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Record Information
Version5.0
StatusDetected but not Quantified
Creation Date2021-09-11 22:30:15 UTC
Update Date2021-10-01 23:46:30 UTC
HMDB IDHMDB0259694
Secondary Accession NumbersNone
Metabolite Identification
Common NameHepcidin
DescriptionBased on a literature review very few articles have been published on 3-amino-3-{[1-({1-[(1-{2-[(1-{[27-({5-amino-1-[(1-carboxy-2-hydroxypropyl)-C-hydroxycarbonimidoyl]pentyl}-C-hydroxycarbonimidoyl)-42-(4-aminobutyl)-16-benzyl-19-(butan-2-yl)-48-(3-carbamimidamidopropyl)-3,6,9,12,15,18,21,29,32,35,38,41,44,47,50,53-hexadecahydroxy-45-(hydroxymethyl)-51-[(1H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl]-33-[2-(methylsulfanyl)ethyl]-24,25,55,56,59,60,63,64-octathia-2,5,8,11,14,17,20,28,31,34,37,40,43,46,49,52-hexadecaazatetracyclo[28.23.4.4⁴,¹³.4¹⁰,³⁹]pentahexaconta-2,5,8,11,14,17,20,28,31,34,37,40,43,46,49,52-hexadecaen-22-yl]-C-hydroxycarbonimidoyl}-2-methylbutyl)-C-hydroxycarbonimidoyl]pyrrolidin-1-yl}-1-oxo-3-phenylpropan-2-yl)-C-hydroxycarbonimidoyl]-2-(1H-imidazol-5-yl)ethyl}-C-hydroxycarbonimidoyl)-2-hydroxypropyl]-C-hydroxycarbonimidoyl}propanoic acid. This compound has been identified in human blood as reported by (PMID: 31557052 ). Hepcidin is not a naturally occurring metabolite and is only found in those individuals exposed to this compound or its derivatives. Technically Hepcidin is part of the human exposome. The exposome can be defined as the collection of all the exposures of an individual in a lifetime and how those exposures relate to health. An individual's exposure begins before birth and includes insults from environmental and occupational sources.
Structure
Thumb
Synonyms
ValueSource
3-Amino-3-{[1-({1-[(1-{2-[(1-{[27-({5-amino-1-[(1-carboxy-2-hydroxypropyl)-C-hydroxycarbonimidoyl]pentyl}-C-hydroxycarbonimidoyl)-42-(4-aminobutyl)-16-benzyl-19-(butan-2-yl)-48-(3-carbamimidamidopropyl)-3,6,9,12,15,18,21,29,32,35,38,41,44,47,50,53-hexadecahydroxy-45-(hydroxymethyl)-51-[(1H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl]-33-[2-(methylsulfanyl)ethyl]-24,25,55,56,59,60,63,64-octathia-2,5,8,11,14,17,20,28,31,34,37,40,43,46,49,52-hexadecaazatetracyclo[28.23.4.4,.4,]pentahexaconta-2,5,8,11,14,17,20,28,31,34,37,40,43,46,49,52-hexadecaen-22-yl]-C-hydroxycarbonimidoyl}-2-methylbutyl)-C-hydroxycarbonimidoyl]pyrrolidin-1-yl}-1-oxo-3-phenylpropan-2-yl)-C-hydroxycarbonimidoyl]-2-(1H-imidazol-5-yl)ethyl}-C-hydroxycarbonimidoyl)-2-hydroxypropyl]-C-hydroxycarbonimidoyl}propanoateGenerator
3-Amino-3-{[1-({1-[(1-{2-[(1-{[27-({5-amino-1-[(1-carboxy-2-hydroxypropyl)-C-hydroxycarbonimidoyl]pentyl}-C-hydroxycarbonimidoyl)-42-(4-aminobutyl)-16-benzyl-19-(butan-2-yl)-48-(3-carbamimidamidopropyl)-3,6,9,12,15,18,21,29,32,35,38,41,44,47,50,53-hexadecahydroxy-45-(hydroxymethyl)-51-[(1H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl]-33-[2-(methylsulphanyl)ethyl]-24,25,55,56,59,60,63,64-octathia-2,5,8,11,14,17,20,28,31,34,37,40,43,46,49,52-hexadecaazatetracyclo[28.23.4.4,.4,]pentahexaconta-2,5,8,11,14,17,20,28,31,34,37,40,43,46,49,52-hexadecaen-22-yl]-C-hydroxycarbonimidoyl}-2-methylbutyl)-C-hydroxycarbonimidoyl]pyrrolidin-1-yl}-1-oxo-3-phenylpropan-2-yl)-C-hydroxycarbonimidoyl]-2-(1H-imidazol-5-yl)ethyl}-C-hydroxycarbonimidoyl)-2-hydroxypropyl]-C-hydroxycarbonimidoyl}propanoateGenerator
