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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected but not Quantified
Creation Date2018-03-20 20:04:54 UTC
Update Date2022-11-30 19:53:42 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0240262
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • HMDB0061702
  • HMDB61702
Metabolite Identification
Common NameLysoPC(0:0/16:0)
DescriptionLysoPC(0:0/16:0) is a lysophosphatidylcholine, which is a lysophospholipid. The term 'lysophospholipid' (LPL) refers to any phospholipid that is missing one of its two O-acyl chains. Thus, LPLs have a free alcohol in either the sn-1 or sn-2 position. The prefix 'lyso-' comes from the fact that lysophospholipids were originally found to be hemolytic however it is now used to refer generally to phospholipids missing an acyl chain. LPLs are usually the result of phospholipase A-type enzymatic activity on regular phospholipids such as phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidic acid, although they can also be generated by the acylation of glycerophospholipids or the phosphorylation of monoacylglycerols. Lysophosphatidylcholine is found in small amounts in most tissues. It is formed by hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine by the enzyme phospholipase A2 as part of the de-acylation/re-acylation cycle that controls its overall molecular species composition. It can also be formed inadvertently during extraction of lipids from tissues if the phospholipase is activated by careless handling. There is also a phospholipase A1, which is able to cleave the sn-1 ester bond. Lysophosphatidylcholine has pro-inflammatory properties in vitro and it is known to be a pathological component of oxidized lipoproteins (LDL) in plasma and of atherosclerotic lesions. Recently, it has been found to have some functions in cell signalling, and specific receptors (coupled to G proteins) have been identified. It activates the specific phospholipase C that releases diacylglycerols and inositol triphosphate with resultant increases in intracellular Ca2+ and activation of protein kinase C. It also activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase in certain cell types. Lysophosphatidylcholines can have different combinations of fatty acids of varying lengths and saturation attached at the C-1 (sn-1) or C-2 (sn-2) position. LysoPC(0:0/16:0), in particular, consists of one chain of palmitic acid at the C-2 position. LPL-R's are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPR) family of integral membrane proteins. Lysophosphatidylcholines (LPCs) specifically bind to GPR119, GPR40, GPR55 and GPR4.  binding of LPCs to GPR119, GPR40 and GPR55 induces intracellular calcium mobilization and leads to increased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in different cell systems. In blood or plasma LPCs are bound mainly to albumin and to a lesser extent to lipoproteins. Inflammation, cell damage and other pathophysiological conditions can profoundly alter the ratio of free to albumin bound LPC through increased production of LPC or decreased plasma levels of albumin (PMID: 32599910 ). In particular, lower levels of albumin (hypoalbuminemia) lead to lower levels of LPC in the blood.  Hypoalbuminemia with albumin concentrations of <20 g/L are typical of patients with sepsis, burns or serious trauma (PMID: 26557421 ). Such low levels of albumin often lead to LPC levels that are 50-80 % lower than that seen in healthy individuals (PMID: 27501420 ). Decreased levels of LPC have been observed in a number of other inflammatory conditions beyond sepsis, including rheumatoid arthritis, diabetes, schizophrenia, polycystic ovary syndrome, Alzheimer’s disease, pulmonary arterial hypertension, aging, asthma and liver cirrhosis, where they were associated with increased mortality risk (PMID: 32599910 ). LPCs have a number of protective or anti-inflammatory effects.  