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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected but not Quantified
Creation Date2012-09-11 22:14:15 UTC
Update Date2022-03-07 02:55:08 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0036994
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB36994
Metabolite Identification
Common NameTerpinolene
DescriptionTerpinolene (TPO), also known as alpha-terpinolene or isoterpinene, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as menthane monoterpenoids. These are monoterpenoids with a structure based on the o-, m-, or p-menthane backbone. P-menthane consists of the cyclohexane ring with a methyl group and a (2-methyl)-propyl group at the 1 and 4 ring position, respectively. The o- and m- menthanes are much rarer, and presumably arise by alkyl migration of p-menthanes. Thus, terpinolene is considered to be an isoprenoid lipid molecule. Terpinolene is a very hydrophobic monoterpenoid, practically insoluble in water, and relatively neutral. Monoterpenoids are terpenes that contain 10 carbon atoms and are comprised of two isoprene units. The biosynthesis of monoterpenes in plants is known to occur mainly through the methyl-erythritol-phosphate (MEP) pathway in the plastids (PMID:7640522 ). Geranyl diphosphate (GPP) is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of cyclic monoterpenes. GPP undergoes several cyclization reactions to yield a diverse number of cyclic arrangements. Terpinolene is one of the constituents of turpentine and an isomer of terpinene. It appears colourless to pale yellow liquid. Alpha-terpinolene has been identified as an abundant monoterpene in the essential oil of Cannabis sativa plants (PMID:6991645 ). There are more than 140 known terpenes in cannabis and the combination of these terepenoids produces the skunky, fruity odor characteristic of C. savita. Although common in cannabis cultivars, terpinolene is typically found in relatively low amounts. On the other hand, the concentration of terpinolene can be has high as 30% of the essential oil. It is thought that terpinolene offers a mildly sedative effect and can reduce anxiety (PMID:28826544 ). In particular, terpinolene is a central nervous system depressant that has been shown to induce drowsiness (PMID:23339024 ). Terpinolene has been demonstrated to prevent LDL oxidation and is of potential interest in the treatment of atherogenesis and coronary artery disease (PMID:28826544 ). Terpinolene exhibits antifungal and larvicidal properties (PMID:28826544 ). Terpinolene is also an effective anti-microbial agent, particularly against E coli and Staphylococcus bacteria (PMID:16402540 ). Terpinolene is also employed as a fragrence ingredient in lotions, insect repellents (similar to other terpenes), perfumes, and soaps. Terpinolene is also a constituent of many other essential oils e. g. Citrus, Mentha, Juniperus, Myristica species. Parsnip oil (Pastinaca sativa) in particular, is a major source (40-70%). Terpinolene is a sweet, citrus, and fresh tasting compound. It produces a floral, woody or herbal aroma reminiscent of pine needles. In addition to being found in various plant essential oils, terpinolene is found in a few different foods and spices, such as allspice, apples, sage, rosemary, parsnips, nutmegs, and wild carrots and in a lower concentration in sweet bay, star anises, turmerics, apricots, cumins, evergreen blackberries, red bell peppers, and caraway.
Structure
Data?1563862962
Synonyms
ValueSource
1,4(8)-p-MenthadieneChEBI
1-Methyl-4-(1-methylethylidene)-1-cyclohexeneChEBI
1-Methyl-4-(1-methylethylidene)cyclohexeneChEBI
4-Isopropylidene-1-methylcyclohexeneChEBI
alpha-TerpinoleneChEBI
IsoterpineneChEBI
TerpinolenChEBI
a-TerpinoleneGenerator
Α-terpinoleneGenerator
1,4(8)-TerpadieneHMDB
1-Methyl-4-(1-methylethylidene)-cyclohexeneHMDB
1-Methyl-4-(1-methylethylidene)cyclohexene, 9ciHMDB
1-Methyl-4-(propan-2-ylidene)cyclohexeneHMDB
1-Methyl-4-isopropylidene-1-cyclohexeneHMDB
4-Isopropylidene-1-methyl-cyclohexeneHMDB
alpha -TerpinoleneHMDB
Cyclohexene, 3-methyl-6-(1-methylethylidene)- (9ci)HMDB
FEMA 3046HMDB
p-Mentha-1,4(8)-dienePhytoBank
TerpinolenePhytoBank
delta-TerpinenePhytoBank
δ-TerpinenePhytoBank
Chemical FormulaC10H16
Average Molecular Weight136.238
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight136.125200515
IUPAC Name1-methyl-4-(propan-2-ylidene)cyclohex-1-ene
Traditional Nameterpinolene
CAS Registry Number586-62-9
SMILES
CC(C)=C1CCC(C)=CC1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C10H16/c1-8(2)10-6-4-9(3)5-7-10/h4H,5-7H2,1-3H3
InChI KeyMOYAFQVGZZPNRA-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as menthane monoterpenoids. These are monoterpenoids with a structure based on the o-, m-, or p-menthane backbone. P-menthane consists of the cyclohexane ring with a methyl group and a (2-methyl)-propyl group at the 1 and 4 ring position, respectively. The o- and m- menthanes are much rarer, and presumably arise by alkyl migration of p-menthanes.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassPrenol lipids
Sub ClassMonoterpenoids
Direct ParentMenthane monoterpenoids
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • P-menthane monoterpenoid
  • Monocyclic monoterpenoid
  • Branched unsaturated hydrocarbon
  • Cycloalkene
  • Cyclic olefin
  • Unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbon
  • Unsaturated hydrocarbon
  • Olefin
  • Hydrocarbon
  • Aliphatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Adverse health effect

