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HMDB Protein ID HMDBP00438
Secondary Accession Numbers
  • 5676
  • HMDBP05101
Name Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase
  1. APRT
Gene Name APRT
Protein Type Enzyme
Biological Properties
General Function Involved in adenine phosphoribosyltransferase activity
Specific Function Catalyzes a salvage reaction resulting in the formation of AMP, that is energically less costly than de novo synthesis.
  • Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency (APRT)
  • Adenosine Deaminase Deficiency
  • Adenylosuccinate Lyase Deficiency
  • AICA-Ribosiduria
  • AMP biosynthesis via salvage pathway
  • Azathioprine Action Pathway
  • Gout or Kelley-Seegmiller Syndrome
  • Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (LNS)
  • Mercaptopurine Action Pathway
  • Mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome
  • Molybdenum Cofactor Deficiency
  • Myoadenylate deaminase deficiency
  • Purine Metabolism
  • Purine metabolism
  • Purine Nucleoside Phosphorylase Deficiency
  • Thioguanine Action Pathway
  • Xanthine Dehydrogenase Deficiency (Xanthinuria)
  • Xanthinuria type I
  • Xanthinuria type II
Adenosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate → Adenine + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate details
Guanosine monophosphate + Pyrophosphate → Guanine + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate details
AICAR + Pyrophosphate → 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide + Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate details
GO Classification
Biological Process
purine nucleobase metabolic process
AMP salvage
purine ribonucleoside salvage
purine-containing compound salvage
adenine salvage
grooming behavior
Cellular Component
cell part
intracellular part
catalytic activity
transferase activity
transferase activity, transferring pentosyl groups
transferase activity, transferring glycosyl groups
adenine phosphoribosyltransferase activity
Molecular Function
AMP binding
adenine binding
adenine phosphoribosyltransferase activity
metabolic process
nitrogen compound metabolic process
cellular nitrogen compound metabolic process
nucleobase, nucleoside, nucleotide and nucleic acid metabolic process
nucleobase, nucleoside and nucleotide metabolic process
cellular aromatic compound metabolic process
purine base metabolic process
purine base biosynthetic process
nucleoside metabolic process
cellular metabolic process
nucleobase metabolic process
purine base salvage
adenine salvage
Cellular Location
  1. Cytoplasm
Gene Properties
Chromosome Location 16
Locus 16q24
Gene Sequence
>543 bp
Protein Properties
Number of Residues 180
Molecular Weight 19607.535
Theoretical pI 6.019
Pfam Domain Function
Signals Not Available
Transmembrane Regions Not Available
Protein Sequence
>Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase
GenBank ID Protein 51476557
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot ID P07741
UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot Entry Name APT_HUMAN
GenBank Gene ID CR749423
GeneCard ID APRT
GenAtlas ID APRT
General References
  1. Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA, Shenmen CM, Grouse LH, Schuler G, Klein SL, Old S, Rasooly R, Good P, Guyer M, Peck AM, Derge JG, Lipman D, Collins FS, Jang W, Sherry S, Feolo M, Misquitta L, Lee E, Rotmistrovsky K, Greenhut SF, Schaefer CF, Buetow K, Bonner TI, Haussler D, Kent J, Kiekhaus M, Furey T, Brent M, Prange C, Schreiber K, Shapiro N, Bhat NK, Hopkins RF, Hsie F, Driscoll T, Soares MB, Casavant TL, Scheetz TE, Brown-stein MJ, Usdin TB, Toshiyuki S, Carninci P, Piao Y, Dudekula DB, Ko MS, Kawakami K, Suzuki Y, Sugano S, Gruber CE, Smith MR, Simmons B, Moore T, Waterman R, Johnson SL, Ruan Y, Wei CL, Mathavan S, Gunaratne PH, Wu J, Garcia AM, Hulyk SW, Fuh E, Yuan Y, Sneed A, Kowis C, Hodgson A, Muzny DM, McPherson J, Gibbs RA, Fahey J, Helton E, Ketteman M, Madan A, Rodrigues S, Sanchez A, Whiting M, Madari A, Young AC, Wetherby KD, Granite SJ, Kwong PN, Brinkley CP, Pearson RL, Bouffard GG, Blakesly RW, Green ED, Dickson MC, Rodriguez AC, Grimwood J, Schmutz J, Myers RM, Butterfield YS, Griffith M, Griffith OL, Krzywinski MI, Liao N, Morin R, Palmquist D, Petrescu AS, Skalska U, Smailus DE, Stott JM, Schnerch A, Schein JE, Jones SJ, Holt RA, Baross A, Marra MA, Clifton S, Makowski KA, Bosak S, Malek J: The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC). Genome Res. 2004 Oct;14(10B):2121-7. [PubMed:15489334 ]