Higher levels of LPC induce cyclooxygenase-2 and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression in endothelial cells, both of which can have vasoprotective effects either via production of prostacyclin or nitric oxide (PMID: 32599910 ). LPCs have been shown to elicit a number of effects on the innate immune system and effectively serve as dual-activity ligand molecules. In particular, LPCs directly activate toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 and TLR-2-1 receptors in the absence of classical TLR ligands. However, LPCs can also inhibit TLR-mediated signaling in the presence of classical TLR ligands, thereby acting as anti-inflammatory molecules (PMID: 32599910 ).  Low levels of LPC during a bacterial or viral infection with TLR-mediated signalling can lead to opposing (inflammatory vs. anti-inflammatory) effects and immune dysregulation.
Structure
Data?1574292192
Synonyms
ValueSource
(2R)-3-Hydroxy-2-(palmitoyloxy)propyl 2-(trimethylazaniumyl)ethyl phosphateChEBI
2-Hexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholineChEBI
2-PalmitoyllysophosphatidylcholineChEBI
PC(0:0/16:0)ChEBI
(2R)-3-Hydroxy-2-(palmitoyloxy)propyl 2-(trimethylazaniumyl)ethyl phosphoric acidGenerator
2-Palmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholineHMDB
2-Palmitoyl-lysophosphatidylcholineHMDB
2-Palmitoyl-GPCHMDB
LysoPC(16:0)HMDB
LPC(0:0/16:0)HMDB
LPC(16:0)HMDB
Lysophosphatidylcholine(0:0/16:0)HMDB
Lysophosphatidylcholine(16:0)HMDB
2-HexadecanoylglycerophosphocholineHMDB
2-PalmitoylglycerophosphocholineHMDB
GPC(0:0/16:0)HMDB
GPC(16:0)HMDB
LysoPC(0:0/16:0)SMPDB
Chemical FormulaC24H50NO7P
Average Molecular Weight495.638
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight495.332489952
IUPAC Name(2-{[(2R)-2-(hexadecanoyloxy)-3-hydroxypropyl phosphono]oxy}ethyl)trimethylazanium
Traditional Name(2-{[(2R)-2-(hexadecanoyloxy)-3-hydroxypropyl phosphono]oxy}ethyl)trimethylazanium
CAS Registry Number66757-27-5
SMILES
CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(=O)O[C@H](CO)COP([O-])(=O)OCC[N+](C)(C)C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C24H50NO7P/c1-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-17-18-24(27)32-23(21-26)22-31-33(28,29)30-20-19-25(2,3)4/h23,26H,5-22H2,1-4H3/t23-/m1/s1
InChI KeyNEGQHKSYEYVFTD-HSZRJFAPSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as 2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholines. These are glycerophosphocholines in which the glycerol is esterified with a fatty acid at O-2 position, and linked at position 3 to a phosphocholine.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassGlycerophospholipids
Sub ClassGlycerophosphocholines
Direct Parent2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • 2-acyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
  • Phosphocholine
  • Fatty acid ester
  • Dialkyl phosphate
  • Organic phosphoric acid derivative
  • Phosphoric acid ester
  • Alkyl phosphate
  • Fatty acyl
  • Tetraalkylammonium salt
  • Quaternary ammonium salt
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Monocarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Organic oxide
  • Alcohol
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Primary alcohol
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic salt
  • Amine
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External Descriptors
Ontology
Not AvailableNot Available
Physical Properties
StateNot Available
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Experimental Chromatographic PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP1.82ALOGPS
logP1.19ChemAxon
logS-6.2ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)1.86ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area105.12 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count24ChemAxon
Refractivity142.27 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability57.51 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
AllCCS[M+H]+232.32431661259
AllCCS[M-H]-227.40531661259
DeepCCS[M+H]+226.9830932474
DeepCCS[M-H]-224.62230932474
DeepCCS[M-2H]-257.81830932474
DeepCCS[M+Na]+234.32630932474
AllCCS[M+H]+232.332859911
AllCCS[M+H-H2O]+230.932859911
AllCCS[M+NH4]+233.632859911
AllCCS[M+Na]+233.932859911
AllCCS[M-H]-227.432859911
AllCCS[M+Na-2H]-229.732859911
AllCCS[M+HCOO]-232.332859911

