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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00017
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 5246
  • HMDBP03588
Name 5-aminolevulinate synthase, erythroid-specific, mitochondrial
Synonyms
  1. 5-aminolevulinic acid synthase 2
  2. ALAS-E
  3. Delta-ALA synthase 2
  4. Delta-aminolevulinate synthase 2
Gene Name ALAS2
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in 5-aminolevulinate synthase activity
Specific Function Not Available
Pathways
  • Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
  • Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
  • protoporphyrin-IX biosynthesis
Reactions
Succinyl-CoA + Glycine → 5-Aminolevulinic acid + Coenzyme A + CO(2) details
Succinyl-CoA + Glycine → 5-Aminolevulinic acid + Coenzyme A + Carbon dioxide details
GO Classification
Biological Process
small molecule metabolic process
oxygen homeostasis
heme biosynthetic process
protoporphyrinogen IX biosynthetic process
cellular iron ion homeostasis
erythrocyte differentiation
hemoglobin biosynthetic process
response to hypoxia
Cellular Component
mitochondrial matrix
mitochondrial inner membrane
Component
cell part
intracellular part
cytoplasmic part
mitochondrial part
mitochondrial matrix
Function
binding
catalytic activity
transferase activity
transferase activity, transferring acyl groups
transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups
acyltransferase activity
transferase activity, transferring nitrogenous groups
cofactor binding
pyridoxal phosphate binding
n-acyltransferase activity
n-succinyltransferase activity
5-aminolevulinate synthase activity
Molecular Function
pyridoxal phosphate binding
5-aminolevulinate synthase activity
glycine binding
coenzyme binding
Process
metabolic process
nitrogen compound metabolic process
tetrapyrrole metabolic process
porphyrin metabolic process
biosynthetic process
cellular biosynthetic process
heterocycle biosynthetic process
tetrapyrrole biosynthetic process
Cellular Location
  1. Mitochondrion matrix
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location X
Locus Xp11.21
SNPs ALAS2
Gene Sequence
>1764 bp
ATGGTGACTGCAGCCATGCTGCTACAGTGCTGCCCAGTGCTTGCCCGGGGCCCCACAAGC
CTCCTAGGCAAGGTGGTTAAGACTCACCAGTTCCTGTTTGGTATTGGACGCTGTCCCATC
CTGGCTACCCAAGGACCAAACTGTTCTCAAATCCACCTTAAGGCAACAAAGGCTGGAGGA
GATTCTCCATCTTGGGCGAAGGGCCACTGTCCCTTCATGCTGTCGGAACTCCAGGATGGG
AAGAGCAAGATTGTGCAGAAGGCAGCCCCAGAAGTCCAGGAAGATGTGAAGGCTTTCAAG
ACAGATCTGCCTAGCTCCCTGGTCTCAGTCAGCCTAAGGAAGCCATTTTCCGGTCCCCAG
GAGCAGGAGCAGATCTCTGGGAAGGTCACACACCTGATTCAGAACAATATGCCTGGAAAC
TATGTCTTCAGTTATGACCAGTTTTTCAGGGACAAGATCATGGAGAAGAAACAGGATCAC
ACCTACCGTGTGTTCAAGACTGTGAACCGCTGGGCTGATGCATATCCCTTTGCCCAACAT
TTCTCTGAGGCATCTGTGGCCTCAAAGGATGTGTCCGTCTGGTGTAGTAATGATTACCTG
GGCATGAGCCGACACCCTCAGGTCTTGCAAGCCACACAGGAGACCCTGCAGCGTCATGGT
