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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00202
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 5434
Name Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
Synonyms
  1. GCD
Gene Name GCDH
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in acyl-CoA dehydrogenase activity
Specific Function Catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of glutaryl-CoA to crotonyl-CoA and CO(2) in the degradative pathway of L-lysine, L-hydroxylysine, and L-tryptophan metabolism. It uses electron transfer flavoprotein as its electron acceptor. Isoform Short is inactive.
Pathways
  • 2-aminoadipic 2-oxoadipic aciduria
  • Carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency (I)
  • Carnitine palmitoyl transferase deficiency (II)
  • Ethylmalonic Encephalopathy
  • Fatty acid Metabolism
  • fatty acid metabolism
  • Glutaric Aciduria Type I
  • Glutaric Aciduria Type I
  • Hyperlysinemia I, Familial
  • Hyperlysinemia II or Saccharopinuria
  • Long chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (LCAD)
  • Lysine Degradation
  • Lysine degradation
  • Medium chain acyl-coa dehydrogenase deficiency (MCAD)
  • Pyridoxine dependency with seizures
  • Saccharopinuria/Hyperlysinemia II
  • Short Chain Acyl CoA Dehydrogenase Deficiency (SCAD Deficiency)
  • Trifunctional protein deficiency
  • Tryptophan metabolism
  • Very-long-chain acyl coa dehydrogenase deficiency (VLCAD)
Reactions
Glutaryl-CoA + electron-transfer flavoprotein → Crotonoyl-CoA + CO(2) + reduced electron-transfer flavoprotein details
Glutaryl-CoA + FAD → FADH + Crotonoyl-CoA + Carbon dioxide details
Glutaryl-CoA + Electron-transferring flavoprotein → Crotonoyl-CoA + Reduced electron-transferring flavoprotein + Carbon dioxide details
Glutaryl-CoA + Electron-transferring flavoprotein → Glutaconyl-CoA + Reduced electron-transferring flavoprotein details
GO Classification
Biological Process
cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process
lysine catabolic process
fatty acid oxidation
fatty-acyl-CoA biosynthetic process
tryptophan metabolic process
Cellular Component
mitochondrial matrix
mitochondrial inner membrane
Function
oxidoreductase activity, acting on the ch-ch group of donors
acyl-coa dehydrogenase activity
binding
catalytic activity
nucleoside binding
purine nucleoside binding
adenyl nucleotide binding
oxidoreductase activity
fad or fadh2 binding
Molecular Function
glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity
flavin adenine dinucleotide binding
fatty-acyl-CoA binding
Process
metabolic process
oxidation reduction
Cellular Location
  1. Mitochondrion matrix
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 19
Locus 19p13.2
SNPs GCDH
Gene Sequence
>1317 bp
ATGGCCCTGAGAGGCGTCTCCGTGCGGCTGCTGAGCCGCGGACCCGGCCTGCACGTCCTT
CGCACGTGGGTCTCGTCGGCGGCGCAGACCGAGAAAGGCGGGAGAACACAGAGCCAACTG
GCTAAGTCCTCGCGTCCCGAGTTTGACTGGCAGGACCCGCTGGTGCTGGAGGAGCAGCTG
ACCACAGATGAGATCCTCATCAGGGACACCTTCCGCACCTACTGCCAGGAGAGACTCATG