3-Amino-3-{[1-({1-[(1-{2-[(1-{[27-({5-amino-1-[(1-carboxy-2-hydroxypropyl)-C-hydroxycarbonimidoyl]pentyl}-C-hydroxycarbonimidoyl)-42-(4-aminobutyl)-16-benzyl-19-(butan-2-yl)-48-(3-carbamimidamidopropyl)-3,6,9,12,15,18,21,29,32,35,38,41,44,47,50,53-hexadecahydroxy-45-(hydroxymethyl)-51-[(1H-imidazol-5-yl)methyl]-33-[2-(methylsulphanyl)ethyl]-24,25,55,56,59,60,63,64-octathia-2,5,8,11,14,17,20,28,31,34,37,40,43,46,49,52-hexadecaazatetracyclo[28.23.4.4,.4,]pentahexaconta-2,5,8,11,14,17,20,28,31,34,37,40,43,46,49,52-hexadecaen-22-yl]-C-hydroxycarbonimidoyl}-2-methylbutyl)-C-hydroxycarbonimidoyl]pyrrolidin-1-yl}-1-oxo-3-phenylpropan-2-yl)-C-hydroxycarbonimidoyl]-2-(1H-imidazol-5-yl)ethyl}-C-hydroxycarbonimidoyl)-2-hydroxypropyl]-C-hydroxycarbonimidoyl}propanoic acidGenerator
Chemical FormulaC113H170N34O31S9
Average Molecular Weight2789.35
Monoisotopic Molecular Weight2787.025765396
IUPAC Name3-amino-3-{[1-({1-[(1-{2-[(1-{[27-({5-amino-1-[(1-carboxy-2-hydroxypropyl)carbamoyl]pentyl}carbamoyl)-42-(4-aminobutyl)-16-benzyl-19-(butan-2-yl)-48-(3-carbamimidamidopropyl)-45-(hydroxymethyl)-51-[(1H-imidazol-4-yl)methyl]-33-[2-(methylsulfanyl)ethyl]-3,6,9,12,15,18,21,29,32,35,38,41,44,47,50,53-hexadecaoxo-24,25,55,56,59,60,63,64-octathia-2,5,8,11,14,17,20,28,31,34,37,40,43,46,49,52-hexadecaazatetracyclo[28.23.4.4^{4,13}.4^{10,39}]pentahexacontan-22-yl]carbamoyl}-2-methylbutyl)carbamoyl]pyrrolidin-1-yl}-1-oxo-3-phenylpropan-2-yl)carbamoyl]-2-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)ethyl}carbamoyl)-2-hydroxypropyl]carbamoyl}propanoic acid
Traditional Name3-amino-3-{[1-({1-[(1-{2-[(1-{[27-({5-amino-1-[(1-carboxy-2-hydroxypropyl)carbamoyl]pentyl}carbamoyl)-42-(4-aminobutyl)-16-benzyl-48-(3-carbamimidamidopropyl)-45-(hydroxymethyl)-51-(1H-imidazol-4-ylmethyl)-33-[2-(methylsulfanyl)ethyl]-3,6,9,12,15,18,21,29,32,35,38,41,44,47,50,53-hexadecaoxo-19-(sec-butyl)-24,25,55,56,59,60,63,64-octathia-2,5,8,11,14,17,20,28,31,34,37,40,43,46,49,52-hexadecaazatetracyclo[28.23.4.4^{4,13}.4^{10,39}]pentahexacontan-22-yl]carbamoyl}-2-methylbutyl)carbamoyl]pyrrolidin-1-yl}-1-oxo-3-phenylpropan-2-yl)carbamoyl]-2-(1H-imidazol-4-yl)ethyl}carbamoyl)-2-hydroxypropyl]carbamoyl}propanoic acid
CAS Registry NumberNot Available
SMILES
CCC(C)C(NC(=O)C1CCCN1C(=O)C(CC1=CC=CC=C1)NC(=O)C(CC1=CNC=N1)NC(=O)C(NC(=O)C(N)CC(O)=O)C(C)O)C(=O)NC1CSSCC(NC(=O)C2CSSCC3NC(=O)C4CSSCC(NC(=O)C(CC5=CC=CC=C5)NC(=O)C(NC1=O)C(C)CC)C(=O)NC(CSSCC(NC(=O)C(CCCCN)NC(=O)C(CO)NC(=O)C(CCCNC(N)=N)NC(=O)C(CC1=CNC=N1)NC3=O)C(=O)NCC(=O)NC(CCSC)C(=O)N2)C(=O)NCC(=O)N4)C(=O)NC(CCCCN)C(=O)NC(C(C)O)C(O)=O
InChI Identifier
InChI=1S/C113H170N34O31S9/c1-8-56(3)86-108(173)132-69(36-60-22-12-10-13-23-60)97(162)139-80-52-183-182-48-76-101(166)140-78-50-185-186-51-79(138-95(160)68(30-35-179-7)126-83(151)43-122-91(156)74(46-180-181-47-75(137-104(80)169)92(157)123-44-84(152)127-76)136-94(159)65(26-16-18-31-114)129-100(165)73(45-148)135-93(158)67(28-20-33-121-113(117)118)128-98(163)70(131-103(78)168)38-62-41-119-54-124-62)105(170)141-77(102(167)130-66(27-17-19-32-115)96(161)146-89(59(6)150)112(177)178)49-184-187-53-81(106(171)143-86)142-109(174)87(57(4)9-2)144-107(172)82-29-21-34-147(82)111(176)72(37-61-24-14-11-15-25-61)134-99(164)71(39-63-42-120-55-125-63)133-110(175)88(58(5)149)145-90(155)64(116)40-85(153)154/h10-15,22-25,41-42,54-59,64-82,86-89,148-150H,8-9,16-21,26-40,43-53,114-116H2,1-7H3,(H,119,124)(H,120,125)(H,122,156)(H,123,157)(H,126,151)(H,127,152)(H,128,163)(H,129,165)(H,130,167)(H,131,168)(H,132,173)(H,133,175)(H,134,164)(H,135,158)(H,136,159)(H,137,169)(H,138,160)(H,139,162)(H,140,166)(H,141,170)(H,142,174)(H,143,171)(H,144,172)(H,145,155)(H,146,161)(H,153,154)(H,177,178)(H4,117,118,121)
