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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusExpected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-11 17:39:14 UTC
Update Date2022-03-07 02:52:42 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0030822
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB30822
Metabolite Identification
Common Name(-)-Epiafzelechin
Description(-)-Epiafzelechin belongs to the class of organic compounds known as flavan-3-ols. These are flavans that bear and hydroxyl group at position 3 (B ring), but not at position 4. Thus, (-)-epiafzelechin is considered to be a flavonoid (-)-Epiafzelechin is found, on average, in the highest concentration within a few different foods, such as teas (Camellia sinensis), red tea, and herbal tea and in a lower concentration in green tea and black tea (-)-Epiafzelechin has also been detected, but not quantified in, several different foods, such as hibiscus teas (Hibiscus sabbariffa), green bell peppers (Capsicum annuum), muscadine grapes (Vitis rotundifolia), white mustards (Sinapis alba), and black plums (Syzygium cumini). This could make (-)-epiafzelechin a potential biomarker for the consumption of these foods (-)-Epiafzelechin is a primary metabolite. Primary metabolites are metabolically or physiologically essential metabolites. They are directly involved in an organism’s growth, development or reproduction. Based on a literature review a significant number of articles have been published on (-)-Epiafzelechin.
Structure
Data?1563862043
Synonyms
ValueSource
(2R,3R)-EpiafzelechinChEBI
Epi-afzelechinChEBI
EpiafzelechinMeSH
Chemical FormulaC15H14O5
Average Molecular Weight274.2687
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight274.084123558
IUPAC Name(2R,3R)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-3,4-dihydro-2H-1-benzopyran-3,5,7-triol
Traditional Nameepiafzelechin
CAS Registry Number24808-04-6
SMILES
O[C@@H]1CC2=C(O[C@@H]1C1=CC=C(O)C=C1)C=C(O)C=C2O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C15H14O5/c16-9-3-1-8(2-4-9)15-13(19)7-11-12(18)5-10(17)6-14(11)20-15/h1-6,13,15-19H,7H2/t13-,15-/m1/s1
InChI KeyRSYUFYQTACJFML-UKRRQHHQSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as flavan-3-ols. These are flavans that bear and hydroxyl group at position 3 (B ring), but not at position 4.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassPhenylpropanoids and polyketides
ClassFlavonoids
Sub ClassFlavans
Direct ParentFlavan-3-ols
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 3-hydroxyflavonoid
  • 4'-hydroxyflavonoid
  • 5-hydroxyflavonoid
  • 7-hydroxyflavonoid
  • Flavan-3-ol
  • Hydroxyflavonoid
  • 1-benzopyran
  • Chromane
  • Benzopyran
  • 1-hydroxy-4-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • 1-hydroxy-2-unsubstituted benzenoid
  • Alkyl aryl ether
  • Phenol
  • Benzenoid
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Polyol
  • Organoheterocyclic compound
  • Oxacycle
  • Ether
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic heteropolycyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic heteropolycyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Not AvailableNot Available
Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point240 - 243 °CNot Available
Boiling Point583.40 °C. @ 760.00 mm Hg (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility8200 mg/L @ 25 °C (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
LogP1.090 (est)The Good Scents Company Information System
Experimental Chromatographic PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility0.46 g/LALOGPS
logP1.29ALOGPS
logP2.1ChemAxon
logS-2.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)9.15ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3.3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count5ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count4ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area90.15 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count1ChemAxon
Refractivity72.02 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability27.51 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings3ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterYesChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DarkChem[M+H]+163.96231661259
DarkChem[M-H]-167.03431661259
DeepCCS[M+H]+159.79330932474
DeepCCS[M-H]-157.43530932474
DeepCCS[M-2H]-191.20830932474
DeepCCS[M+Na]+166.43530932474
AllCCS[M+H]+165.032859911
AllCCS[M+H-H2O]+161.232859911
AllCCS[M+NH4]+168.632859911
AllCCS[M+Na]+169.632859911
AllCCS[M-H]-164.832859911
AllCCS[M+Na-2H]-164.332859911
AllCCS[M+HCOO]-164.032859911

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Underivatized

MetaboliteSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
(-)-EpiafzelechinO[C@@H]1CC2=C(O[C@@H]1C1=CC=C(O)C=C1)C=C(O)C=C2O4218.7Standard polar33892256
(-)-EpiafzelechinO[C@@H]1CC2=C(O[C@@H]1C1=CC=C(O)C=C1)C=C(O)C=C2O2898.2Standard non polar33892256
(-)-EpiafzelechinO[C@@H]1CC2=C(O[C@@H]1C1=CC=C(O)C=C1)C=C(O)C=C2O2962.9Semi standard non polar33892256

Derivatized

Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
(-)-Epiafzelechin,1TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H]1CC2=C(O)C=C(O)C=C2O[C@@H]1C1=CC=C(O)C=C12832.3Semi standard non polar33892256
(-)-Epiafzelechin,1TMS,isomer #2C[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=C([C@H]2OC3=CC(O)=CC(O)=C3C[C@H]2O)C=C12865.9Semi standard non polar33892256
(-)-Epiafzelechin,1TMS,isomer #3C[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC(O)=C2C[C@@H](O)[C@@H](C3=CC=C(O)C=C3)OC2=C12866.9Semi standard non polar33892256
(-)-Epiafzelechin,1TMS,isomer #4C[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC(O)=CC2=C1C[C@@H](O)[C@@H](C1=CC=C(O)C=C1)O22850.2Semi standard non polar33892256
(-)-Epiafzelechin,2TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC(O)=CC2=C1C[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H](C1=CC=C(O)C=C1)O22821.2Semi standard non polar33892256
(-)-Epiafzelechin,2TMS,isomer #2C[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC(O)=C2C[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H](C3=CC=C(O)C=C3)OC2=C12825.3Semi standard non polar33892256
(-)-Epiafzelechin,2TMS,isomer #3C[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=C([C@H]2OC3=CC(O)=CC(O)=C3C[C@H]2O[Si](C)(C)C)C=C12813.2Semi standard non polar33892256
(-)-Epiafzelechin,2TMS,isomer #4C[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=C([C@H]2OC3=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C)=CC(O)=C3C[C@H]2O)C=C12788.8Semi standard non polar33892256
(-)-Epiafzelechin,2TMS,isomer #5C[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=C([C@H]2OC3=CC(O)=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C3C[C@H]2O)C=C12780.7Semi standard non polar33892256
(-)-Epiafzelechin,2TMS,isomer #6C[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC2=C(C[C@@H](O)[C@@H](C3=CC=C(O)C=C3)O2)C(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C12798.2Semi standard non polar33892256
(-)-Epiafzelechin,3TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC2=C(C[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C)[C@@H](C3=CC=C(O)C=C3)O2)C(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C12700.8Semi standard non polar33892256
(-)-Epiafzelechin,3TMS,isomer #2C[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=C([C@H]2OC3=CC(O)=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C3C[C@H]2O[Si](C)(C)C)C=C12702.4Semi standard non polar33892256
(-)-Epiafzelechin,3TMS,isomer #3C[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=C([C@H]2OC3=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C)=CC(O)=C3C[C@H]2O[Si](C)(C)C)C=C12674.7Semi standard non polar33892256
(-)-Epiafzelechin,3TMS,isomer #4C[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=C([C@H]2OC3=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C)=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C3C[C@H]2O)C=C12776.5Semi standard non polar33892256
(-)-Epiafzelechin,4TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=C([C@H]2OC3=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C)=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C)=C3C[C@H]2O[Si](C)(C)C)C=C12742.7Semi standard non polar33892256
(-)-Epiafzelechin,1TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)O[C@@H]1CC2=C(O)C=C(O)C=C2O[C@@H]1C1=CC=C(O)C=C13130.2Semi standard non polar33892256
(-)-Epiafzelechin,1TBDMS,isomer #2CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=C([C@H]2OC3=CC(O)=CC(O)=C3C[C@H]2O)C=C13142.0Semi standard non polar33892256
(-)-Epiafzelechin,1TBDMS,isomer #3CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC(O)=C2C[C@@H](O)[C@@H](C3=CC=C(O)C=C3)OC2=C13135.4Semi standard non polar33892256
(-)-Epiafzelechin,1TBDMS,isomer #4CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC(O)=CC2=C1C[C@@H](O)[C@@H](C1=CC=C(O)C=C1)O23108.7Semi standard non polar33892256
(-)-Epiafzelechin,2TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC(O)=CC2=C1C[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H](C1=CC=C(O)C=C1)O23352.6Semi standard non polar33892256
(-)-Epiafzelechin,2TBDMS,isomer #2CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC(O)=C2C[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H](C3=CC=C(O)C=C3)OC2=C13343.0Semi standard non polar33892256