CCTCGCATCCTGTTGGCCAATCGCAACGAAGTTTTTCATCGGGAGATCATTTCGGAGATG
GGGGAGTTGGGTGTGCTGGGCCCCACCATCAAAGGATATGGCTGTGCTGGGGTTTCGTCT
GTGGCCTATGGGCTCCTGGCCCGAGAGCTGGAGCGGGTGGACAGTGGCTACAGGTCGGCG
ATGAGTGTCCAGTCCTCCCTCGTCATGCACCCTATCTATGCCTATGGCAGCGAGGAACAG
CGGCAGAAGTACCTGCCCCAGCTGGCCAAGGGGGAGCTCCTGGGCTGCTTCGGGCTCACA
GAGCCCAACAGCGGAAGTGACCCCAGCAGCATGGAGACCAGAGCCCACTACAACTCATCC
AACAAGAGCTACACCCTCAATGGGACCAAGACCTGGATCACGAACTCGCCTATGGCCGAT
CTGTTTGTAGTGTGGGCTCGGTGTGAAGATGGCTGCATTCGGGGCTTCCTGCTGGAGAAG
GGGATGCGGGGTCTCTCGGCCCCCAGGATCCAGGGCAAGTTCTCGCTGCGGGCCTCAGCC
ACAGGCATGATCATCATGGACGGTGTGGAGGTGCCAGAGGAGAATGTGCTCCCTGGTGCA
TCCAGCCTGGGGGGTCCCTTCGGCTGCCTGAACAACGCCCGGTACGGCATCGCGTGGGGC
GTGCTTGGAGCTTCGGAGTTCTGCTTGCACACAGCCCGGCAGTACGCCCTCGACAGGATG
CAGTTTGGTGTCCCACTGGCCAGGAACCAGCTGATTCAGAAGAAGCTGGCAGACATGCTC
ACTGAGATTACCCTGGGCCTTCACGCCTGCCTGCAGCTCGGCCGCTTGAAGGACCAGGAC
AAGGCTGCCCCCGAGATGGTTTCTCTGCTGAAGAGGAATAACTGTGGGAAAGCCCTGGAC
ATCGCCCGCCAGGCCCGAGACATGCTGGGGGGGAATGGGATTTCTGACGAGTATCACGTG
ATCCGGCACGCCATGAACCTGGAGGCCGTGAACACCTACGAAGGTACACATGACATTCAC
GCCCTGATCCTTGGGAGAGCTATCACGGGAATCCAGGCGTTCACGGCCAGCAAGTGA
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 438
Molecular Weight 48126.715
Theoretical pI 8.062
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase, mitochondrial
MALRGVSVRLLSRGPGLHVLRTWVSSAAQTEKGGRTQSQLAKSSRPEFDWQDPLVLEEQL
TTDEILIRDTFRTYCQERLMPRILLANRNEVFHREIISEMGELGVLGPTIKGYGCAGVSS
VAYGLLARELERVDSGYRSAMSVQSSLVMHPIYAYGSEEQRQKYLPQLAKGELLGCFGLT
EPNSGSDPSSMETRAHYNSSNKSYTLNGTKTWITNSPMADLFVVWARCEDGCIRGFLLEK
GMRGLSAPRIQGKFSLRASATGMIIMDGVEVPEENVLPGASSLGGPFGCLNNARYGIAWG
VLGASEFCLHTARQYALDRMQFGVPLARNQLIQKKLADMLTEITLGLHACLQLGRLKDQD
KAAPEMVSLLKRNNCGKALDIARQARDMLGGNGISDEYHVIRHAMNLEAVNTYEGTHDIH
ALILGRAITGIQAFTASK
GenBank ID Protein Not Available
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID Q92947
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name GCDH_HUMAN
PDB IDs
GenBank Gene ID U69141
GeneCard ID GCDH
GenAtlas ID GCDH
HGNC ID HGNC:4189
References
General References
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  3. Grimwood J, Gordon LA, Olsen A, Terry A, Schmutz J, Lamerdin J, Hellsten U, Goodstein D, Couronne O, Tran-Gyamfi M, Aerts A, Altherr M, Ashworth L, Bajorek E, Black S, Branscomb E, Caenepeel S, Carrano A, Caoile C, Chan YM, Christensen M, Cleland CA, Copeland A, Dalin E, Dehal P, Denys M, Detter JC, Escobar J, Flowers D, Fotopulos D, Garcia C, Georgescu AM, Glavina T, Gomez M, Gonzales E, Groza M, Hammon N, Hawkins T, Haydu L, Ho I, Huang W, Israni S, Jett J, Kadner K, Kimball H, Kobayashi A, Larionov V, Leem SH, Lopez F, Lou Y, Lowry S, Malfatti S, Martinez D, McCready P, Medina C, Morgan J, Nelson K, Nolan M, Ovcharenko I, Pitluck S, Pollard M, Popkie AP, Predki P, Quan G, Ramirez L, Rash S, Retterer J, Rodriguez A, Rogers S, Salamov A, Salazar A, She X, Smith D, Slezak T, Solovyev V, Thayer N, Tice H, Tsai M, Ustaszewska A, Vo N, Wagner M, Wheeler J, Wu K, Xie G, Yang J, Dubchak I, Furey TS, DeJong P, Dickson M, Gordon D, Eichler EE, Pennacchio LA, Richardson P, Stubbs L, Rokhsar DS, Myers RM, Rubin EM, Lucas SM: The DNA sequence and biology of human chromosome 19. Nature. 2004 Apr 1;428(6982):529-35. [PubMed:15057824 ]