InChI KeyXJOTXKZIRSHZQV-UHFFFAOYSA-N
Chemical Taxonomy
ClassificationNot classified
Ontology
Not Available
Physical Properties
StateNot Available
Experimental Molecular Properties
PropertyValueReference
Melting PointNot AvailableNot Available
Boiling PointNot AvailableNot Available
Water SolubilityNot AvailableNot Available
LogPNot AvailableNot Available
Experimental Chromatographic PropertiesNot Available
Predicted Molecular Properties
PropertyValueSource
logP-1.3ALOGPS
logP-18ChemAxon
logS-3.8ALOGPS
pKa (Strongest Acidic)3.04ChemAxon
pKa (Strongest Basic)11.9ChemAxon
Physiological Charge3ChemAxon
Hydrogen Acceptor Count39ChemAxon
Hydrogen Donor Count36ChemAxon
Polar Surface Area1022.22 ŲChemAxon
Rotatable Bond Count48ChemAxon
Refractivity704.91 m³·mol⁻¹ChemAxon
Polarizability280 ųChemAxon
Number of Rings9ChemAxon
BioavailabilityNoChemAxon
Rule of FiveNoChemAxon
Ghose FilterNoChemAxon
Veber's RuleNoChemAxon
MDDR-like RuleYesChemAxon
Predicted Chromatographic Properties

Predicted Kovats Retention Indices

Not Available
Spectra

NMR Spectra

Spectrum TypeDescriptionDeposition DateSourceView
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-10-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 100 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-10-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-10-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 1000 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-10-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-10-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 200 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-10-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-10-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 300 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-10-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-10-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 400 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-10-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-10-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 500 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-10-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-10-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 600 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-10-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-10-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 700 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-10-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-10-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 800 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-10-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR13C NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-10-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Predicted 1D NMR1H NMR Spectrum (1D, 900 MHz, D2O, predicted)2021-10-27Wishart LabView Spectrum
