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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusPredicted
Creation Date2021-03-31 18:46:15 UTC
Update Date2021-09-14 15:46:39 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0241370
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common Name(4Z)-3-Hydroxytetradec-4-enedioylcarnitine
Description(4Z)-3-Hydroxytetradec-4-enedioylcarnitine is an acylcarnitine. More specifically, it is an (4Z)-3-hydroxytetradec-4-enedioic acid ester of carnitine. Acylcarnitines were first discovered more than 70 year ago (PMID: 13825279 ). It is believed that there are more than 1000 types of acylcarnitines in the human body. The general role of acylcarnitines is to transport acyl-groups (organic acids and fatty acids) from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria so that they can be broken down to produce energy. This process is known as beta-oxidation. According to a recent review [Dambrova et al. 2021, Physiological Reviews], acylcarnitines (ACs) can be classified into 9 different categories depending on the type and size of their acyl-group: 1) short-chain ACs; 2) medium-chain ACs; 3) long-chain ACs; 4) very long-chain ACs; 5) hydroxy ACs; 6) branched chain ACs; 7) unsaturated ACs; 8) dicarboxylic ACs and 9) miscellaneous ACs. Short-chain ACs have acyl-groups with two to five carbons (C2-C5), medium-chain ACs have acyl-groups with six to thirteen carbons (C6-C13), long-chain ACs have acyl-groups with fourteen to twenty once carbons (C14-C21) and very long-chain ACs have acyl groups with more than 22 carbons. (4Z)-3-Hydroxytetradec-4-enedioylcarnitine is therefore classified as a long chain AC. As a long-chain acylcarnitine (4Z)-3-Hydroxytetradec-4-enedioylcarnitine is generally formed through esterification with long-chain fatty acids obtained from the diet. The main function of most long-chain acylcarnitines is to ensure long chain fatty acid transport into the mitochondria (PMID: 22804748 ). Altered levels of long-chain acylcarnitines can serve as useful markers for inherited disorders of long-chain fatty acid metabolism. Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I, EC:2.3.1.21) is involved in the synthesis of long-chain acylcarnitines (more than C12) on the mitochondrial outer membrane. Elevated serum/plasma levels of long-chain acylcarnitines are not only markers for incomplete FA oxidation but also are indicators of altered carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. High serum concentrations of long-chain acylcarnitines in the postprandial or fed state are markers of insulin resistance and arise from insulin's inability to inhibit CPT-1-dependent fatty acid metabolism in muscles and the heart (PMID: 19073774 ). Increased intracellular content of long-chain acylcarnitines is thought to serve as a feedback inhibition mechanism of insulin action (PMID: 23258903 ). In healthy subjects, increased concentrations of insulin effectively inhibits long-chain acylcarnitine production. Several studies have also found increased levels of circulating long-chain acylcarnitines in chronic heart failure patients (PMID: 26796394 ). The study of acylcarnitines is an active area of research and it is likely that many novel acylcarnitines will be discovered in the coming years. It is also likely that many novel roles in health and disease will be uncovered. An excellent review of the current state of knowledge for acylcarnitines is available at [Dambrova et al. 2021, Physiological Reviews].
Structure
Data?1620711407
SynonymsNot Available
Chemical FormulaC21H37NO7
Average Molecular Weight415.527
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight415.257002535
IUPAC Name3-[(13-carboxy-3-hydroxytridec-4-enoyl)oxy]-4-(trimethylazaniumyl)butanoate
Traditional Name3-[(13-carboxy-3-hydroxytridec-4-enoyl)oxy]-4-(trimethylammonio)butanoate
CAS Registry NumberNot Available
SMILES
C[N+](C)(C)CC(CC([O-])=O)OC(=O)CC(O)C=CCCCCCCCCC(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C21H37NO7/c1-22(2,3)16-18(15-20(26)27)29-21(28)14-17(23)12-10-8-6-4-5-7-9-11-13-19(24)25/h10,12,17-18,23H,4-9,11,13-16H2,1-3H3,(H-,24,25,26,27)
InChI KeyWLQZNBSFIALQGI-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as acyl carnitines. These are organic compounds containing a fatty acid with the carboxylic acid attached to carnitine through an ester bond.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acid esters
Direct ParentAcyl carnitines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Acyl-carnitine
  • Tricarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Beta-hydroxy acid
  • Hydroxy acid
  • Tetraalkylammonium salt
  • Quaternary ammonium salt
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxylic acid salt
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic salt
  • Organic zwitterion
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
Disposition

Source

Route of exposure

Physical Properties
StateNot Available
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Experimental Spectral PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP10(-1.6) g/LChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.01ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-3ChemAxon
Physiological Charge-1ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count6ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count2ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area123.96 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count18ChemAxon
Refractivity132.02 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability46.17 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Spectral Properties