  4. Goodman SI, Kratz LE, Frerman FE: Pork and human cDNAs encoding glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1992;375:169-73. [PubMed:1438360 ]
  5. Goodman SI, Kratz LE, DiGiulio KA, Biery BJ, Goodman KE, Isaya G, Frerman FE: Cloning of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase cDNA, and expression of wild type and mutant enzymes in Escherichia coli. Hum Mol Genet. 1995 Sep;4(9):1493-8. [PubMed:8541831 ]
  6. Schwartz M, Christensen E, Superti-Furga A, Brandt NJ: The human glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase gene: report of intronic sequences and of 13 novel mutations causing glutaric aciduria type I. Hum Genet. 1998 Apr;102(4):452-8. [PubMed:9600243 ]
  7. Goodman SI, Stein DE, Schlesinger S, Christensen E, Schwartz M, Greenberg CR, Elpeleg ON: Glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase mutations in glutaric acidemia (type I): review and report of thirty novel mutations. Hum Mutat. 1998;12(3):141-4. [PubMed:9711871 ]
  8. Fu Z, Wang M, Paschke R, Rao KS, Frerman FE, Kim JJ: Crystal structures of human glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase with and without an alternate substrate: structural bases of dehydrogenation and decarboxylation reactions. Biochemistry. 2004 Aug 3;43(30):9674-84. [PubMed:15274622 ]
  9. Rao KS, Fu Z, Albro M, Narayanan B, Baddam S, Lee HJ, Kim JJ, Frerman FE: The effect of a Glu370Asp mutation in glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase on proton transfer to the dienolate intermediate. Biochemistry. 2007 Dec 18;46(50):14468-77. Epub 2007 Nov 17. [PubMed:18020372 ]
  10. Biery BJ, Stein DE, Morton DH, Goodman SI: Gene structure and mutations of glutaryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase: impaired association of enzyme subunits that is due to an A421V substitution causes glutaric acidemia type I in the Amish. Am J Hum Genet. 1996 Nov;59(5):1006-11. [PubMed:8900227 ]
  11. Anikster Y, Shaag A, Joseph A, Mandel H, Ben-Zeev B, Christensen E, Elpeleg ON: Glutaric aciduria type I in the Arab and Jewish communities in Israel. Am J Hum Genet. 1996 Nov;59(5):1012-8. [PubMed:8900228 ]
  12. Muhlhausen C, Christensen E, Schwartz M, Muschol N, Ullrich K, Lukacs Z: Severe phenotype despite high residual glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase activity: a novel mutation in a Turkish patient with glutaric aciduria type I. J Inherit Metab Dis. 2003;26(7):713-4. [PubMed:14707522 ]
  13. Keyser B, Muhlhausen C, Dickmanns A, Christensen E, Muschol N, Ullrich K, Braulke T: Disease-causing missense mutations affect enzymatic activity, stability and oligomerization of glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase (GCDH). Hum Mol Genet. 2008 Dec 15;17(24):3854-63. doi: 10.1093/hmg/ddn284. Epub 2008 Sep 5. [PubMed:18775954 ]