Biological Properties
Cellular LocationsNot Available
Biospecimen Locations
  • Blood
Tissue LocationsNot Available
Pathways
Normal Concentrations
BiospecimenStatusValueAgeSexConditionReferenceDetails
BloodDetected but not QuantifiedNot QuantifiedNot SpecifiedNot SpecifiedNormal details
Abnormal Concentrations
Not Available
Associated Disorders and Diseases
Disease ReferencesNone
Associated OMIM IDsNone
DrugBank IDNot Available
Phenol Explorer Compound IDNot Available
FooDB IDNot Available
KNApSAcK IDNot Available
Chemspider IDNot Available
KEGG Compound IDNot Available
BioCyc IDNot Available
BiGG IDNot Available
Wikipedia LinkNot Available
METLIN IDNot Available
PubChem Compound139033195
PDB IDNot Available
ChEBI IDNot Available
Food Biomarker OntologyNot Available
VMH IDNot Available
MarkerDB IDNot Available
Good Scents IDNot Available
References
Synthesis ReferenceNot Available
Material Safety Data Sheet (MSDS)Not Available
General References
  1. Barupal DK, Fiehn O: Generating the Blood Exposome Database Using a Comprehensive Text Mining and Database Fusion Approach. Environ Health Perspect. 2019 Sep;127(9):97008. doi: 10.1289/EHP4713. Epub 2019 Sep 26. [PubMed:31557052 ]

Enzymes

General function:
Involved in cytokine activity
Specific function:
Cytokine with a wide variety of biological functions. It is a potent inducer of the acute phase response. Plays an essential role in the final differentiation of B-cells into Ig- secreting cells Involved in lymphocyte and monocyte differentiation. It induces myeloma and plasmacytoma growth and induces nerve cells differentiation Acts on B-cells, T-cells, hepatocytes, hematopoeitic progenitor cells and cells of the CNS. Also acts as a myokine. It is discharged into the bloodstream after muscle contraction and acts to increase the breakdown of fats and to improve insulin resistance
Gene Name:
IL6
Uniprot ID:
P05231
Molecular weight:
23718.0
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Member of the repulsive guidance molecule (RGM) family. Involved in iron metabolism. Acts as a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) coreceptor. Enhancement of BMP signaling regulates hepcidin (HAMP) expression and iron metabolism. May cooperate with hepcidin to restrict iron absorption in the gut. Could represent the cellular receptor for hepcidin
Gene Name:
HFE2
Uniprot ID:
Q6ZVN8
Molecular weight:
45079.7
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Acts as a bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) coreceptor. Through enhancement of BMP signaling regulates hepcidin (HAMP) expression and regulates iron homeostasis.
Gene Name:
HJV
Uniprot ID:
Q8N7M5
Molecular weight:
45220.755
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Iron-regulatory hormone that acts as an erythroid regulator after hemorrhage: produced by erythroblasts following blood loss and mediates suppression of hepcidin (HAMP) expression in the liver, thereby promoting increased iron absorption and mobilization from stores. Promotes lipid uptake into adipocytes and hepatocytes via transcriptional up-regulation of genes involved in fatty acid uptake.
