You are using an unsupported browser. Please upgrade your browser to a newer version to get the best experience on Human Metabolome Database.
Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00028
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 5257
  • HMDBP03764
Name Carnitine O-acetyltransferase
Synonyms
  1. CAT
  2. Carnitine acetylase
  3. Carnitine acetyltransferase
  4. CrAT
Gene Name CRAT
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in acyltransferase activity
Specific Function Carnitine acetylase is specific for short chain fatty acids. Carnitine acetylase seems to affect the flux through the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. It may be involved as well in the transport of acetyl-CoA into mitochondria.
Pathways
  • Adrenoleukodystrophy, X-linked
  • Beta Oxidation of Very Long Chain Fatty Acids
  • Carnitine-acylcarnitine translocase deficiency
  • Oxidation of Branched Chain Fatty Acids
  • Peroxisome
Reactions
Acetyl-CoA + L-Carnitine → Coenzyme A + L-Acetylcarnitine details
GO Classification
Biological Process
fatty acid beta-oxidation using acyl-CoA oxidase
transport
carnitine metabolic process, CoA-linked
Cellular Component
endoplasmic reticulum
mitochondrion
peroxisomal matrix
mitochondrial inner membrane
Function
catalytic activity
transferase activity
transferase activity, transferring acyl groups
transferase activity, transferring acyl groups other than amino-acyl groups
acyltransferase activity
Molecular Function
carnitine O-acetyltransferase activity
Cellular Location
  1. Isoform 2:Peroxisome (Potential)
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 9
Locus 9q34.1
SNPs CRAT
Gene Sequence
>1881 bp
ATGTTAGCCTTCGCTGCCAGGACCGTGGTGAAGCCTCTGGGCTTCCTGAAGCCCTTCTCC
TTGATGAAGGCTTCCAGCCGCTTCAAGGCACACCAGGATGCACTGCCACGGCTGCCCGTG
CCCCCTCTCCAGCAGTCCCTGGACCACTACCTGAAGGCGCTGCAGCCCATCGTGAGTGAG
GAGGAGTGGGCCCACACCAAGCAGCTGGTGGATGAGTTTCAGGCCTCAGGAGGTGTAGGG
GAGCGCCTGCAGAAGGGGCTGGAGCGTCGGGCCAGGAAGACGGAGAACTGGCTGTCTGAG
TGGTGGCTCAAGACCGCCTACCTCCAGTACCGCCAGCCTGTGGTCATCTACTCGAGCCCA
GGCGTGATGCTACCCAAGCAGGACTTCGTGGACCTGCAGGGTCAGCTCCGATTTGCTGCC
AAACTCATTGAGGGTGTGTTGGATTTCAAGGTCATGATTGACAACGAGACCCTGCCCGTG
GAGTACCTGGGGGGGAAGCCACTGTGCATGAACCAGTACTATCAGATCTTGTCCTCCTGC
CGAGTGCCGGGCCCCAAGCAGGACACAGTCAGCAACTTCAGCAAGACCAAGAAGCCTCCC
ACGCACATCACCGTGGTACACAACTACCAGTTTTTTGAGCTGGATGTGTACCACAGTGAC
GGGACACCCCTCACTGCGGATCAGATCTTTGTGCAGCTGGAGAAGATCTGGAACTCATCC
CTACAGACCAACAAGGAGCCTGTGGGCATCCTCACCTCCAACCACCGCAACTCCTGGGCC
AAGGCATACAACACCCTCATCAAAGACAAGGTGAACCGGGATTCCGTGCGCTCCATCCAG
AAGAGCATCTTCACCGTGTGCCTAGATGCAACCATGCCCAGGGTCTCAGAAGACGTGTAC
