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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusPredicted
Creation Date2021-03-31 18:47:15 UTC
Update Date2021-09-14 14:59:41 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0241377
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common Name(2E,4E)-Tetradecadienoylcarnitine
Description(2E,4E)-Tetradecadienoylcarnitine is an acylcarnitine. More specifically, it is an (2E,4E)-tetradeca-2,4-dienoic acid ester of carnitine. Acylcarnitines were first discovered more than 70 year ago (PMID: 13825279 ). It is believed that there are more than 1000 types of acylcarnitines in the human body. The general role of acylcarnitines is to transport acyl-groups (organic acids and fatty acids) from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria so that they can be broken down to produce energy. This process is known as beta-oxidation. According to a recent review [Dambrova et al. 2021, Physiological Reviews], acylcarnitines (ACs) can be classified into 9 different categories depending on the type and size of their acyl-group: 1) short-chain ACs; 2) medium-chain ACs; 3) long-chain ACs; 4) very long-chain ACs; 5) hydroxy ACs; 6) branched chain ACs; 7) unsaturated ACs; 8) dicarboxylic ACs and 9) miscellaneous ACs. Short-chain ACs have acyl-groups with two to five carbons (C2-C5), medium-chain ACs have acyl-groups with six to thirteen carbons (C6-C13), long-chain ACs have acyl-groups with fourteen to twenty once carbons (C14-C21) and very long-chain ACs have acyl groups with more than 22 carbons. (2E,4E)-Tetradecadienoylcarnitine is therefore classified as a long chain AC. As a long-chain acylcarnitine (2E,4E)-Tetradecadienoylcarnitine is generally formed through esterification with long-chain fatty acids obtained from the diet. The main function of most long-chain acylcarnitines is to ensure long chain fatty acid transport into the mitochondria (PMID: 22804748 ). Altered levels of long-chain acylcarnitines can serve as useful markers for inherited disorders of long-chain fatty acid metabolism. In particular (2E,4E)-Tetradecadienoylcarnitine is elevated in the blood or plasma of individuals with insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes (PMID: 24358186 ) and Alzheimer disease (PMID: 31785839 ). Carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT I, EC:2.3.1.21) is involved in the synthesis of long-chain acylcarnitines (more than C12) on the mitochondrial outer membrane. Elevated serum/plasma levels of long-chain acylcarnitines are not only markers for incomplete FA oxidation but also are indicators of altered carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. High serum concentrations of long-chain acylcarnitines in the postprandial or fed state are markers of insulin resistance and arise from insulin's inability to inhibit CPT-1-dependent fatty acid metabolism in muscles and the heart (PMID: 19073774 ). Increased intracellular content of long-chain acylcarnitines is thought to serve as a feedback inhibition mechanism of insulin action (PMID: 23258903 ). In healthy subjects, increased concentrations of insulin effectively inhibits long-chain acylcarnitine production. Several studies have also found increased levels of circulating long-chain acylcarnitines in chronic heart failure patients (PMID: 26796394 ). The study of acylcarnitines is an active area of research and it is likely that many novel acylcarnitines will be discovered in the coming years. It is also likely that many novel roles in health and disease will be uncovered. An excellent review of the current state of knowledge for acylcarnitines is available at [Dambrova et al. 2021, Physiological Reviews].
Structure
Data?1620716094
SynonymsNot Available
Chemical FormulaC21H37NO4
Average Molecular Weight367.53
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight367.272258675
IUPAC Name3-(tetradeca-2,4-dienoyloxy)-4-(trimethylazaniumyl)butanoate
Traditional Name3-(tetradeca-2,4-dienoyloxy)-4-(trimethylammonio)butanoate
CAS Registry NumberNot Available
SMILES
CCCCCCCCCC=CC=CC(=O)OC(CC([O-])=O)C[N+](C)(C)C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C21H37NO4/c1-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-16-21(25)26-19(17-20(23)24)18-22(2,3)4/h13-16,19H,5-12,17-18H2,1-4H3
InChI KeyDBJDCEJXEMUHGM-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as acyl carnitines. These are organic compounds containing a fatty acid with the carboxylic acid attached to carnitine through an ester bond.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acid esters
Direct ParentAcyl carnitines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Acyl-carnitine
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Tetraalkylammonium salt
  • Alpha,beta-unsaturated carboxylic ester
  • Enoate ester
  • Quaternary ammonium salt
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Carboxylic acid salt
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Amine
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Organic salt
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic oxide
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Organic cation
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
Not Available
Physical Properties
StateNot Available
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP1.01ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.13ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-6.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count0ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area66.43 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count16ChemAxon
Refractivity130.08 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability44.33 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Spectral Properties