Disposition

Biological location

Source

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting Point< 25 °CNot Available
Boiling Point183.00 to 185.00 °C. @ 760.00 mm HgThe Good Scents Company Information System
Water Solubility0.0095 mg/mL at 23 °CNot Available
LogP4.47Not Available
Experimental Chromatographic PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility1.38 g/LALOGPS
logP3.82ALOGPS
logP3.12ChemAxon
logS-2ALOGPS
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count0ChemAxon
Refractivity47.29 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability17.76 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleYesChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DarkChem[M+H]+132.41931661259
DarkChem[M-H]-128.20631661259
DeepCCS[M+H]+135.00130932474
DeepCCS[M-H]-131.90130932474
DeepCCS[M-2H]-168.83630932474
DeepCCS[M+Na]+144.22330932474

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Underivatized

MetaboliteSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
TerpinoleneCC(C)=C1CCC(C)=CC11240.4Standard polar33892256
TerpinoleneCC(C)=C1CCC(C)=CC11060.2Standard non polar33892256
TerpinoleneCC(C)=C1CCC(C)=CC11061.5Semi standard non polar33892256
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Terpinolene EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-009f-9400000000-68d00c428f3eca0ec8a82017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Terpinolene EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-001l-9400000000-960c0e59a9b4fbc2f2092017-09-12HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Terpinolene EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-009f-9400000000-68d00c428f3eca0ec8a82018-05-18HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Terpinolene EI-B (Non-derivatized)splash10-001l-9400000000-960c0e59a9b4fbc2f2092018-05-18HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Experimental GC-MSGC-MS Spectrum - Terpinolene GC-EI-Q (Non-derivatized)splash10-0006-9500000000-3a9b5aafe573ed72e5922020-07-08HMDB team, MONA, MassBankView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Terpinolene GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-006x-9300000000-9316ff5aec80ce0213342016-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Terpinolene GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Terpinolene GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
MSMass Spectrum (Electron Ionization)splash10-0006-9400000000-2d00513ea08f32f70cc42014-09-20Not AvailableView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Terpinolene 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-3900000000-b14825d366b8c8e2ab122016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Terpinolene 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000j-9500000000-18b9e19b4b2f2fd077102016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Terpinolene 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-1000-9100000000-59a2560a612381b96a852016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Terpinolene 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000i-0900000000-954e07bd601b6ad954252016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Terpinolene 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000i-1900000000-e9d35affdc69e9aca9422016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Terpinolene 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-014u-6900000000-e560043bc5cf9af103652016-08-03Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Terpinolene 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000b-9400000000-7485c8b1e120c014c1c42021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Terpinolene 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-055f-9100000000-1239888ed93266e025ce2021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Terpinolene 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-00ou-9000000000-c37bc4fa72e3458af8e02021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Terpinolene 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000i-0900000000-a013b4ae27f975ab56212021-09-23Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Terpinolene 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-000i-0900000000-a013b4ae27f975ab56212021-09-23Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Terpinolene 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-014l-8900000000-4cdb68ef9159fc3b02c72021-09-23Wishart LabView Spectrum

