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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusPredicted
Creation Date2021-03-31 19:27:38 UTC
Update Date2022-10-24 19:45:17 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0241654
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common Name3-Hydroxyvalerylcarnitine
Description3-Hydroxyvalerylcarnitine is an acylcarnitine. More specifically, it is an 3-hydroxypentanoic acid ester of carnitine. Acylcarnitines were first discovered more than 70 year ago (PMID: 13825279 ). It is believed that there are more than 1000 types of acylcarnitines in the human body. The general role of acylcarnitines is to transport acyl-groups (organic acids and fatty acids) from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria so that they can be broken down to produce energy. This process is known as beta-oxidation. According to a recent review (PMID: 35710135 ), acylcarnitines (ACs) can be classified into 9 different categories depending on the type and size of their acyl-group: 1) short-chain ACs; 2) medium-chain ACs; 3) long-chain ACs; 4) very long-chain ACs; 5) hydroxy ACs; 6) branched chain ACs; 7) unsaturated ACs; 8) dicarboxylic ACs and 9) miscellaneous ACs. Short-chain ACs have acyl-groups with two to five carbons (C2-C5), medium-chain ACs have acyl-groups with six to thirteen carbons (C6-C13), long-chain ACs have acyl-groups with fourteen to twenty once carbons (C14-C21) and very long-chain ACs have acyl groups with more than 22 carbons. 3-Hydroxyvalerylcarnitine is therefore classified as a short chain AC. As a short-chain acylcarnitine 3-Hydroxyvalerylcarnitine is a member of the most abundant group of carnitines in the body, comprising more than 50% of all acylcarnitines quantified in tissues and biofluids (PMID: 31920980 ). Some short-chain carnitines have been studied as supplements or treatments for a number of diseases, including neurological disorders and inborn errors of metabolism. In particular 3-Hydroxyvalerylcarnitine is elevated in the blood or plasma of individuals with 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A lyase deficiency (PMID: 28583327 ) and holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency (PMID: 27114915 ). It is also decreased in the blood or plasma of individuals with psoriasis (PMID: 33391503 ). Carnitine acetyltransferase (CrAT, EC:2.3.1.7) is responsible for the synthesis of all short-chain and short branched-chain acylcarnitines (PMID: 23485643 ). The study of acylcarnitines is an active area of research and it is likely that many novel acylcarnitines will be discovered in the coming years. It is also likely that many novel roles in health and disease will be uncovered. An excellent review of the current state of knowledge for acylcarnitines is available (PMID: 35710135 ).
Structure
Data?1621548165
SynonymsNot Available
Chemical FormulaC12H23NO5
Average Molecular Weight261.318
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight261.157622845
IUPAC Name3-[(3-hydroxypentanoyl)oxy]-4-(trimethylazaniumyl)butanoate
Traditional Name3-[(3-hydroxypentanoyl)oxy]-4-(trimethylammonio)butanoate
CAS Registry NumberNot Available
SMILES
CCC(O)CC(=O)OC(CC([O-])=O)C[N+](C)(C)C
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C12H23NO5/c1-5-9(14)6-12(17)18-10(7-11(15)16)8-13(2,3)4/h9-10,14H,5-8H2,1-4H3
InChI KeySHDVOJJCEZGPBX-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
Description Belongs to the class of organic compounds known as acyl carnitines. These are organic compounds containing a fatty acid with the carboxylic acid attached to carnitine through an ester bond.
KingdomOrganic compounds
Super ClassLipids and lipid-like molecules
ClassFatty Acyls
Sub ClassFatty acid esters
Direct ParentAcyl carnitines
Alternative Parents
Substituents
  • Acyl-carnitine
  • Beta-hydroxy acid
  • Hydroxy acid
  • Dicarboxylic acid or derivatives
  • Tetraalkylammonium salt
  • Quaternary ammonium salt
  • Secondary alcohol
  • Carboxylic acid salt
  • Carboxylic acid ester
  • Carboxylic acid
  • Carboxylic acid derivative
  • Organic nitrogen compound
  • Organic oxygen compound
  • Organopnictogen compound
  • Organic oxide
  • Hydrocarbon derivative
  • Organic salt
  • Organic zwitterion
  • Organooxygen compound
  • Organonitrogen compound
  • Carbonyl group
  • Amine
  • Alcohol
  • Aliphatic acyclic compound
Molecular FrameworkAliphatic acyclic compounds
External DescriptorsNot Available
Ontology
Physiological effect
Disposition
ProcessNot Available
Role
Physical Properties
StateNot Available
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Experimental Chromatographic PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-4.1ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Acidic)4.21ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)-2.8ChemAxon
Physiological Charge0ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count4ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count1ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area86.66 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count9ChemAxon
Refractivity87.98 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability27.46 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings0ChemAxon
BioavailabilityYesChemAxon
Rule of FiveYesChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleNoChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Collision Cross Sections