  2. Choudhary C, Kumar C, Gnad F, Nielsen ML, Rehman M, Walther TC, Olsen JV, Mann M: Lysine acetylation targets protein complexes and co-regulates major cellular functions. Science. 2009 Aug 14;325(5942):834-40. doi: 10.1126/science.1175371. Epub 2009 Jul 16. [PubMed:19608861 ]
  3. Mayya V, Lundgren DH, Hwang SI, Rezaul K, Wu L, Eng JK, Rodionov V, Han DK: Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of T cell receptor signaling reveals system-wide modulation of protein-protein interactions. Sci Signal. 2009 Aug 18;2(84):ra46. doi: 10.1126/scisignal.2000007. [PubMed:19690332 ]
  4. Oppermann FS, Gnad F, Olsen JV, Hornberger R, Greff Z, Keri G, Mann M, Daub H: Large-scale proteomics analysis of the human kinome. Mol Cell Proteomics. 2009 Jul;8(7):1751-64. doi: 10.1074/mcp.M800588-MCP200. Epub 2009 Apr 15. [PubMed:19369195 ]
  5. Gauci S, Helbig AO, Slijper M, Krijgsveld J, Heck AJ, Mohammed S: Lys-N and trypsin cover complementary parts of the phosphoproteome in a refined SCX-based approach. Anal Chem. 2009 Jun 1;81(11):4493-501. doi: 10.1021/ac9004309. [PubMed:19413330 ]
  6. Bechtel S, Rosenfelder H, Duda A, Schmidt CP, Ernst U, Wellenreuther R, Mehrle A, Schuster C, Bahr A, Blocker H, Heubner D, Hoerlein A, Michel G, Wedler H, Kohrer K, Ottenwalder B, Poustka A, Wiemann S, Schupp I: The full-ORF clone resource of the German cDNA Consortium. BMC Genomics. 2007 Oct 31;8:399. [PubMed:17974005 ]
  7. Gevaert K, Goethals M, Martens L, Van Damme J, Staes A, Thomas GR, Vandekerckhove J: Exploring proteomes and analyzing protein processing by mass spectrometric identification of sorted N-terminal peptides. Nat Biotechnol. 2003 May;21(5):566-9. Epub 2003 Mar 31. [PubMed:12665801 ]
  8. Hidaka Y, Tarle SA, O'Toole TE, Kelley WN, Palella TD: Nucleotide sequence of the human APRT gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1987 Nov 11;15(21):9086. [PubMed:3684585 ]
  9. Broderick TP, Schaff DA, Bertino AM, Dush MK, Tischfield JA, Stambrook PJ: Comparative anatomy of the human APRT gene and enzyme: nucleotide sequence divergence and conservation of a nonrandom CpG dinucleotide arrangement. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 May;84(10):3349-53. [PubMed:3554238 ]
  10. Wilson JM, O'Toole TE, Argos P, Shewach DS, Daddona PE, Kelley WN: Human adenine phosphoribosyltransferase. Complete amino acid sequence of the erythrocyte enzyme. J Biol Chem. 1986 Oct 15;261(29):13677-83. [PubMed:3531209 ]
  11. Silva M, Silva CH, Iulek J, Thiemann OH: Three-dimensional structure of human adenine phosphoribosyltransferase and its relation to DHA-urolithiasis. Biochemistry. 2004 Jun 22;43(24):7663-71. [PubMed:15196008 ]
  12. Chen J, Sahota A, Laxdal T, Scrine M, Bowman S, Cui C, Stambrook PJ, Tischfield JA: Identification of a single missense mutation in the adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) gene from five Icelandic patients and a British patient. Am J Hum Genet. 1991 Dec;49(6):1306-11. [PubMed:1746557 ]
  13. Sahota A, Chen J, Boyadjiev SA, Gault MH, Tischfield JA: Missense mutation in the adenine phosphoribosyltransferase gene causing 2,8-dihydroxyadenine urolithiasis. Hum Mol Genet. 1994 May;3(5):817-8. [PubMed:7915931 ]
  14. Hidaka Y, Palella TD, O'Toole TE, Tarle SA, Kelley WN: Human adenine phosphoribosyltransferase. Identification of allelic mutations at the nucleotide level as a cause of complete deficiency of the enzyme. J Clin Invest. 1987 Nov;80(5):1409-15. [PubMed:3680503 ]
  15. Hidaka Y, Tarle SA, Fujimori S, Kamatani N, Kelley WN, Palella TD: Human adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency. Demonstration of a single mutant allele common to the Japanese. J Clin Invest. 1988 Mar;81(3):945-50. [PubMed:3343350 ]
  16. Kamatani N, Hakoda M, Otsuka S, Yoshikawa H, Kashiwazaki S: Only three mutations account for almost all defective alleles causing adenine phosphoribosyltransferase deficiency in Japanese patients. J Clin Invest. 1992 Jul;90(1):130-5. [PubMed:1353080 ]
  17. Deng L, Yang M, Frund S, Wessel T, De Abreu RA, Tischfield JA, Sahota A: 2,8-Dihydroxyadenine urolithiasis in a patient with considerable residual adenine phosphoribosyltransferase activity in cell extracts but with mutations in both copies of APRT. Mol Genet Metab. 2001 Mar;72(3):260-4. [PubMed:11243733 ]