GCTGGAGCTGGTGGCACCCGCAACATCTCAGGCACCAGTAAGTTTCATGTGGAGCTTGAG
CAGGAGCTGGCTGAGCTGCACCAGAAGGACTCAGCCCTGCTCTTCTCCTCCTGCTTTGTT
GCCAATGACTCTACTCTCTTCACCTTGGCCAAGATCCTGCCAGGGTGCGAGATTTACTCA
GACGCAGGCAACCATGCTTCCATGATCCAAGGTATCCGTAACAGTGGAGCAGCCAAGTTT
GTCTTCAGGCACAATGACCCTGACCACCTAAAGAAACTTCTAGAGAAGTCTAACCCTAAG
ATACCCAAAATTGTGGCCTTTGAGACTGTCCACTCCATGGATGGTGCCATCTGTCCCCTC
GAGGAGTTGTGTGATGTGTCCCACCAGTATGGGGCCCTGACCTTCGTGGATGAGGTCCAT
GCTGTAGGACTGTATGGGTCCCGGGGCGCTGGGATTGGGGAGCGTGATGGAATTATGCAT
AAGATTGACATCATCTCTGGAACTCTTGGCAAGGCCTTTGGCTGTGTGGGCGGCTACATT
GCCAGCACCCGTGACTTGGTGGACATGGTGCGCTCCTATGCTGCAGGCTTCATCTTTACC
ACTTCTCTGCCCCCCATGGTGCTCTCTGGAGCTCTAGAATCTGTGCGGCTGCTCAAGGGA
GAGGAGGGCCAAGCCCTGAGGCGAGCCCACCAGCGCAATGTCAAGCACATGCGCCAGCTA
CTCATGGACAGGGGCCTTCCTGTCATCCCCTGCCCCAGCCACATCATCCCCATCCGGGTG
GGCAATGCAGCACTCAACAGCAAGCTCTGTGATCTCCTGCTCTCCAAGCATGGCATCTAT
GTGCAGGCCATCAACTACCCAACTGTCCCCCGGGGTGAAGAGCTCCTGCGCTTGGCACCC
TCCCCCCACCACAGCCCTCAGATGATGGAAGATTTTGTGGAGAAGCTGCTGCTGGCTTGG
ACTGCGGTGGGGCTGCCCCTCCAGGATGTGTCTGTGGCTGCCTGCAATTTCTGTCGCCGT
CCTGTACACTTTGAGCTCATGAGTGAGTGGGAACGTTCCTACTTCGGGAACATGGGGCCC
CAGTATGTCACCACCTATGCCTGA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 587
Molecular Weight 64632.86
Theoretical pI 8.116
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>5-aminolevulinate synthase, erythroid-specific, mitochondrial
MVTAAMLLQCCPVLARGPTSLLGKVVKTHQFLFGIGRCPILATQGPNCSQIHLKATKAGG
DSPSWAKGHCPFMLSELQDGKSKIVQKAAPEVQEDVKAFKTDLPSSLVSVSLRKPFSGPQ
EQEQISGKVTHLIQNNMPGNYVFSYDQFFRDKIMEKKQDHTYRVFKTVNRWADAYPFAQH
FSEASVASKDVSVWCSNDYLGMSRHPQVLQATQETLQRHGAGAGGTRNISGTSKFHVELE
QELAELHQKDSALLFSSCFVANDSTLFTLAKILPGCEIYSDAGNHASMIQGIRNSGAAKF
VFRHNDPDHLKKLLEKSNPKIPKIVAFETVHSMDGAICPLEELCDVSHQYGALTFVDEVH
AVGLYGSRGAGIGERDGIMHKIDIISGTLGKAFGCVGGYIASTRDLVDMVRSYAAGFIFT
TSLPPMVLSGALESVRLLKGEEGQALRRAHQRNVKHMRQLLMDRGLPVIPCPSHIIPIRV
GNAALNSKLCDLLLSKHGIYVQAINYPTVPRGEELLRLAPSPHHSPQMMEDFVEKLLLAW
TAVGLPLQDVSVAACNFCRRPVHFELMSEWERSYFGNMGPQYVTTYA
GenBank ID Protein 3220249
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P22557
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name HEM0_HUMAN
PDB IDs Not Available
GenBank Gene ID AF068624
GeneCard ID ALAS2
GenAtlas ID ALAS2
HGNC ID HGNC:397
References
General References
  1. Bishop DF: Two different genes encode delta-aminolevulinate synthase in humans: nucleotide sequences of cDNAs for the housekeeping and erythroid genes. Nucleic Acids Res. 1990 Dec 11;18(23):7187-8. [PubMed:2263504 ]
  2. Cox TC, Bawden MJ, Martin A, May BK: Human erythroid 5-aminolevulinate synthase: promoter analysis and identification of an iron-responsive element in the mRNA. EMBO J. 1991 Jul;10(7):1891-902. [PubMed:2050125 ]
  3. Surinya KH, Cox TC, May BK: Identification and characterization of a conserved erythroid-specific enhancer located in intron 8 of the human 5-aminolevulinate synthase 2 gene. J Biol Chem. 1998 Jul 3;273(27):16798-809. [PubMed:9642238 ]
