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Identification
HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00209
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 5441
  • HMDBP10010
Name L-dopachrome tautomerase
Synonyms
  1. DCT
  2. DT
  3. L-dopachrome Delta-isomerase
  4. TRP-2
  5. TRP2
  6. Tyrosinase-related protein 2
Gene Name DCT
Protein Type Unknown
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in oxidoreductase activity
Specific Function Involved in regulating eumelanin and phaeomelanin levels.
Pathways
  • Alkaptonuria
  • Disulfiram Action Pathway
  • Dopamine beta-hydroxylase deficiency
  • Hawkinsinuria
  • melanin biosynthesis
  • Melanogenesis
  • Monoamine oxidase-a deficiency (MAO-A)
  • Tyrosine Metabolism
  • Tyrosine metabolism
  • Tyrosinemia Type I
  • Tyrosinemia, transient, of the newborn
Reactions
L-Dopachrome → 5,6-Dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid details
GO Classification
Biological Process
melanin biosynthetic process from tyrosine
developmental pigmentation
positive regulation of neuroblast proliferation
ventricular zone neuroblast division
cell development
oxidation-reduction process
epidermis development
Cellular Component
cytosol
melanosome membrane
melanosome
integral to membrane
Function
catalytic activity
oxidoreductase activity
Molecular Function
oxidoreductase activity
dopachrome isomerase activity
copper ion binding
Process
metabolic process
Cellular Location
  1. Melanosome membrane
  2. Single-pass type I membrane protein
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 13
Locus 13q32
SNPs DCT
Gene Sequence
>1560 bp
ATGAGCCCCCTTTGGTGGGGGTTTCTGCTCAGTTGCTTGGGCTGCAAAATCCTGCCAGGA
GCCCAGGGTCAGTTCCCCCGAGTCTGCATGACGGTGGACAGCCTAGTGAACAAGGAGTGC
TGCCCACGCCTGGGTGCAGAGTCGGCCAATGTCTGTGGCTCTCAGCAAGGCCGGGGGCAG
TGCACAGAGGTGCGAGCCGACACAAGGCCCTGGAGTGGTCCCTACATCCTACGAAACCAG
GATGACCGTGAGCTGTGGCCAAGAAAATTCTTCCACCGGACCTGCAAGTGCACAGGAAAC
TTTGCCGGCTATAATTGTGGAGACTGCAAGTTTGGCTGGACCGGTCCCAACTGCGAGCGG
AAGAAACCACCAGTGATTCGGCAGAACATCCATTCCTTGAGTCCTCAGGAAAGAGAGCAG
TTCTTGGGCGCCTTAGATCTCGCGAAGAAGAGAGTACACCCCGACTACGTGATCACCACA
CAACACTGGCTGGGCCTGCTTGGGCCCAATGGAACCCAGCCGCAGTTTGCCAACTGCAGT
GTTTATGATTTTTTTGTGTGGCTCCATTATTATTCTGTTAGAGATACATTATTAGGACCA
GGACGCCCCTACAGGGCCATAGATTTCTCACATCAAGGACCTGCATTTGTTACCTGGCAC
CGGTACCATTTGTTGTGTCTGGAAAGAGATCTCCAGCGACTCATTGGCAATGAGTCTTTT
GCTTTGCCCTACTGGAACTTTGCCACTGGGAGGAACGAGTGTGATGTGTGTACAGACCAG
CTGTTTGGGGCAGCGAGACCAGACGATCCGACTCTGATTAGTCGGAACTCAAGATTCTCC
AGCTGGGAAACTGTCTGTGATAGCTTGGATGACTACAACCACCTGGTCACCTTGTGCAAT
GGAACCTATGAAGGTTTGCTGAGAAGAAATCAAATGGGAAGAAACAGCATGAAATTGCCA
ACCTTAAAAGACATACGAGATTGCCTGTCTCTCCAGAAGTTTGACAATCCTCCCTTCTTC
CAGAACTCTACCTTCAGTTTCAGGAATGCTTTGGAAGGGTTTGATAAAGCAGATGGGACT
CTGGATTCTCAAGTGATGAGCCTTCATAATTTGGTTCATTCCTTCCTGAACGGGACAAAC
GCTTTGCCACATTCAGCCGCCAATGATCCCATTTTTGTGGTTCTTCATTCCTTTACTGAT
GCCATCTTTGATGAGTGGATGAAAAGATTTAATCCTCCTGCAGATGCCTGGCCTCAGGAG
CTGGCCCCTATTGGTCACAATCGGATGTACAACATGGTTCCTTTCTTCCCTCCAGTGACT
AATGAAGAACTCTTTTTAACCTCAGACCAACTTGGCTACAGCTATGCCATCGATCTGCCA
GTTTCAGTTGAAGAAACTCCAGGTTGGCCCACAACTCTCTTAGTAGTCATGGGAACACTG
GTGGCTTTGGTTGGTCTTTTTGTGCTGTTGGCTTTTCTTCAATATAGAAGACTTCGAAAA
GGATATACACCCCTAATGGAGACACATTTAAGCAGCAAGAGATACACAGAAGAAGCCTAG
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 519
Molecular Weight 62928.215
Theoretical pI 7.435