CGCAGCCACGTGGCAGGCCAGATGCTGCATGGGGGCGGCAGCAGGCTCAACAGCGGCAAC
CGCTGGTTCGACAAGACGCTGCAGTTCATCGTGGCAGAAGATGGCTCCTGTGGGCTTGTG
TACGAGCATGCTGCAGCGGAGGGGCCCCCTATTGTCACCCTTCTGGACTATGTCATCGAG
TACACGAAGAAACCCGAGCTTGTGCGGTCTCCCCTGGTGCCCCTGCCCATGCCCAAGAAG
CTGCGGTTCAACATCACCCCCGAGATCAAGAGCGACATCGAGAAGGCCAAGCAGAACCTC
AGCATCATGATCCAGGACCTGGATATCACCGTGATGGTGTTCCACCATTTTGGAAAAGAC
TTCCCCAAGTCGGAGAAGCTAAGCCCAGATGCCTTCATCCAGATGGCTTTGCAGCTGGCC
TACTACAGGATCTACGGACAGGCATGTGCCACCTATGAAAGTGCCTCCCTGCGCATGTTT
CACCTGGGCCGCACCGACACCATCCGCTCGGCTTCCATGGACTCACTCACCTTTGTCAAG
GCCATGGATGACTCCAGCGTCACGGAGCACCAGAAGGTGGAGCTGCTGCGGAAGGCCGTG
CAGGCCCACCGAGGCTACACCGACCGGGCCATCCGCGGGGAGGCCTTTGATCGACACCTG
CTGGGCCTGAAGCTGCAGGCCATCGAGGACCTGGTGAGCATGCCCGACATCTTCATGGAC
ACCTCCTACGCCATCGCCATGCACTTCCACCTCTCCACCAGCCAGGTCCCTGCCAAGACA
GACTGTGTCATGTTCTTCGGGCCCGTGGTCCCCGACGGCTACGGTGTCTGCTATAACCCC
ATGGAGGCCCACATCAACTTCTCCCTGTCGGCCTACAACAGCTGCGCGGAGACCAACGCC
GCCCGCCTGGCGCATTACCTGGAGAAGGCGCTCCTGGACATGCGTGCCCTGCTGCAGAGC
CACCCCCGGGCCAAGCTCTGA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 626
Molecular Weight 70875.095
Theoretical pI 8.444
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Carnitine O-acetyltransferase
MLAFAARTVVKPLGFLKPFSLMKASSRFKAHQDALPRLPVPPLQQSLDHYLKALQPIVSE
EEWAHTKQLVDEFQASGGVGERLQKGLERRARKTENWLSEWWLKTAYLQYRQPVVIYSSP
GVMLPKQDFVDLQGQLRFAAKLIEGVLDFKVMIDNETLPVEYLGGKPLCMNQYYQILSSC
RVPGPKQDTVSNFSKTKKPPTHITVVHNYQFFELDVYHSDGTPLTADQIFVQLEKIWNSS
LQTNKEPVGILTSNHRNSWAKAYNTLIKDKVNRDSVRSIQKSIFTVCLDATMPRVSEDVY
RSHVAGQMLHGGGSRLNSGNRWFDKTLQFIVAEDGSCGLVYEHAAAEGPPIVTLLDYVIE
YTKKPELVRSPLVPLPMPKKLRFNITPEIKSDIEKAKQNLSIMIQDLDITVMVFHHFGKD
FPKSEKLSPDAFIQMALQLAYYRIYGQACATYESASLRMFHLGRTDTIRSASMDSLTFVK
AMDDSSVTEHQKVELLRKAVQAHRGYTDRAIRGEAFDRHLLGLKLQAIEDLVSMPDIFMD
TSYAIAMHFHLSTSQVPAKTDCVMFFGPVVPDGYGVCYNPMEAHINFSLSAYNSCAETNA
ARLAHYLEKALLDMRALLQSHPRAKL
GenBank ID Protein 55958023
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P43155
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name CACP_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID AL158151
GeneCard ID CRAT
GenAtlas ID CRAT
HGNC ID HGNC:2342
References
General References
  1. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  2. Choudhary C, Kumar C, Gnad F, Nielsen ML, Rehman M, Walther TC, Olsen JV, Mann M: Lysine acetylation targets protein complexes and co-regulates major cellular functions. Science. 2009 Aug 14;325(5942):834-40. doi: 10.1126/science.1175371. Epub 2009 Jul 16. [PubMed:19608861 ]
