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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected but not Quantified
Creation Date2013-04-09 21:19:47 UTC
Update Date2021-01-04 21:29:13 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0060015
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB60015
Metabolite Identification
Common NamePhenol sulphate
DescriptionPhenol sulphate, also known as phenylsulfate or aryl sulphate, belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylsulfates. Phenylsulfates are compounds containing a sulfate group conjugated to a phenyl group. In normal humans, phenol sulphate is primarily a gut-derived metabolite that arises from the activity of the bacterial enzyme tyrosine phenol-lyase, which is responsible for the synthesis of phenol from dietary tyrosine (PMID: 31015435 ). Phenol sulphate can also arise from the consumption of phenol or from phenol poisoning (PMID: 473790 ). Phenol sulphate is produced from the conjugation of phenol with sulphate in the liver. In particular, phenol sulphate can be biosynthesized from phenol and phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate through the action of the enzyme sulfotransferase 1A1 in the liver. Phenol sulphate can be found in most mammals (mice, rats, sheep, dogs, humans) and likely most animals. Phenol sulphate is a uremic toxin (PMID: 30068866 ). It is a protein-bound uremic solute that induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and decreases glutathione levels, rendering cells vulnerable to oxidative stress (PMID: 29474405 ). In experimental models of diabetes, phenol sulphate administration has been shown to induce albuminuria and podocyte damage. In a diabetic patient cohort, phenol sulphate levels were found to significantly correlate with basal and predicted 2-year progression of albuminuria in patients with microalbuminuria (PMID: 31015435 ).
Structure
Data?1563866005
Synonyms
ValueSource
Phenol sulfateChEBI
PhenylsulfateChEBI
Phenol sulfuric acidGenerator
Phenol sulphuric acidGenerator
Phenylsulfuric acidGenerator
PhenylsulphateGenerator
Phenylsulphuric acidGenerator
Aryl sulfuric acidHMDB
Aryl sulphateHMDB
Aryl sulphuric acidHMDB
Phenylsulfate, sodium saltHMDB
Phenylsulfate, potassium saltHMDB
Phenyl hydrogen sulfateHMDB
Phenyl sulfateHMDB
Phenol sulphateGenerator
Chemical FormulaC6H6O4S
Average Molecular Weight174.174
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight173.99867937
IUPAC Namephenyloxidanesulfonic acid
Traditional Namephenylsulfate
CAS Registry Number937-34-8
SMILES
OS(=O)(=O)OC1=CC=CC=C1
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C6H6O4S/c7-11(8,9)10-6-4-2-1-3-5-6/h1-5H,(H,7,8,9)
InChI KeyCTYRPMDGLDAWRQ-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as phenylsulfates. Phenylsulfates are compounds containing a sulfuric acid group conjugated to a phenyl group.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassOrganic acids and derivatives
ClassOrganic sulfuric acids and derivatives
Sub ClassArylsulfates
Direct ParentPhenylsulfates
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Phenylsulfate
  • Phenoxy compound
  • Benzenoid
  • Sulfuric acid ester
  • Sulfate-ester
  • Sulfuric acid monoester
  • Monocyclic benzene moiety
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Aromatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAromatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Physiological effect

Adverse health effect

Disposition

Biological location

Source

Route of exposure

Process

Naturally occurring process

Physical Properties
StateSolid
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Experimental Chromatographic PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
Water Solubility3.57 g/LALOGPS
logP10(-0.75) g/LALOGPS
logP10(1.19) g/LChemAxon
logS10(-1.7) g/LALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)-2.2ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area63.6 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count2ChemAxon
Refractivity38.03 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability15.03 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DarkChem[M+H]+137.49331661259
DarkChem[M-H]-131.19731661259
DeepCCS[M+H]+128.62630932474
DeepCCS[M-H]-125.68130932474