PredictorAdduct TypeCCS Value (Å2)Reference
DeepCCS[M+H]+154.64330932474
DeepCCS[M-H]-152.28530932474
DeepCCS[M-2H]-185.16930932474
DeepCCS[M+Na]+160.73730932474

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Underivatized

MetaboliteSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
3-HydroxyvalerylcarnitineCCC(O)CC(=O)OC(CC([O-])=O)C[N+](C)(C)C2500.8Standard polar33892256
3-HydroxyvalerylcarnitineCCC(O)CC(=O)OC(CC([O-])=O)C[N+](C)(C)C1470.1Standard non polar33892256
3-HydroxyvalerylcarnitineCCC(O)CC(=O)OC(CC([O-])=O)C[N+](C)(C)C1749.5Semi standard non polar33892256

Derivatized

Derivative Name / StructureSMILESKovats RI ValueColumn TypeReference
3-Hydroxyvalerylcarnitine,1TMS,isomer #1CCC(CC(=O)OC(CC(=O)[O-])C[N+](C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C1767.8Semi standard non polar33892256
3-Hydroxyvalerylcarnitine,1TBDMS,isomer #1CCC(CC(=O)OC(CC(=O)[O-])C[N+](C)(C)C)O[Si](C)(C)C(C)(C)C1996.5Semi standard non polar33892256
Spectra

GC-MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted GC-MSPredicted GC-MS Spectrum - 3-Hydroxyvalerylcarnitine GC-MS (Non-derivatized) - 70eV, PositiveNot Available2021-10-12Wishart LabView Spectrum

MS/MS Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionSplash KeyDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 3-Hydroxyvalerylcarnitine 10V, Positive-QTOFNot Available2021-04-06Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 3-Hydroxyvalerylcarnitine 20V, Positive-QTOFNot Available2021-04-06Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 3-Hydroxyvalerylcarnitine 40V, Positive-QTOFNot Available2021-04-06Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 3-Hydroxyvalerylcarnitine 10V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-03di-0090000000-2c59ab2896e0b309dfe22021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 3-Hydroxyvalerylcarnitine 20V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-01p9-9050000000-eeb1b523e2b808aebed02021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted LC-MS/MSPredicted LC-MS/MS Spectrum - 3-Hydroxyvalerylcarnitine 40V, Positive-QTOFsplash10-000i-9000000000-e9262cbaff8cb4ad0ba62021-09-22Wishart LabView Spectrum