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>L-dopachrome tautomerase
MSPLWWGFLLSCLGCKILPGAQGQFPRVCMTVDSLVNKECCPRLGAESANVCGSQQGRGQ
CTEVRADTRPWSGPYILRNQDDRELWPRKFFHRTCKCTGNFAGYNCGDCKFGWTGPNCER
KKPPVIRQNIHSLSPQEREQFLGALDLAKKRVHPDYVITTQHWLGLLGPNGTQPQFANCS
VYDFFVWLHYYSVRDTLLGPGRPYRAIDFSHQGPAFVTWHRYHLLCLERDLQRLIGNESF
ALPYWNFATGRNECDVCTDQLFGAARPDDPTLISRNSRFSSWETVCDSLDDYNHLVTLCN
GTYEGLLRRNQMGRNSMKLPTLKDIRDCLSLQKFDNPPFFQNSTFSFRNALEGFDKADGT
LDSQVMSLHNLVHSFLNGTNALPHSAANDPIFVVLHSFTDAIFDEWMKRFNPPADAWPQE
LAPIGHNRMYNMVPFFPPVTNEELFLTSDQLGYSYAIDLPVSVEETPGWPTTLLVVMGTL
VALVGLFVLLAFLQYRRLRKGYTPLMETHLSSKRYTEEA
GenBank ID Protein 12313911
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P40126
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name TYRP2_HUMAN
PDB IDs Not Available
GenBank Gene ID AL139318
GeneCard ID DCT
GenAtlas ID DCT
HGNC ID HGNC:2709
References
General References
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  2. Chi A, Valencia JC, Hu ZZ, Watabe H, Yamaguchi H, Mangini NJ, Huang H, Canfield VA, Cheng KC, Yang F, Abe R, Yamagishi S, Shabanowitz J, Hearing VJ, Wu C, Appella E, Hunt DF: Proteomic and bioinformatic characterization of the biogenesis and function of melanosomes. J Proteome Res. 2006 Nov;5(11):3135-44. [PubMed:17081065 ]
  3. Basrur V, Yang F, Kushimoto T, Higashimoto Y, Yasumoto K, Valencia J, Muller J, Vieira WD, Watabe H, Shabanowitz J, Hearing VJ, Hunt DF, Appella E: Proteomic analysis of early melanosomes: identification of novel melanosomal proteins. J Proteome Res. 2003 Jan-Feb;2(1):69-79. [PubMed:12643545 ]
  4. Yokoyama K, Suzuki H, Yasumoto K, Tomita Y, Shibahara S: Molecular cloning and functional analysis of a cDNA coding for human DOPAchrome tautomerase/tyrosinase-related protein-2. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994 Apr 6;1217(3):317-21. [PubMed:8148378 ]
  5. Cassady JL, Sturm RA: Sequence of the human dopachrome tautomerase-encoding TRP-2 cDNA. Gene. 1994 Jun 10;143(2):295-8. [PubMed:8206391 ]
  6. Bouchard B, Del Marmol V, Jackson IJ, Cherif D, Dubertret L: Molecular characterization of a human tyrosinase-related-protein-2 cDNA. Patterns of expression in melanocytic cells. Eur J Biochem. 1994 Jan 15;219(1-2):127-34. [PubMed:8306979 ]
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  8. Sturm RA, O'Sullivan BJ, Box NF, Smith AG, Smit SE, Puttick ER, Parsons PG, Dunn IS: Chromosomal structure of the human TYRP1 and TYRP2 loci and comparison of the tyrosinase-related protein gene family. Genomics. 1995 Sep 1;29(1):24-34. [PubMed:8530077 ]
  9. Yokoyama K, Yasumoto K, Suzuki H, Shibahara S: Cloning of the human DOPAchrome tautomerase/tyrosinase-related protein 2 gene and identification of two regulatory regions required for its pigment cell-specific expression. J Biol Chem. 1994 Oct 28;269(43):27080-7. [PubMed:7929451 ]
  10. Khong HT, Rosenberg SA: Pre-existing immunity to tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-2, a new TRP-2 isoform, and the NY-ESO-1 melanoma antigen in a patient with a dramatic response to immunotherapy. J Immunol. 2002 Jan 15;168(2):951-6. [PubMed:11777994 ]
  11. Liu G, Khong HT, Wheeler CJ, Yu JS, Black KL, Ying H: Molecular and functional analysis of tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-2 as a cytotoxic T lymphocyte target in patients with malignant glioma. J Immunother. 2003 Jul-Aug;26(4):301-12. [PubMed:12843792 ]