Gene Name:
ERFE
Uniprot ID:
Q4G0M1
Molecular weight:
37278.415
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Cytokine with a wide variety of biological functions in immunity, tissue regeneration, and metabolism (Probable). Binds to IL6R, then the complex associates to the signaling subunit IL6ST/gp130 to trigger the intracellular IL6-signaling pathway (PubMed:8910279). The interaction with the membrane-bound IL6R and IL6ST stimulates 'classic signaling', whereas the binding of IL6 and soluble IL6R to IL6ST stimulates 'trans-signaling'. Alternatively, 'cluster signaling' occurs when membrane-bound IL6:IL6R complexes on transmitter cells activate IL6ST receptors on neighboring receiver cells (PubMed:27893700).IL6 is a potent inducer of the acute phase response. Rapid production of IL6 contributes to host defense during infection and tissue injury, but excessive IL6 synthesis is involved in disease pathology. In the innate immune response, is synthesized by myeloid cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells, upon recognition of pathogens through toll-like receptors (TLRs) at the site of infection or tissue injury. In the adaptive immune response, is required for the differentiation of B-cells into immunoglolin-secreting cells (Probable). Plays a major role in the differentiation of CD4(+) T cell subsets. Essential factor for the development of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells that are required for the induction of germinal-center formation. Together with IL21, controls the early generation of Tfh cells and are critical for an effective antibody response to acute viral infection (PubMed:23045607). Required to drive naive CD4(+) T cells to the Th17 lineage, through 'cluster signaling' by dendritic cells (PubMed:16990136, PubMed:27893700). Also required for proliferation of myeloma cells and the survival of plasmablast cells (Probable).Acts as an essential factor in bone homeostasis and on vessels directly or indirectly by induction of VEGF, resulting in increased angiogenesis activity and vascular permeability. Induces, through 'trans-signaling' and synergistically with IL1B and TNF, the production of VEGF (PubMed:17075861). Involved in metabolic controls, is discharged into the bloodstream after muscle contraction increasing lipolysis and improving insulin resistance (PubMed:11786910). 'Trans-signaling' in central nervous system regulates energy and glucose homeostasis (PubMed:28402851). Mediates, through GLP-1, crosstalk between insulin-sensitive tissues, intestinal L cells and pancreatic islets to adapt to changes in insulin demand (PubMed:11113088). Also acts as a myokine (By similarity). Plays a protective role during liver injury, being required for maintenance of tissue regeneration (PubMed:11113088, PubMed:8910279). Also has a pivotal role in iron metabolism by regulating HAMP/hepcidin expression upon inflammation or bacterial infection (PubMed:15124018). Through activation of IL6ST-YAP-NOTCH pathway, induces inflammation-induced epithelial regeneration (By similarity).
Gene Name:
IL6
Uniprot ID:
P08505
Molecular weight:
24383.76
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Multifunctional transcription factor in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response (PubMed:15322075, PubMed:15775988, PubMed:19672300). Plays an essential role in the response to a wide variety of cell stresses and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in response to ER stress (PubMed:15322075, PubMed:15775988). Plays a dual role both as an inhibitor of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) function and as an activator of other genes (By similarity). Acts as a dominant-negative regulator of C/EBP-induced transcription: dimerizes with members of the C/EBP family, impairs their association with C/EBP binding sites in the promoter regions, and inhibits the expression of C/EBP regulated genes (By similarity). Positively regulates the transcription of TRIB3, IL6, IL8, IL23, TNFRSF10B/DR5, PPP1R15A/GADD34, BBC3/PUMA, BCL2L11/BIM and ERO1L (PubMed:15775988, PubMed:17709599, PubMed:22761832, PubMed:20876114). Negatively regulates; expression of BCL2 and MYOD1, ATF4-dependent transcriptional activation of asparagine synthetase (ASNS), CEBPA-dependent transcriptional activation of hepcidin (HAMP) and CEBPB-mediated expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) (PubMed:18940792, PubMed:19672300, PubMed:20829347). Together with ATF4, mediates ER-mediated cell death by promoting expression of genes involved in cellular amino acid metabolic processes, mRNA translation and the unfolded protein response (UPR) in response to ER stress (By similarity). Inhibits the canonical Wnt signaling pathway by binding to TCF7L2/TCF4, impairing its DNA-binding properties and repressing its transcriptional activity (PubMed:16434966). Plays a regulatory role in the inflammatory response through the induction of caspase-11 (CASP4/CASP11) which induces the activation of caspase-1 (CASP1) and both these caspases increase the activation of pro-IL1B to mature IL1B which is involved in the inflammatory response (By similarity). Acts as a major regulator of postnatal neovascularization through regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3)-related signaling (By similarity).
