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Record Information
StatusDetected but not Quantified
Creation Date2017-09-08 16:53:25 UTC
Update Date2020-03-12 17:27:08 UTC
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common Namegamma-Carotene
Descriptiongamma-Carotene is a cyclic carotene obtained by the cyclization of lycopene. It is found in human serum and breast milk (PMID: 9164160 ). Carotenoids are isoprenoid molecules that are widespread in nature and are typically seen as pigments in fruits, flowers, birds, and crustacea. Animals are unable to synthesize carotenoids de novo and rely upon the diet as a source of these compounds. Over recent years there has been considerable interest in dietary carotenoids with respect to their potential in alleviating age-related diseases in humans. This attention has been mirrored by significant advances in cloning most of the carotenoid genes and in the genetic manipulation of crop plants with the intention of increasing levels in the diet. Studies have shown an inverse relationship between the consumption of certain fruits and vegetables and the risk of epithelial cancer. Since carotenoids are among the micronutrients found in cancer-preventive foods, detailed qualitative and quantitative determination of these compounds, particularly in fruits and vegetables and in human plasma, have recently become increasingly important (PMID: 1416048 , 15003396 ).
Chemical FormulaC40H56
Average Molecular Weight536.888
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight536.438201803
IUPAC Name2-[(1E,3E,5E,7E,9E,11E,13E,15E,17E,19E)-3,7,12,16,20,24-hexamethylpentacosa-1,3,5,7,9,11,13,15,17,19,23-undecaen-1-yl]-1,3,3-trimethylcyclohex-1-ene
Traditional Namegamma-carotene
CAS Registry Number472-93-5
InChI Identifier
Chemical Taxonomy
Description belongs to the class of organic compounds known as carotenes. These are a type of unsaturated hydrocarbons containing eight consecutive isoprene units. They are characterized by the presence of two end-groups (mostly cyclohexene rings, but also cyclopentene rings or acyclic groups) linked by a long branched alkyl chain. Carotenes belonging form a subgroup of the carotenoids family.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassPrenol lipids
Sub ClassTetraterpenoids
Direct ParentCarotenes
Alternative Parents
  • Carotene
  • Branched unsaturated hydrocarbon
  • Cycloalkene
  • Cyclic olefin
  • Unsaturated aliphatic hydrocarbon
  • Unsaturated hydrocarbon
  • Olefin
  • Hydrocarbon
  • Aliphatic homomonocyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic homomonocyclic compounds
External Descriptors

Route of exposure:


Biological location:


Naturally occurring process:


Biological role:

Physical Properties
StateNot Available
Experimental Properties
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Properties
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area0 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count13ChemAxon
Refractivity194.71 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability73 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings1ChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, Positivesplash10-00xr-6011690000-65457434be9838207569Spectrum
LC-MS/MSLC-MS/MS Spectrum - LC-ESI-QTOF 20V, positivesplash10-0109-0951010000-2fc07b3278bb21c7ae84Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Positivesplash10-000j-0339780000-e5bd060050db05cdabc3Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Positivesplash10-000t-0229300000-e04971ffd91f8586b02bSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Positivesplash10-00lb-2129500000-c1110517c942830471bcSpectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, Negativesplash10-000i-0000090000-2dd5f27bb4b48f77f692Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, Negativesplash10-000i-0001190000-c8267995f58f48f021e4Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, Negativesplash10-014i-0239460000-8ca9ae88c16638dbcff7Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
  • Breast Milk
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Normal Concentrations
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
Breast MilkDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)FemaleNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDFDB014328
KNApSAcK IDC00000926
Chemspider ID4444349
KEGG Compound IDC05435
BioCyc IDCPD1F-126
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkGamma-carotene
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound5280791
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID27740
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB ID
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Khachik F, Spangler CJ, Smith JC Jr, Canfield LM, Steck A, Pfander H: Identification, quantification, and relative concentrations of carotenoids and their metabolites in human milk and serum. Anal Chem. 1997 May 15;69(10):1873-81. [PubMed:9164160 ]
  2. Khachik F, Beecher GR, Goli MB, Lusby WR, Smith JC Jr: Separation and identification of carotenoids and their oxidation products in the extracts of human plasma. Anal Chem. 1992 Sep 15;64(18):2111-22. [PubMed:1416048 ]
  3. Fraser PD, Bramley PM: The biosynthesis and nutritional uses of carotenoids. Prog Lipid Res. 2004 May;43(3):228-65. [PubMed:15003396 ]
  4. Simons K, Toomre D: Lipid rafts and signal transduction. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Oct;1(1):31-9. [PubMed:11413487 ]
  5. Watson AD: Thematic review series: systems biology approaches to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Lipidomics: a global approach to lipid analysis in biological systems. J Lipid Res. 2006 Oct;47(10):2101-11. Epub 2006 Aug 10. [PubMed:16902246 ]
  6. Sethi JK, Vidal-Puig AJ: Thematic review series: adipocyte biology. Adipose tissue function and plasticity orchestrate nutritional adaptation. J Lipid Res. 2007 Jun;48(6):1253-62. Epub 2007 Mar 20. [PubMed:17374880 ]
  7. Lingwood D, Simons K: Lipid rafts as a membrane-organizing principle. Science. 2010 Jan 1;327(5961):46-50. doi: 10.1126/science.1174621. [PubMed:20044567 ]
  8. Gunstone, Frank D., John L. Harwood, and Albert J. Dijkstra (2007). The lipid handbook with CD-ROM. CRC Press.