  4. Ross MT, Grafham DV, Coffey AJ, Scherer S, McLay K, Muzny D, Platzer M, Howell GR, Burrows C, Bird CP, Frankish A, Lovell FL, Howe KL, Ashurst JL, Fulton RS, Sudbrak R, Wen G, Jones MC, Hurles ME, Andrews TD, Scott CE, Searle S, Ramser J, Whittaker A, Deadman R, Carter NP, Hunt SE, Chen R, Cree A, Gunaratne P, Havlak P, Hodgson A, Metzker ML, Richards S, Scott G, Steffen D, Sodergren E, Wheeler DA, Worley KC, Ainscough R, Ambrose KD, Ansari-Lari MA, Aradhya S, Ashwell RI, Babbage AK, Bagguley CL, Ballabio A, Banerjee R, Barker GE, Barlow KF, Barrett IP, Bates KN, Beare DM, Beasley H, Beasley O, Beck A, Bethel G, Blechschmidt K, Brady N, Bray-Allen S, Bridgeman AM, Brown AJ, Brown MJ, Bonnin D, Bruford EA, Buhay C, Burch P, Burford D, Burgess J, Burrill W, Burton J, Bye JM, Carder C, Carrel L, Chako J, Chapman JC, Chavez D, Chen E, Chen G, Chen Y, Chen Z, Chinault C, Ciccodicola A, Clark SY, Clarke G, Clee CM, Clegg S, Clerc-Blankenburg K, Clifford K, Cobley V, Cole CG, Conquer JS, Corby N, Connor RE, David R, Davies J, Davis C, Davis J, Delgado O, Deshazo D, Dhami P, Ding Y, Dinh H, Dodsworth S, Draper H, Dugan-Rocha S, Dunham A, Dunn M, Durbin KJ, Dutta I, Eades T, Ellwood M, Emery-Cohen A, Errington H, Evans KL, Faulkner L, Francis F, Frankland J, Fraser AE, Galgoczy P, Gilbert J, Gill R, Glockner G, Gregory SG, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Grocock R, Gu Y, Gwilliam R, Hamilton C, Hart EA, Hawes A, Heath PD, Heitmann K, Hennig S, Hernandez J, Hinzmann B, Ho S, Hoffs M, Howden PJ, Huckle EJ, Hume J, Hunt PJ, Hunt AR, Isherwood J, Jacob L, Johnson D, Jones S, de Jong PJ, Joseph SS, Keenan S, Kelly S, Kershaw JK, Khan Z, Kioschis P, Klages S, Knights AJ, Kosiura A, Kovar-Smith C, Laird GK, Langford C, Lawlor S, Leversha M, Lewis L, Liu W, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Loulseged H, Loveland JE, Lovell JD, Lozado R, Lu J, Lyne R, Ma J, Maheshwari M, Matthews LH, McDowall J, McLaren S, McMurray A, Meidl P, Meitinger T, Milne S, Miner G, Mistry SL, Morgan M, Morris S, Muller I, Mullikin JC, Nguyen N, Nordsiek G, Nyakatura G, O'Dell CN, Okwuonu G, Palmer S, Pandian R, Parker D, Parrish J, Pasternak S, Patel D, Pearce AV, Pearson DM, Pelan SE, Perez L, Porter KM, Ramsey Y, Reichwald K, Rhodes S, Ridler KA, Schlessinger D, Schueler MG, Sehra HK, Shaw-Smith C, Shen H, Sheridan EM, Shownkeen R, Skuce CD, Smith ML, Sotheran EC, Steingruber HE, Steward CA, Storey R, Swann RM, Swarbreck D, Tabor PE, Taudien S, Taylor T, Teague B, Thomas K, Thorpe A, Timms K, Tracey A, Trevanion S, Tromans AC, d'Urso M, Verduzco D, Villasana D, Waldron L, Wall M, Wang Q, Warren J, Warry GL, Wei X, West A, Whitehead SL, Whiteley MN, Wilkinson JE, Willey DL, Williams G, Williams L, Williamson A, Williamson H, Wilming L, Woodmansey RL, Wray PW, Yen J, Zhang J, Zhou J, Zoghbi H, Zorilla S, Buck D, Reinhardt R, Poustka A, Rosenthal A, Lehrach H, Meindl A, Minx PJ, Hillier LW, Willard HF, Wilson RK, Waterston RH, Rice CM, Vaudin M, Coulson A, Nelson DL, Weinstock G, Sulston JE, Durbin R, Hubbard T, Gibbs RA, Beck S, Rogers J, Bentley DR: The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome. Nature. 