Gene Name:
DDIT3
Uniprot ID:
P35638
Molecular weight:
19174.65
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Cytokine with a wide variety of biological functions in immunity, tissue regeneration, and metabolism. Binds to IL6R, then the complex associates to the signaling subunit IL6ST/gp130 to trigger the intracellular IL6-signaling pathway. The interaction with the membrane-bound IL6R and IL6ST stimulates 'classic signaling', whereas the binding of IL6 and soluble IL6R to IL6ST stimulates 'trans-signaling'. Alternatively, 'cluster signaling' occurs when membrane-bound IL6:IL6R complexes on transmitter cells activate IL6ST receptors on neighboring receiver cells.IL6 is a potent inducer of the acute phase response. Rapid production of IL6 contributes to host defense during infection and tissue injury, but excessive IL6 synthesis is involved in disease pathology. In the innate immune response, is synthesized by myeloid cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells, upon recognition of pathogens through toll-like receptors (TLRs) at the site of infection or tissue injury (By similarity). In the adaptive immune response, is required for the differentiation of B cells into immunoglobulin-secreting cells. Plays a major role in the differentiation of CD4(+) T cell subsets. Essential factor for the development of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells that are required for the induction of germinal-center formation. Required to drive naive CD4(+) T cells to the Th17 lineage. Also required for proliferation of myeloma cells and the survival of plasmablast cells (By similarity).Acts as an essential factor in bone homeostasis and on vessels directly or indirectly by induction of VEGF, resulting in increased angiogenesis activity and vascular permeability. Induces, through 'trans-signaling' and synergistically with IL1B and TNF, the production of VEGF. Involved in metabolic controls, is discharged into the bloodstream after muscle contraction increasing lipolysis and improving insulin resistance (By similarity). 'Trans-signaling' in central nervous system also regulates energy and glucose homeostasis. Mediates, through GLP-1, crosstalk between insulin-sensitive tissues, intestinal L cells and pancreatic islets to adapt to changes in insulin demand (By similarity). Also acts as a myokine (By similarity). Plays a protective role during liver injury, being required for maintenance of tissue regeneration (By similarity). Also has a pivotal role in iron metabolism by regulating HAMP/hepcidin expression upon inflammation or bacterial infection (By similarity). Through activation of IL6ST-YAP-NOTCH pathway, induces inflammation-induced epithelial regeneration (By similarity).
Gene Name:
IL6
Uniprot ID:
P46650
Molecular weight:
23667.895
General function:
Not Available
Specific function:
Cytokine with a wide variety of biological functions in immunity, tissue regeneration, and metabolism. Binds to IL6R, then the complex associates to the signaling subunit IL6ST/gp130 to trigger the intracellular IL6-signaling pathway. The interaction with the membrane-bound IL6R and IL6ST stimulates 'classic signaling', whereas the binding of IL6 and soluble IL6R to IL6ST stimulates 'trans-signaling'. Alternatively, 'cluster signaling' occurs when membrane-bound IL6:IL6R complexes on transmitter cells activate IL6ST receptors on neighboring receiver cells.IL6 is a potent inducer of the acute phase response. Rapid production of IL6 contributes to host defense during infection and tissue injury, but excessive IL6 synthesis is involved in disease pathology. In the innate immune response, is synthesized by myeloid cells, such as macrophages and dendritic cells, upon recognition of pathogens through toll-like receptors (TLRs) at the site of infection or tissue injury (By similarity). In the adaptive immune response, is required for the differentiation of B cells into immunoglobulin-secreting cells. Plays a major role in the differentiation of CD4(+) T cell subsets. Essential factor for the development of T follicular helper (Tfh) cells that are required for the induction of germinal-center formation. Required to drive naive CD4(+) T cells to the Th17 lineage. Also required for proliferation of myeloma cells and the survival of plasmablast cells (By similarity).Acts as an essential factor in bone homeostasis and on vessels directly or indirectly by induction of VEGF, resulting in increased angiogenesis activity and vascular permeability. Induces, through 'trans-signaling' and synergistically with IL1B and TNF, the production of VEGF. Involved in metabolic controls, is discharged into the bloodstream after muscle contraction increasing lipolysis and improving insulin resistance (By similarity). 'Trans-signaling' in central nervous system also regulates energy and glucose homeostasis. Mediates, through GLP-1, crosstalk between insulin-sensitive tissues, intestinal L cells and pancreatic islets to adapt to changes in insulin demand (By similarity). Also acts as a myokine (By similarity). Plays a protective role during liver injury, being required for maintenance of tissue regeneration (By similarity). Also has a pivotal role in iron metabolism by regulating HAMP/hepcidin expression upon inflammation or bacterial infection (By similarity). Through activation of IL6ST-YAP-NOTCH pathway, induces inflammation-induced epithelial regeneration (By similarity).
Gene Name:
IL6
Uniprot ID:
P51494
Molecular weight:
23727.965