NMR Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Extracellular
  • Membrane
Biospecimen Locations
  • Breath
  • Feces
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BreathDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothAsthma details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothCrohns disease details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothUlcerative colitis details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Asthma
  1. Ibrahim B, Basanta M, Cadden P, Singh D, Douce D, Woodcock A, Fowler SJ: Non-invasive phenotyping using exhaled volatile organic compounds in asthma. Thorax. 2011 Sep;66(9):804-9. doi: 10.1136/thx.2010.156695. Epub 2011 Jul 11. [PubMed:21749985 ]
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease
  1. Raman M, Ahmed I, Gillevet PM, Probert CS, Ratcliffe NM, Smith S, Greenwood R, Sikaroodi M, Lam V, Crotty P, Bailey J, Myers RP, Rioux KP: Fecal microbiome and volatile organic compound metabolome in obese humans with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013 Jul;11(7):868-75.e1-3. doi: 10.1016/j.cgh.2013.02.015. Epub 2013 Feb 27. [PubMed:23454028 ]
Crohn's disease
  1. Ahmed I, Greenwood R, Costello B, Ratcliffe N, Probert CS: Investigation of faecal volatile organic metabolites as novel diagnostic biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2016 Mar;43(5):596-611. doi: 10.1111/apt.13522. Epub 2016 Jan 25. [PubMed:26806034 ]
Ulcerative colitis
  1. Ahmed I, Greenwood R, Costello B, Ratcliffe N, Probert CS: Investigation of faecal volatile organic metabolites as novel diagnostic biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2016 Mar;43(5):596-611. doi: 10.1111/apt.13522. Epub 2016 Jan 25. [PubMed:26806034 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB015966
KNApSAcK IDC00000861
Chemspider ID10979
KEGG Compound IDC06075
BioCyc IDCPD-4890
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkTerpinene
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound11463
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID9457
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDrw1007171
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Farooq A, Choudhary MI, Atta-ur-Rahman, Tahara S, Baser KH, Demirci F: Detoxification of terpinolene by plant pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea. Z Naturforsch C. 2002 Sep-Oct;57(9-10):863-6. [PubMed:12440725 ]
  2. Simons K, Toomre D: Lipid rafts and signal transduction. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Oct;1(1):31-9. [PubMed:11413487 ]
  3. Watson AD: Thematic review series: systems biology approaches to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Lipidomics: a global approach to lipid analysis in biological systems. J Lipid Res. 2006 Oct;47(10):2101-11. Epub 2006 Aug 10. [PubMed:16902246 ]
  4. Sethi JK, Vidal-Puig AJ: Thematic review series: adipocyte biology. Adipose tissue function and plasticity orchestrate nutritional adaptation. J Lipid Res. 2007 Jun;48(6):1253-62. Epub 2007 Mar 20. [PubMed:17374880 ]
  5. Lingwood D, Simons K: Lipid rafts as a membrane-organizing principle. Science. 2010 Jan 1;327(5961):46-50. doi: 10.1126/science.1174621. [PubMed:20044567 ]
  6. Turner CE, Elsohly MA, Boeren EG: Constituents of Cannabis sativa L. XVII. A review of the natural constituents. J Nat Prod. 1980 Mar-Apr;43(2):169-234. doi: 10.1021/np50008a001. [PubMed:6991645 ]
  7. McGarvey DJ, Croteau R: Terpenoid metabolism. Plant Cell. 1995 Jul;7(7):1015-26. doi: 10.1105/tpc.7.7.1015. [PubMed:7640522 ]
  8. (). Yannai, Shmuel. (2004) Dictionary of food compounds with CD-ROM: Additives, flavors, and ingredients. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC.. .
  9. Gunstone, Frank D., John L. Harwood, and Albert J. Dijkstra (2007). The lipid handbook with CD-ROM. CRC Press.