2005 Mar 17;434(7031):325-37. [PubMed:15772651 ]
  5. Cox TC, Bottomley SS, Wiley JS, Bawden MJ, Matthews CS, May BK: X-linked pyridoxine-responsive sideroblastic anemia due to a Thr388-to-Ser substitution in erythroid 5-aminolevulinate synthase. N Engl J Med. 1994 Mar 10;330(10):675-9. [PubMed:8107717 ]
  6. Cotter PD, Baumann M, Bishop DF: Enzymatic defect in "X-linked" sideroblastic anemia: molecular evidence for erythroid delta-aminolevulinate synthase deficiency. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 May 1;89(9):4028-32. [PubMed:1570328 ]
  7. Furuyama K, Uno R, Urabe A, Hayashi N, Fujita H, Kondo M, Sassa S, Yamamoto M: R411C mutation of the ALAS2 gene encodes a pyridoxine-responsive enzyme with low activity. Br J Haematol. 1998 Dec;103(3):839-41. [PubMed:9858242 ]
  8. Harigae H, Furuyama K, Kudo K, Hayashi N, Yamamoto M, Sassa S, Sasaki T: A novel mutation of the erythroid-specific gamma-Aminolevulinate synthase gene in a patient with non-inherited pyridoxine-responsive sideroblastic anemia. Am J Hematol. 1999 Oct;62(2):112-4. [PubMed:10577279 ]
  9. Cotter PD, May A, Li L, Al-Sabah AI, Fitzsimons EJ, Cazzola M, Bishop DF: Four new mutations in the erythroid-specific 5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS2) gene causing X-linked sideroblastic anemia: increased pyridoxine responsiveness after removal of iron overload by phlebotomy and coinheritance of hereditary hemochromatosis. Blood. 1999 Mar 1;93(5):1757-69. [PubMed:10029606 ]
  10. Cazzola M, May A, Bergamaschi G, Cerani P, Ferrillo S, Bishop DF: Absent phenotypic expression of X-linked sideroblastic anemia in one of 2 brothers with a novel ALAS2 mutation. Blood. 2002 Dec 1;100(12):4236-8. Epub 2002 Aug 8. [PubMed:12393718 ]
  11. Hurford MT, Marshall-Taylor C, Vicki SL, Zhou JZ, Silverman LM, Rezuke WN, Altman A, Tsongalis GJ: A novel mutation in exon 5 of the ALAS2 gene results in X-linked sideroblastic anemia. Clin Chim Acta. 2002 Jul;321(1-2):49-53. [PubMed:12031592 ]
  12. Whatley SD, Ducamp S, Gouya L, Grandchamp B, Beaumont C, Badminton MN, Elder GH, Holme SA, Anstey AV, Parker M, Corrigall AV, Meissner PN, Hift RJ, Marsden JT, Ma Y, Mieli-Vergani G, Deybach JC, Puy H: C-terminal deletions in the ALAS2 gene lead to gain of function and cause X-linked dominant protoporphyria without anemia or iron overload. Am J Hum Genet. 2008 Sep;83(3):408-14. doi: 10.1016/j.ajhg.2008.08.003. Epub 2008 Sep 4. [PubMed:18760763 ]