(-)-Epiafzelechin,2TBDMS,isomer #3CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=C([C@H]2OC3=CC(O)=CC(O)=C3C[C@H]2O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C=C13361.9Semi standard non polar33892256
(-)-Epiafzelechin,2TBDMS,isomer #4CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=C([C@H]2OC3=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)=CC(O)=C3C[C@H]2O)C=C13356.8Semi standard non polar33892256
(-)-Epiafzelechin,2TBDMS,isomer #5CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=C([C@H]2OC3=CC(O)=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)=C3C[C@H]2O)C=C13325.2Semi standard non polar33892256
(-)-Epiafzelechin,2TBDMS,isomer #6CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC2=C(C[C@@H](O)[C@@H](C3=CC=C(O)C=C3)O2)C(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)=C13311.4Semi standard non polar33892256
(-)-Epiafzelechin,3TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC2=C(C[C@@H](O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)[C@@H](C3=CC=C(O)C=C3)O2)C(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)=C13414.8Semi standard non polar33892256
(-)-Epiafzelechin,3TBDMS,isomer #2CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=C([C@H]2OC3=CC(O)=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)=C3C[C@H]2O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C=C13458.1Semi standard non polar33892256
(-)-Epiafzelechin,3TBDMS,isomer #3CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=C([C@H]2OC3=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)=CC(O)=C3C[C@H]2O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C=C13442.9Semi standard non polar33892256
(-)-Epiafzelechin,3TBDMS,isomer #4CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=C([C@H]2OC3=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)=C3C[C@H]2O)C=C13527.3Semi standard non polar33892256
(-)-Epiafzelechin,4TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC1=CC=C([C@H]2OC3=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)=CC(O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)=C3C[C@H]2O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)C=C13621.6Semi standard non polar33892256
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - (-)-Epiafzelechin GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-0a4i-1970000000-97a69c7a45c624cc54562017-09-01Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - (-)-Epiafzelechin GC-MS (4 TMS) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-002b-3700890000-ad3a8c90f22f6dcef7bc2017-10-06Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - (-)-Epiafzelechin GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - (-)-Epiafzelechin GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - (-)-Epiafzelechin Linear Ion Trap , negative-QTOFsplash10-004r-0690000000-4da2a1e1b8ae2d109c322017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - (-)-Epiafzelechin Linear Ion Trap , negative-QTOFsplash10-004r-0690000000-3dda57eb8519237ff1d32017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - (-)-Epiafzelechin Linear Ion Trap , negative-QTOFsplash10-004r-0690000000-90138410b48eec3cdf8b2017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - (-)-Epiafzelechin Linear Ion Trap , positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-0900000000-197f43a10026114cf6e72017-09-14HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - (-)-Epiafzelechin 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0a59-0910000000-4f271083ff1af2b4a6462021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - (-)-Epiafzelechin 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000i-0930000000-fd8af365cba78f21a4422021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - (-)-Epiafzelechin 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-00di-0490000000-d1cb482bc9fba5c1c77c2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - (-)-Epiafzelechin 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0a4i-0900000000-0931dca1f9eede095b912021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - (-)-Epiafzelechin 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000j-0910000000-62c438a216915a5cb1cc2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - (-)-Epiafzelechin 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-0900000000-f191f6a8bfb1fdd833162021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - (-)-Epiafzelechin 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-004i-0490000000-102c0099b32eb6cf1c1b2016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - (-)-Epiafzelechin 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-0920000000-16e90c91e06078017d082016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - (-)-Epiafzelechin 