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Underivatized

MetaboliteSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
LysoPC(0:0/16:0)CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(=O)O[C@H](CO)COP([O-])(=O)OCC[N+](C)(C)C3310.1Standard polar33892256
LysoPC(0:0/16:0)CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(=O)O[C@H](CO)COP([O-])(=O)OCC[N+](C)(C)C3026.9Standard non polar33892256
LysoPC(0:0/16:0)CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(=O)O[C@H](CO)COP([O-])(=O)OCC[N+](C)(C)C3288.9Semi standard non polar33892256

Derivatized

Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
LysoPC(0:0/16:0),1TMS,isomer #1CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(=O)O[C@H](CO[Si](C)(C)C)COP(=O)([O-])OCC[N+](C)(C)C3286.4Semi standard non polar33892256
LysoPC(0:0/16:0),1TBDMS,isomer #1CCCCCCCCCCCCCCCC(=O)O[C@H](CO[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C)COP(=O)([O-])OCC[N+](C)(C)C3511.0Semi standard non polar33892256
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - LysoPC(0:0/16:0) GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - LysoPC(0:0/16:0) GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LysoPC(0:0/16:0) 10V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0006-0000900000-ab76377748e00cb850aa2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LysoPC(0:0/16:0) 20V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0a4l-0090800000-a495b2c1cebc3a7c55602021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LysoPC(0:0/16:0) 40V, Negative-QTOFsplash10-0a6r-8391100000-957a6acd6e614a28f0a02021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LysoPC(0:0/16:0) 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-0002-1000900000-bae518f53efb0b12c62e2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LysoPC(0:0/16:0) 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-001i-2910200000-30991885dd296ae276a62021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - LysoPC(0:0/16:0) 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-00dr-6900000000-90fa6616e6a4927b9b0f2021-09-24Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biospecimen Locations
  • Feces
Tissue Locations
  • Placenta
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
FecesDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedAdult (>18 years old)BothColorectal Cancer details
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease References
Colorectal cancer
  1. Brown DG, Rao S, Weir TL, O'Malia J, Bazan M, Brown RJ, Ryan EP: Metabolomics and metabolic pathway networks from human colorectal cancers, adjacent mucosa, and stool. Cancer Metab. 2016 Jun 6;4:11. doi: 10.1186/s40170-016-0151-y. eCollection 2016. [PubMed:27275383 ]
Associated OMIM IDs
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider ID21403165
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound15061532
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI ID76078
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Simons K, Toomre D: Lipid rafts and signal transduction. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2000 Oct;1(1):31-9. [PubMed:11413487 ]
  2. Watson AD: Thematic review series: systems biology approaches to metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. Lipidomics: a global approach to lipid analysis in biological systems. J Lipid Res. 2006 Oct;47(10):2101-11. Epub 2006 Aug 10. [PubMed:16902246 ]
  3. Sethi JK, Vidal-Puig AJ: Thematic review series: adipocyte biology. Adipose tissue function and plasticity orchestrate nutritional adaptation. J Lipid Res. 2007 Jun;48(6):1253-62. Epub 2007 Mar 20. [PubMed:17374880 ]
  4. Lingwood D, Simons K: Lipid rafts as a membrane-organizing principle. Science. 2010 Jan 1;327(5961):46-50. doi: 10.1126/science.1174621. [PubMed:20044567 ]
  5. Divecha N, Irvine RF: Phospholipid signaling. Cell. 1995 Jan 27;80(2):269-78. [PubMed:7834746 ]
  6. Elshenawy S, Pinney SE, Stuart T, Doulias PT, Zura G, Parry S, Elovitz MA, Bennett MJ, Bansal A, Strauss JF 3rd, Ischiropoulos H, Simmons RA: The Metabolomic Signature of the Placenta in Spontaneous Preterm Birth. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Feb 4;21(3). pii: ijms21031043. doi: 10.3390/ijms21031043. [PubMed:32033212 ]
  7. Wernly B, Lichtenauer M, Hoppe UC, Jung C: Hyperglycemia in septic patients: an essential stress survival response in all, a robust marker for risk stratification in some, to be messed with in none. J Thorac Dis. 2016 Jul;8(7):E621-4. doi: 10.21037/jtd.2016.05.24. [PubMed:27501420 ]
  8. Knuplez E, Marsche G: An Updated Review of Pro- and Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Plasma Lysophosphatidylcholines in the Vascular System. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Jun 24;21(12). pii: ijms21124501. doi: 10.3390/ijms21124501. [PubMed:32599910 ]
  9. Sun JK, Sun F, Wang X, Yuan ST, Zheng SY, Mu XW: Risk factors and prognosis of hypoalbuminemia in surgical septic patients. PeerJ. 2015 Oct 1;3:e1267. doi: 10.7717/peerj.1267. eCollection 2015. [PubMed:26557421 ]
  10. Cevc, Gregor (1993). Phospholipids Handbook. Marcel Dekker.
  11. Gunstone, Frank D., John L. Harwood, and Albert J. Dijkstra (2007). The lipid handbook with CD-ROM. CRC Press.

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in G-protein coupled receptor protein signaling pathway
Specific function:
Receptor for medium and long chain saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Binding of the ligand increase intracellular calcium concentration and amplify glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G- proteins that activate phospholipase C. Seems to act through a G(q) and G(i)-mediated pathway
Gene Name:
FFAR1
Uniprot ID:
O14842
Molecular weight:
31456.6
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Receptor for the endogenous fatty-acid ethanolamide oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). Functions as a glucose-dependent insulinotropic receptor. The activity of this receptor is mediated by G proteins which activate adenylate cyclase. Seems to act through a G(s) mediated pathway.
Gene Name:
GPR119
Uniprot ID:
Q8TDV5
Molecular weight:
36888.36
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
May be involved in hyperalgesia associated with inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Receptor for L-alpha-lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI). LPI induces Ca2+ release from intracellular stores via the heterotrimeric G protein GNA13 and RHOA. Putative cannabinoid receptor. May play a role in bone physiology by regulating osteoclast number and function.
Gene Name:
GPR55
Uniprot ID:
Q9Y2T6
Molecular weight:
36.0
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Proton-sensing G-protein coupled receptor couples to multiple intracellular signaling pathways, including GNAS/cAMP, GNAQ/phospholipase C (PLC), and GNA12/GNA13/Rho pathways. Acidosis-induced GPR4 activation increases paracellular gap formation and permeability of vascular endothelial cells through the GNA12/GNA13/Rho GTPase signaling pathway. In the brain may mediate central respiratory sensitivity to CO2H+.
Gene Name:
GPR4
Uniprot ID:
P46093
Molecular weight:
40.0