Collision Cross Sections

NameAdductTypeData SourceValueReference

Retention Indices

Underivatized

Not Available

Derivatized

Not Available
Spectra

LC-MS/MS

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 10V, PositiveNot Available2021-04-06View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 20V, PositiveNot Available2021-04-06View Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 40V, PositiveNot Available2021-04-06View Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biospecimen LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound87087939
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Blazenovic I, Kind T, Sa MR, Ji J, Vaniya A, Wancewicz B, Roberts BS, Torbasinovic H, Lee T, Mehta SS, Showalter MR, Song H, Kwok J, Jahn D, Kim J, Fiehn O: Structure Annotation of All Mass Spectra in Untargeted Metabolomics. Anal Chem. 2019 Feb 5;91(3):2155-2162. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.8b04698. Epub 2019 Jan 16. [PubMed:30608141 ]
  2. FRITZ IB: Action of carnitine on long chain fatty acid oxidation by liver. Am J Physiol. 1959 Aug;197:297-304. doi: 10.1152/ajplegacy.1959.197.2.297. [PubMed:13825279 ]
  3. Reuter SE, Evans AM: Carnitine and acylcarnitines: pharmacokinetic, pharmacological and clinical aspects. Clin Pharmacokinet. 2012 Sep 1;51(9):553-72. doi: 10.1007/BF03261931. [PubMed:22804748 ]
  4. Mai M, Tonjes A, Kovacs P, Stumvoll M, Fiedler GM, Leichtle AB: Serum levels of acylcarnitines are altered in prediabetic conditions. PLoS One. 2013 Dec 16;8(12):e82459. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082459. eCollection 2013. [PubMed:24358186 ]
  5. Huo Z, Yu L, Yang J, Zhu Y, Bennett DA, Zhao J: Brain and blood metabolome for Alzheimer's dementia: findings from a targeted metabolomics analysis. Neurobiol Aging. 2020 Feb;86:123-133. doi: 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2019.10.014. Epub 2019 Nov 5. [PubMed:31785839 ]
  6. Bruce CR, Hoy AJ, Turner N, Watt MJ, Allen TL, Carpenter K, Cooney GJ, Febbraio MA, Kraegen EW: Overexpression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 in skeletal muscle is sufficient to enhance fatty acid oxidation and improve high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance. Diabetes. 2009 Mar;58(3):550-8. doi: 10.2337/db08-1078. Epub 2008 Dec 10. [PubMed:19073774 ]
  7. Schooneman MG, Vaz FM, Houten SM, Soeters MR: Acylcarnitines: reflecting or inflicting insulin resistance? Diabetes. 2013 Jan;62(1):1-8. doi: 10.2337/db12-0466. [PubMed:23258903 ]
  8. Ahmad T, Kelly JP, McGarrah RW, Hellkamp AS, Fiuzat M, Testani JM, Wang TS, Verma A, Samsky MD, Donahue MP, Ilkayeva OR, Bowles DE, Patel CB, Milano CA, Rogers JG, Felker GM, O'Connor CM, Shah SH, Kraus WE: Prognostic Implications of Long-Chain Acylcarnitines in Heart Failure and Reversibility With Mechanical Circulatory Support. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2016 Jan 26;67(3):291-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.10.079. [PubMed:26796394 ]
  9. Yu D, Zhou L, Xuan Q, Wang L, Zhao X, Lu X, Xu G: Strategy for Comprehensive Identification of Acylcarnitines Based on Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Anal Chem. 2018 May 1;90(9):5712-5718. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.7b05471. Epub 2018 Apr 20. [PubMed:29651844 ]
  10. Yan X, Markey SP, Marupaka R, Dong Q, Cooper BT, Mirokhin YA, Wallace WE, Stein SE: Mass Spectral Library of Acylcarnitines Derived from Human Urine. Anal Chem. 2020 May 5;92(9):6521-6528. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.0c00129. Epub 2020 Apr 23. [PubMed:32271007 ]
  11. Zuniga A, Li L: Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for comprehensive analysis of urinary acylcarnitines. Anal Chim Acta. 2011 Mar 9;689(1):77-84. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2011.01.018. Epub 2011 Jan 18. [PubMed:21338760 ]