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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00090
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 5322
Name Alkaline phosphatase, placental type
Synonyms
  1. Alkaline phosphatase Regan isozyme
  2. PLAP-1
  3. Placental alkaline phosphatase 1
Gene Name ALPP
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in catalytic activity
Specific Function Not Available
Pathways
  • Folate biosynthesis
Reactions
A phosphate monoester + Water → an alcohol + Phosphate details
4-Nitrophenyl phosphate + Water → 4-Nitrophenol + Phosphate details
Dihydroneopterin triphosphate + Water → 7,8-Dihydroneopterin + Phosphate details
GO Classification
Cellular Component
cell surface
anchored to membrane
plasma membrane
integral to membrane
Function
hydrolase activity, acting on ester bonds
catalytic activity
hydrolase activity
phosphoric ester hydrolase activity
phosphatase activity
Molecular Function
metal ion binding
alkaline phosphatase activity
Process
metabolic process
Cellular Location
  1. Cell membrane
  2. Lipid-anchor
  3. GPI-anchor
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 2
Locus 2q37
SNPs ALPP
Gene Sequence
>1608 bp
ATGCTGGGGCCCTGCATGCTGCTGCTGCTGCTGCTGCTGGGCCTGAGGCTACAGCTCTCC
CTGGGCATCATCCCAGTTGAGGAGGAGAACCCGGACTTCTGGAACCGCGAGGCAGCCGAG
GCCCTGGGTGCCGCCAAGAAGCTGCAGCCTGCACAGACAGCCGCCAAGAACCTCATCATC
TTCCTGGGCGATGGGATGGGGGTGTCTACGGTGACAGCTGCCAGGATCCTAAAAGGGCAG
AAGAAGGACAAACTGGGGCCTGAGATACCCCTGGCCATGGACCGCTTCCCATATGTGGCT
CTGTCCAAGACATACAATGTAGACAAACATGTGCCAGACAGTGGAGCCACAGCCACGGCC
TACCTGTGCGGGGTCAAGGGCAACTTCCAGACCATTGGCTTGAGTGCAGCCGCCCGCTTT
AACCAGTGCAACACGACACGCGGCAACGAGGTCATCTCCGTGATGAATCGGGCCAAGAAA
GCAGGGAAGTCAGTGGGAGTGGTAACCACCACACGAGTGCAGCACGCCTCGCCAGCCGGC
ACCTACGCCCACACGGTGAACCGCAACTGGTACTCGGACGCCGACGTGCCTGCCTCGGCC
CGCCAGGAGGGGTGCCAGGACATCGCTACGCAGCTCATCTCCAACATGGACATTGACGTG
ATCCTAGGTGGAGGCCGAAAGTACATGTTTCCCATGGGAACCCCAGACCCTGAGTACCCA
GATGACTACAGCCAAGGTGGGACCAGGCTGGACGGGAAGAATCTGGTGCAGGAATGGCTG
GCGAAGCGCCAGGGTGCCCGGTATGTGTGGAACCGCACTGAGCTCATGCAGGCTTCCCTG
GACCCGTCTGTGACCCATCTCATGGGTCTCTTTGAGCCTGGAGACATGAAATACGAGATC
CACCGAGACTCCACACTGGACCCCTCCCTGATGGAGATGACAGAGGCTGCCCTGCGCCTG
CTGAGCAGGAACCCCCGCGGCTTCTTCCTCTTCGTGGAGGGTGGTCGCATCGACCATGGT
CATCATGAAAGCAGGGCTTACCGGGCACTGACTGAGACGATCATGTTCGACGACGCCATT
GAGAGGGCGGGCCAGCTCACCAGCGAGGAGGACACGCTGAGCCTCGTCACTGCCGACCAC
TCCCACGTCTTCTCCTTCGGAGGCTACCCCCTGCGAGGGAGCTCCATCTTCGGGCTGGCC
CCTGGCAAGGCCCGGGACAGGAAGGCCTACACGGTCCTCCTATACGGAAACGGTCCAGGC
TATGTGCTCAAGGACGGCGCCCGGCCGGATGTTACCGAGAGCGAGAGCGGGAGCCCCGAG
TATCGGCAGCAGTCAGCAGTGCCCCTGGACGAAGAGACCCACGCAGGCGAGGACGTGGCG
GTGTTCGCGCGCGGCCCGCAGGCGCACCTGGTTCACGGCGTGCAGGAGCAGACCTTCATA
GCGCACGTCATGGCCTTCGCCGCCTGCCTGGAGCCCTACACCGCCTGCGACCTGGCGCCC
CCCGCCGGCACCACCGACGCCGCGCACCCGGGGCGGTCCGTGGTCCCCGCGTTGCTTCCT