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Underivatized

MetaboliteSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
Phenol sulphateOS(=O)(=O)OC1=CC=CC=C12338.1Standard polar33892256
Phenol sulphateOS(=O)(=O)OC1=CC=CC=C11375.3Standard non polar33892256
Phenol sulphateOS(=O)(=O)OC1=CC=CC=C11470.0Semi standard non polar33892256

Derivatized

Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
Phenol sulphate,1TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OS(=O)(=O)OC1=CC=CC=C11491.7Semi standard non polar33892256
Phenol sulphate,1TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OS(=O)(=O)OC1=CC=CC=C11510.6Standard non polar33892256
Phenol sulphate,1TMS,isomer #1C[Si](C)(C)OS(=O)(=O)OC1=CC=CC=C12178.3Standard polar33892256
Phenol sulphate,1TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OS(=O)(=O)OC1=CC=CC=C11731.7Semi standard non polar33892256
Phenol sulphate,1TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OS(=O)(=O)OC1=CC=CC=C11772.3Standard non polar33892256
Phenol sulphate,1TBDMS,isomer #1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OS(=O)(=O)OC1=CC=CC=C12276.0Standard polar33892256
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Phenol sulphate GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-006x-9400000000-79584f1aca1b565545192017-09-20Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - Phenol sulphate GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenol sulphate 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-c57b61490132dfa2f1b92021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Experimental LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenol sulphate 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-00di-3900000000-d93d2fe0c147af808fdb2021-09-20HMDB team, MONAView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenol sulphate 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-004i-0900000000-d5618f41e4a61b1772312015-09-14Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenol sulphate 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-002b-9500000000-f08a7354692c9a6009df2015-09-14Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenol sulphate 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0udi-9200000000-a0788af7f51ce46e786e2015-09-14Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenol sulphate 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-00di-0900000000-f8148fa88a5c80a5a60c2015-09-15Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenol sulphate 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0006-9300000000-1121fe37163f4f4361672015-09-15Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenol sulphate 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0006-9000000000-002b0226f6cf4491fd4d2015-09-15Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenol sulphate 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-004i-0900000000-d492330baf8658d93b982021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenol sulphate 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-004i-9000000000-585c639dc8140c1fbf202021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenol sulphate 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-004i-9000000000-7bd83f0bf390952fb5032021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenol sulphate 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-00di-0900000000-ff32c1b87d0a3d4d9ee22021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenol sulphate 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-00di-0900000000-ff32c1b87d0a3d4d9ee22021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - Phenol sulphate 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0006-9100000000-3cd30e729ac6dc325c352021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum

NMR Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular Locations
  • Cytoplasm
Biospecimen Locations
  • Feces
  • Urine
Tissue Locations
  • Placenta
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Normal
details
UrineDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)MaleNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)Both
Colorectal cancer
details
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Colorectal cancer
  1. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
  2. Goedert JJ, Sampson JN, Moore SC, Xiao Q, Xiong X, Hayes RB, Ahn J, Shi J, Sinha R: Fecal metabolomics: assay performance and association with colorectal cancer. Carcinogenesis. 2014 Sep;35(9):2089-96. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgu131. Epub 2014 Jul 18. [PubMed:25037050 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDDBSALT002236
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDC02180
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound74426
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID27905
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. van der Hooft JJ, de Vos RC, Mihaleva V, Bino RJ, Ridder L, de Roo N, Jacobs DM, van Duynhoven JP, Vervoort J: Structural elucidation and quantification of phenolic conjugates present in human urine after tea intake. Anal Chem. 2012 Aug 21;84(16):7263-71. doi: 10.1021/ac3017339. Epub 2012 Aug 2. [PubMed:22827565 ]
  2. Elshenawy S, Pinney SE, Stuart T, Doulias PT, Zura G, Parry S, Elovitz MA, Bennett MJ, Bansal A, Strauss JF 3rd, Ischiropoulos H, Simmons RA: The Metabolomic Signature of the Placenta in Spontaneous Preterm Birth. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Feb 4;21(3). pii: ijms21031043. doi: 10.3390/ijms21031043. [PubMed:32033212 ]
  3. Kikuchi K, Saigusa D, Kanemitsu Y, Matsumoto Y, Thanai P, Suzuki N, Mise K, Yamaguchi H, Nakamura T, Asaji K, Mukawa C, Tsukamoto H, Sato T, Oikawa Y, Iwasaki T, Oe Y, Tsukimi T, Fukuda NN, Ho HJ, Nanto-Hara F, Ogura J, Saito R, Nagao S, Ohsaki Y, Shimada S, Suzuki T, Toyohara T, Mishima E, Shima H, Akiyama Y, Akiyama Y, Ichijo M, Matsuhashi T, Matsuo A, Ogata Y, Yang CC, Suzuki C, Breeggemann MC, Heymann J, Shimizu M, Ogawa S, Takahashi N, Suzuki T, Owada Y, Kure S, Mano N, Soga T, Wada T, Kopp JB, Fukuda S, Hozawa A, Yamamoto M, Ito S, Wada J, Tomioka Y, Abe T: Gut microbiome-derived phenyl sulfate contributes to albuminuria in diabetic kidney disease. Nat Commun. 2019 Apr 23;10(1):1835. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-09735-4. [PubMed:31015435 ]
  4. Kao J, Bridges JW, Faulkner JK: Metabolism of [14C]phenol by sheep, pig and rat. Xenobiotica. 1979 Mar;9(3):141-7. doi: 10.3109/00498257909038714. [PubMed:473790 ]
  5. Kanemitsu Y, Tsukamoto H, Matsumoto Y, Nozawa-Kumada K, Kondo Y, Abe T, Tomioka Y: Generation and Characterization of Anti-phenyl Sulfate Monoclonal Antibodies and a Potential Use for Phenyl Sulfate Analysis in Human Blood. Biol Pharm Bull. 2018;41(8):1170-1177. doi: 10.1248/bpb.b17-00925. [PubMed:30068866 ]
  6. Edamatsu T, Fujieda A, Itoh Y: Phenyl sulfate, indoxyl sulfate and p-cresyl sulfate decrease glutathione level to render cells vulnerable to oxidative stress in renal tubular cells. PLoS One. 2018 Feb 23;13(2):e0193342. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193342. eCollection 2018. [PubMed:29474405 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in sulfotransferase activity
Specific function:
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfate conjugation of catecholamines, phenolic drugs and neurotransmitters. Has also estrogen sulfotransferase activity. responsible for the sulfonation and activation of minoxidil. Is Mediates the metabolic activation of carcinogenic N-hydroxyarylamines to DNA binding products and could so participate as modulating factor of cancer risk.
Gene Name:
SULT1A1
Uniprot ID:
P50225
Molecular weight:
34165.13
Reactions
Phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate + Phenol → Adenosine 3',5'-diphosphate + Phenol sulphatedetails
General function:
Involved in sulfotransferase activity
Specific function:
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfate conjugation of catecholamines, phenolic drugs and neurotransmitters. Is also responsible for the sulfonation and activation of minoxidil. Mediates the metabolic activation of carcinogenic N-hydroxyarylamines to DNA binding products and could so participate as modulating factor of cancer risk.
Gene Name:
SULT1A2
Uniprot ID:
P50226
Molecular weight:
34310.43
Reactions
Phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate + Phenol → Adenosine 3',5'-diphosphate + Phenol sulphatedetails
General function:
Involved in sulfotransferase activity
Specific function:
Sulfotransferase that utilizes 3'-phospho-5'-adenylyl sulfate (PAPS) as sulfonate donor to catalyze the sulfate conjugation of phenolic monoamines (neurotransmitters such as dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin) and phenolic and catechol drugs.
Gene Name:
SULT1A3
Uniprot ID:
P50224
Molecular weight:
34195.96
Reactions
Phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate + Phenol → Adenosine 3',5'-diphosphate + Phenol sulphatedetails