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-05fr-4900000000-1aa083295b52d9560bf82016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - (-)-Epiafzelechin 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-00di-0190000000-3f6f215ea99c3e0e47772016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - (-)-Epiafzelechin 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0079-0940000000-10a1d2bf91d220a561c92016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - (-)-Epiafzelechin 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0a6r-3910000000-d6da6b34ec8094f8de552016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - (-)-Epiafzelechin 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-00di-0190000000-481c391516faccc360692021-09-23Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - (-)-Epiafzelechin 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-05g0-0970000000-dcc4eab79179a249d4642021-09-23Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - (-)-Epiafzelechin 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-009f-4940000000-776437a8382970f7d1c22021-09-23Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - (-)-Epiafzelechin 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-004i-0090000000-5b1317024b148033f6f62021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - (-)-Epiafzelechin 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-004r-0970000000-43adfba1cc7d810c20a92021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - (-)-Epiafzelechin 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0a4r-2920000000-8465db94f8820d7980742021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
  • Extracellular
Biospecimen LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB002778
KNApSAcK IDC00008805
Chemspider ID391781
KEGG Compound IDC12128
BioCyc IDCPD-10413
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound443639
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID31028
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDrw1388821
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
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  2. Xu X, Xie H, Wang Y, Wei X: A-type proanthocyanidins from lychee seeds and their antioxidant and antiviral activities. J Agric Food Chem. 2010 Nov 24;58(22):11667-72. doi: 10.1021/jf1033202. Epub 2010 Oct 22. [PubMed:20964424 ]
  3. Bicker J, Petereit F, Hensel A: Proanthocyanidins and a phloroglucinol derivative from Rumex acetosa L. Fitoterapia. 2009 Dec;80(8):483-95. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2009.08.015. Epub 2009 Aug 18. [PubMed:19695312 ]
  4. Zhang HM, Wang CF, Shen SM, Wang GL, Liu P, Liu ZM, Wang YY, Du SS, Liu ZL, Deng ZW: Antioxidant phenolic compounds from Pu-erh tea. Molecules. 2012 Nov 27;17(12):14037-45. doi: 10.3390/molecules171214037. [PubMed:23187287 ]
  5. Yano T, Ohmori K, Takahashi H, Kusumi T, Suzuki K: Unified approach to catechin hetero-oligomers: first total synthesis of trimer EZ-EG-CA isolated from Ziziphus jujuba. Org Biomol Chem. 2012 Oct 14;10(38):7685-8. doi: 10.1039/c2ob26337h. [PubMed:22930202 ]
  6. Savitri Kumar N, Maduwantha B Wijekoon WM, Kumar V, Nimal Punyasiri PA, Sarath B Abeysinghe I: Separation of proanthocyanidins isolated from tea leaves using high-speed counter-current chromatography. J Chromatogr A. 2009 May 8;1216(19):4295-302. doi: 10.1016/j.chroma.2008.12.025. Epub 2008 Dec 24. [PubMed:19136115 ]
  7. Kpegba K, Agbonon A, Petrovic AG, Amouzou E, Gbeassor M, Proni G, Nesnas N: Epiafzelechin from the root bark of Cassia sieberiana: detection by DART mass spectrometry, spectroscopic characterization, and antioxidant properties. J Nat Prod. 2011 Mar 25;74(3):455-9. doi: 10.1021/np100090e. Epub 2010 Nov 11. [PubMed:21070009 ]
  8. Seccon A, Rosa DW, Freitas RA, Biavatti MW, Creczynski-Pasa TB: Antioxidant activity and low cytotoxicity of extracts and isolated compounds from Araucaria angustifolia dead bark. Redox Rep. 2010;15(6):234-42. doi: 10.1179/135100010X12826446921789. [PubMed:21208522 ]
  9. Su J, Wu Z, Shen Y, Liu R, Zhang C, Li H, Zhang W: Flavonoids from Daphne giraldii Nitsche. Nat Prod Res. 2008;22(15):1355-8. doi: 10.1080/14786410701768196. [PubMed:19023794 ]
  10. Liang YH, Ye M, Yang WZ, Qiao X, Wang Q, Yang HJ, Wang XL, Guo DA: Flavan-3-ols from the rhizomes of Drynaria fortunei. Phytochemistry. 2011 Oct;72(14-15):1876-82. doi: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2011.05.011. Epub 2011 Jul 5. [PubMed:21737107 ]
  11. (). Yannai, Shmuel. (2004) Dictionary of food compounds with CD-ROM: Additives, flavors, and ingredients. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC.. .