CTGCTGGCCGGGACCCTGCTGCTGCTGGAGACGGCCACTGCTCCCTGA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 535
Molecular Weight 57953.31
Theoretical pI 6.289
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Alkaline phosphatase, placental type
MLGPCMLLLLLLLGLRLQLSLGIIPVEEENPDFWNREAAEALGAAKKLQPAQTAAKNLII
FLGDGMGVSTVTAARILKGQKKDKLGPEIPLAMDRFPYVALSKTYNVDKHVPDSGATATA
YLCGVKGNFQTIGLSAAARFNQCNTTRGNEVISVMNRAKKAGKSVGVVTTTRVQHASPAG
TYAHTVNRNWYSDADVPASARQEGCQDIATQLISNMDIDVILGGGRKYMFRMGTPDPEYP
DDYSQGGTRLDGKNLVQEWLAKRQGARYVWNRTELMQASLDPSVTHLMGLFEPGDMKYEI
HRDSTLDPSLMEMTEAALRLLSRNPRGFFLFVEGGRIDHGHHESRAYRALTETIMFDDAI
ERAGQLTSEEDTLSLVTADHSHVFSFGGYPLRGSSIFGLAPGKARDRKAYTVLLYGNGPG
YVLKDGARPDVTESESGSPEYRQQSAVPLDEETHAGEDVAVFARGPQAHLVHGVQEQTFI
AHVMAFAACLEPYTACDLAPPAGTTDAAHPGRSVVPALLPLLAGTLLLLETATAP
GenBank ID Protein 178474
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P05187
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name PPB1_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID M13077
GeneCard ID ALPP
GenAtlas ID ALPP
HGNC ID HGNC:439
References
General References
  1. Hillier LW, Graves TA, Fulton RS, Fulton LA, Pepin KH, Minx P, Wagner-McPherson C, Layman D, Wylie K, Sekhon M, Becker MC, Fewell GA, Delehaunty KD, Miner TL, Nash WE, Kremitzki C, Oddy L, Du H, Sun H, Bradshaw-Cordum H, Ali J, Carter J, Cordes M, Harris A, Isak A, van Brunt A, Nguyen C, Du F, Courtney L, Kalicki J, Ozersky P, Abbott S, Armstrong J, Belter EA, Caruso L, Cedroni M, Cotton M, Davidson T, Desai A, Elliott G, Erb T, Fronick C, Gaige T, Haakenson W, Haglund K, Holmes A, Harkins R, Kim K, Kruchowski SS, Strong CM, Grewal N, Goyea E, Hou S, Levy A, Martinka S, Mead K, McLellan MD, Meyer R, Randall-Maher J, Tomlinson C, Dauphin-Kohlberg S, Kozlowicz-Reilly A, Shah N, Swearengen-Shahid S, Snider J, Strong JT, Thompson J, Yoakum M, Leonard S, Pearman C, Trani L, Radionenko M, Waligorski JE, Wang C, Rock SM, Tin-Wollam AM, Maupin R, Latreille P, Wendl MC, Yang SP, Pohl C, Wallis JW, Spieth J, Bieri TA, Berkowicz N, Nelson JO, Osborne J, Ding L, Meyer R, Sabo A, Shotland Y, Sinha P, Wohldmann PE, Cook LL, Hickenbotham MT, Eldred J, Williams D, Jones TA, She X, Ciccarelli FD, Izaurralde E, Taylor J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Cox DR, Huang X, McPherson JD, Mardis ER, Clifton SW, Warren WC, Chinwalla AT, Eddy SR, Marra MA, Ovcharenko I, Furey TS, Miller W, Eichler EE, Bork P, Suyama M, Torrents D, Waterston RH, Wilson RK: Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4. Nature. 2005 Apr 7;434(7034):724-31. [PubMed:15815621 ]
  2. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  3. Dephoure N, Zhou C, Villen J, Beausoleil SA, Bakalarski CE, Elledge SJ, Gygi SP: A quantitative atlas of mitotic phosphorylation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Aug 5;105(31):10762-7. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0805139105. Epub 2008 Jul 31. [PubMed:18669648 ]