NMR Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-09-25Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biospecimen LocationsNot Available
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
Not Available
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound118194969
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Violante S, Ijlst L, Ruiter J, Koster J, van Lenthe H, Duran M, de Almeida IT, Wanders RJ, Houten SM, Ventura FV: Substrate specificity of human carnitine acetyltransferase: Implications for fatty acid and branched-chain amino acid metabolism. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013 Jun;1832(6):773-9. doi: 10.1016/j.bbadis.2013.02.012. Epub 2013 Feb 24. [PubMed:23485643 ]
  2. Grunert SC, Schlatter SM, Schmitt RN, Gemperle-Britschgi C, Mrazova L, Balci MC, Bischof F, Coker M, Das AM, Demirkol M, de Vries M, Gokcay G, Haberle J, Ucar SK, Lotz-Havla AS, Lucke T, Roland D, Rutsch F, Santer R, Schlune A, Staufner C, Schwab KO, Mitchell GA, Sass JO: 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A lyase deficiency: Clinical presentation and outcome in a series of 37 patients. Mol Genet Metab. 2017 Jul;121(3):206-215. doi: 10.1016/j.ymgme.2017.05.014. Epub 2017 May 22. [PubMed:28583327 ]
  3. Blazenovic I, Kind T, Sa MR, Ji J, Vaniya A, Wancewicz B, Roberts BS, Torbasinovic H, Lee T, Mehta SS, Showalter MR, Song H, Kwok J, Jahn D, Kim J, Fiehn O: Structure Annotation of All Mass Spectra in Untargeted Metabolomics. Anal Chem. 2019 Feb 5;91(3):2155-2162. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.8b04698. Epub 2019 Jan 16. [PubMed:30608141 ]
  4. FRITZ IB: Action of carnitine on long chain fatty acid oxidation by liver. Am J Physiol. 1959 Aug;197:297-304. doi: 10.1152/ajplegacy.1959.197.2.297. [PubMed:13825279 ]
  5. Makarova E, Makrecka-Kuka M, Vilks K, Volska K, Sevostjanovs E, Grinberga S, Zarkova-Malkova O, Dambrova M, Liepinsh E: Decreases in Circulating Concentrations of Long-Chain Acylcarnitines and Free Fatty Acids During the Glucose Tolerance Test Represent Tissue-Specific Insulin Sensitivity. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne). 2019 Dec 17;10:870. doi: 10.3389/fendo.2019.00870. eCollection 2019. [PubMed:31920980 ]
  6. Chen C, Hou G, Zeng C, Ren Y, Chen X, Peng C: Metabolomic profiling reveals amino acid and carnitine alterations as metabolic signatures in psoriasis. Theranostics. 2021 Jan 1;11(2):754-767. doi: 10.7150/thno.51154. eCollection 2021. [PubMed:33391503 ]
  7. Donti TR, Blackburn PR, Atwal PS: Holocarboxylase synthetase deficiency pre and post newborn screening. Mol Genet Metab Rep. 2016 Apr 6;7:40-4. doi: 10.1016/j.ymgmr.2016.03.007. eCollection 2016 Jun. [PubMed:27114915 ]
  8. Yu D, Zhou L, Xuan Q, Wang L, Zhao X, Lu X, Xu G: Strategy for Comprehensive Identification of Acylcarnitines Based on Liquid Chromatography-High-Resolution Mass Spectrometry. Anal Chem. 2018 May 1;90(9):5712-5718. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.7b05471. Epub 2018 Apr 20. [PubMed:29651844 ]
  9. Yan X, Markey SP, Marupaka R, Dong Q, Cooper BT, Mirokhin YA, Wallace WE, Stein SE: Mass Spectral Library of Acylcarnitines Derived from Human Urine. Anal Chem. 2020 May 5;92(9):6521-6528. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.0c00129. Epub 2020 Apr 23. [PubMed:32271007 ]
  10. Zuniga A, Li L: Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for comprehensive analysis of urinary acylcarnitines. Anal Chim Acta. 2011 Mar 9;689(1):77-84. doi: 10.1016/j.aca.2011.01.018. Epub 2011 Jan 18. [PubMed:21338760 ]
  11. Dambrova M, Makrecka-Kuka M, Kuka J, Vilskersts R, Nordberg D, Attwood MM, Smesny S, Sen ZD, Guo AC, Oler E, Tian S, Zheng J, Wishart DS, Liepinsh E, Schioth HB: Acylcarnitines: Nomenclature, Biomarkers, Therapeutic Potential, Drug Targets, and Clinical Trials. Pharmacol Rev. 2022 Jul;74(3):506-551. doi: 10.1124/pharmrev.121.000408. [PubMed:35710135 ]