nucleic Acids Res. 2010 Jan;38(Database issue):D237-43. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkp970. Epub 2009 Nov 24. [PubMed:19934256 ]

Transporters

General function:
Involved in ATP binding
Specific function:
Energy-dependent efflux pump responsible for decreased drug accumulation in multidrug-resistant cells
Gene Name:
ABCB1
Uniprot ID:
P08183
Molecular weight:
141477.3
References
  1. Vishnuvardhan D, Moltke LL, Richert C, Greenblatt DJ: Lopinavir: acute exposure inhibits P-glycoprotein; extended exposure induces P-glycoprotein. AIDS. 2003 May 2;17(7):1092-4. [PubMed:12700464 ]