  4. Knoll BJ, Rothblum KN, Longley M: Nucleotide sequence of the human placental alkaline phosphatase gene. Evolution of the 5' flanking region by deletion/substitution. J Biol Chem. 1988 Aug 25;263(24):12020-7. [PubMed:3042787 ]
  5. Millan JL: Molecular cloning and sequence analysis of human placental alkaline phosphatase. J Biol Chem. 1986 Mar 5;261(7):3112-5. [PubMed:3512548 ]
  6. Henthorn PS, Knoll BJ, Raducha M, Rothblum KN, Slaughter C, Weiss M, Lafferty MA, Fischer T, Harris H: Products of two common alleles at the locus for human placental alkaline phosphatase differ by seven amino acids. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Aug;83(15):5597-601. [PubMed:3461452 ]
  7. Kam W, Clauser E, Kim YS, Kan YW, Rutter WJ: Cloning, sequencing, and chromosomal localization of human term placental alkaline phosphatase cDNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Dec;82(24):8715-9. [PubMed:3001717 ]
  8. Ezra E, Blacher R, Udenfriend S: Purification and partial sequencing of human placental alkaline phosphatase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1983 Nov 15;116(3):1076-83. [PubMed:6651840 ]
  9. Ovitt CE, Strauss AW, Alpers DH, Chou JY, Boime I: Expression of different-sized placental alkaline phosphatase mRNAs in placenta and choriocarcinoma cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Jun;83(11):3781-5. [PubMed:3459156 ]
  10. Micanovic R, Bailey CA, Brink L, Gerber L, Pan YC, Hulmes JD, Udenfriend S: Aspartic acid-484 of nascent placental alkaline phosphatase condenses with a phosphatidylinositol glycan to become the carboxyl terminus of the mature enzyme. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Mar;85(5):1398-402. [PubMed:3422741 ]
  11. Micanovic R, Gerber LD, Berger J, Kodukula K, Udenfriend S: Selectivity of the cleavage/attachment site of phosphatidylinositol-glycan-anchored membrane proteins determined by site-specific mutagenesis at Asp-484 of placental alkaline phosphatase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Jan;87(1):157-61. [PubMed:2153284 ]
  12. Lowe ME: Site-specific mutations in the COOH-terminus of placental alkaline phosphatase: a single amino acid change converts a phosphatidylinositol-glycan-anchored protein to a secreted protein. J Cell Biol. 1992 Feb;116(3):799-807. [PubMed:1730777 ]
  13. Kozlenkov A, Manes T, Hoylaerts MF, Millan JL: Function assignment to conserved residues in mammalian alkaline phosphatases. J Biol Chem. 2002 Jun 21;277(25):22992-9. Epub 2002 Apr 5. [PubMed:11937510 ]
  14. Le Du MH, Stigbrand T, Taussig MJ, Menez A, Stura EA: Crystal structure of alkaline phosphatase from human placenta at 1.8 A resolution. Implication for a substrate specificity. J Biol Chem. 2001 Mar 23;276(12):9158-65. Epub 2000 Dec 20. [PubMed:11124260 ]