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Derivatized

Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
(4Z)-3-Hydroxytetradec-4-enedioylcarnitine,1TMS,#1C[N+](C)(C)CC(CC(=O)[O-])OC(=O)CC(C=CCCCCCCCCC(=O)O)O[Si](C)(C)C3003.9Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
(4Z)-3-Hydroxytetradec-4-enedioylcarnitine,1TMS,#2C[N+](C)(C)CC(CC(=O)[O-])OC(=O)CC(O)C=CCCCCCCCCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C2952.3Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
(4Z)-3-Hydroxytetradec-4-enedioylcarnitine,2TMS,#1C[N+](C)(C)CC(CC(=O)[O-])OC(=O)CC(C=CCCCCCCCCC(=O)O[Si](C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C2974.5Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
(4Z)-3-Hydroxytetradec-4-enedioylcarnitine,1TBDMS,#1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC(C=CCCCCCCCCC(=O)O)CC(=O)OC(CC(=O)[O-])C[N+](C)(C)C3225.2Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
(4Z)-3-Hydroxytetradec-4-enedioylcarnitine,1TBDMS,#2CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)CCCCCCCCC=CC(O)CC(=O)OC(CC(=O)[O-])C[N+](C)(C)C3187.7Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
(4Z)-3-Hydroxytetradec-4-enedioylcarnitine,2TBDMS,#1CC(C)(C)[Si](C)(C)OC(=O)CCCCCCCCC=CC(CC(=O)OC(CC(=O)[O-])C[N+](C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C3434.7Semi standard non polarhttps://arxiv.org/abs/1905.12712
Spectra
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biospecimen LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem CompoundNot Available
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Blazenovic I, Kind T, Sa MR, Ji J, Vaniya A, Wancewicz B, Roberts BS, Torbasinovic H, Lee T, Mehta SS, Showalter MR, Song H, Kwok J, Jahn D, Kim J, Fiehn O: Structure Annotation of All Mass Spectra in Untargeted Metabolomics. Anal Chem. 2019 Feb 5;91(3):2155-2162. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.8b04698. Epub 2019 Jan 16. [PubMed:30608141 ]
  2. FRITZ IB: Action of carnitine on long chain fatty acid oxidation by liver. Am J Physiol. 1959 Aug;197:297-304. doi: 10.1152/ajplegacy.1959.197.2.297. [PubMed:13825279 ]
  3. Reuter SE, Evans AM: Carnitine and acylcarnitines: pharmacokinetic, pharmacological and clinical aspects. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2012 Sep 1;51(9):553-72. doi: 10.1007/BF03261931. [PubMed:22804748 ]
  4. Bruce CR, Hoy AJ, Turner N, Watt MJ, Allen TL, Carpenter K, Cooney GJ, Febbraio MA, Kraegen EW: Overexpression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 in skeletal muscle is sufficient to enhance fatty acid oxidation and improve high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance. Diabetes. 2009 Mar;58(3):550-8. doi: 10.2337/db08-1078. Epub 2008 Dec 10. [PubMed:19073774 ]
  5. Schooneman MG, Vaz FM, Houten SM, Soeters MR: Acylcarnitines: reflecting or inflicting insulin resistance? Diabetes. 2013 Jan;62(1):1-8. doi: 10.2337/db12-0466. [PubMed:23258903 ]
  6. Ahmad T, Kelly JP, McGarrah RW, Hellkamp AS, Fiuzat M, Testani JM, Wang TS, Verma A, Samsky MD, Donahue MP, Ilkayeva OR, Bowles DE, Patel CB, Milano CA, Rogers JG, Felker GM, O'Connor CM, Shah SH, Kraus WE: Prognostic Implications of Long-Chain Acylcarnitines in Heart Failure and Reversibility With Mechanical Circulatory Support. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016 Jan 26;67(3):291-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.10.079. [PubMed:26796394 ]
  7. Yu D, Zhou L, Xuan Q, Wang L, Zhao X, Lu X, Xu G: Strategy for Comprehensive Identification of Acylcarnitines Based on Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Anal Chem. 2018 May 1;90(9):5712-5718. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.7b05471. Epub 2018 Apr 20. [PubMed:29651844 ]
  8. Yan X, Markey SP, Marupaka R, Dong Q, Cooper BT, Mirokhin YA, Wallace WE, Stein SE: Mass Spectral Library of Acylcarnitines Derived from Human Urine. Anal Chem. 2020 May 5;92(9):6521-6528. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.0c00129. Epub 2020 Apr 23. [PubMed:32271007 ]
  9. Zuniga A, Li L: Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for comprehensive analysis of urinary acylcarnitines. Anal Chim Acta. 2011 Mar 9;689(1):77-84. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2011.01.018. Epub 2011 Jan 18. [PubMed:21338760 ]