  3. Humphray SJ, Oliver K, Hunt AR, Plumb RW, Loveland JE, Howe KL, Andrews TD, Searle S, Hunt SE, Scott CE, Jones MC, Ainscough R, Almeida JP, Ambrose KD, Ashwell RI, Babbage AK, Babbage S, Bagguley CL, Bailey J, Banerjee R, Barker DJ, Barlow KF, Bates K, Beasley H, Beasley O, Bird CP, Bray-Allen S, Brown AJ, Brown JY, Burford D, Burrill W, Burton J, Carder C, Carter NP, Chapman JC, Chen Y, Clarke G, Clark SY, Clee CM, Clegg S, Collier RE, Corby N, Crosier M, Cummings AT, Davies J, Dhami P, Dunn M, Dutta I, Dyer LW, Earthrowl ME, Faulkner L, Fleming CJ, Frankish A, Frankland JA, French L, Fricker DG, Garner P, Garnett J, Ghori J, Gilbert JG, Glison C, Grafham DV, Gribble S, Griffiths C, Griffiths-Jones S, Grocock R, Guy J, Hall RE, Hammond S, Harley JL, Harrison ES, Hart EA, Heath PD, Henderson CD, Hopkins BL, Howard PJ, Howden PJ, Huckle E, Johnson C, Johnson D, Joy AA, Kay M, Keenan S, Kershaw JK, Kimberley AM, King A, Knights A, Laird GK, Langford C, Lawlor S, Leongamornlert DA, Leversha M, Lloyd C, Lloyd DM, Lovell J, Martin S, Mashreghi-Mohammadi M, Matthews L, McLaren S, McLay KE, McMurray A, Milne S, Nickerson T, Nisbett J, Nordsiek G, Pearce AV, Peck AI, Porter KM, Pandian R, Pelan S, Phillimore B, Povey S, Ramsey Y, Rand V, Scharfe M, Sehra HK, Shownkeen R, Sims SK, Skuce CD, Smith M, Steward CA, Swarbreck D, Sycamore N, Tester J, Thorpe A, Tracey A, Tromans A, Thomas DW, Wall M, Wallis JM, West AP, Whitehead SL, Willey DL, Williams SA, Wilming L, Wray PW, Young L, Ashurst JL, Coulson A, Blocker H, Durbin R, Sulston JE, Hubbard T, Jackson MJ, Bentley DR, Beck S, Rogers J, Dunham I: DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 9. Nature. 2004 May 27;429(6990):369-74. [PubMed:15164053 ]
  4. Corti O, DiDonato S, Finocchiaro G: Divergent sequences in the 5' region of cDNA suggest alternative splicing as a mechanism for the generation of carnitine acetyltransferases with different subcellular localizations. Biochem J. 1994 Oct 1;303 ( Pt 1):37-41. [PubMed:7945262 ]
  5. Corti O, Finocchiaro G, Rossi E, Zuffardi O, DiDonato S: Molecular cloning of cDNAs encoding human carnitine acetyltransferase and mapping of the corresponding gene to chromosome 9q34.1. Genomics. 1994 Sep 1;23(1):94-9. [PubMed:7829107 ]
  6. Wu D, Govindasamy L, Lian W, Gu Y, Kukar T, Agbandje-McKenna M, McKenna R: Structure of human carnitine acetyltransferase. Molecular basis for fatty acyl transfer. J Biol Chem. 2003 Apr 11;278(15):13159-65. Epub 2003 Jan 31. [PubMed:12562770 ]
  7. Govindasamy L, Kukar T, Lian W, Pedersen B, Gu Y, Agbandje-McKenna M, Jin S, McKenna R, Wu D: Structural and mutational characterization of L-carnitine binding to human carnitine acetyltransferase. J Struct Biol. 2004 Jun;146(3):416-24. [PubMed:15099582 ]